The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India. It is part of the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government Of India. It is composed of officers from the Indian Revenue Service, Indian Police Service, and the Indian Administrative Service as well as promoted officers from its own cadre.
|Formed||1 May 1956|
|Legal personality||Government agency|
|Governing body||Government of India|
|Headquarters||New Delhi, India|
|Parent agency||Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance|
The origin of the ED goes back to 1 May 1956, when an "enforcement unit" was formed, within the Department of Economic Affairs, for handling Exchange Control Laws violations under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947. In 1957, the unit was renamed as the Enforcement Directorate. Sanjay Kumar Mishra former Chief Commissioner of Income Tax, New Delhi was appointed as ED chief in the rank of Secretary to Government of India, from October 2018.
The prime objective of the Enforcement Directorate is the enforcement of two key Acts of the Government of India namely, the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA), and The Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018 (FEOA).
The Enforcement Directorate official website enlists its other objectives which are primarily linked to checking money laundering in India.
Organizational set upEdit
The Directorate of Enforcement, with its headquarters at New Delhi, is headed by the director of enforcement. There are five regional offices at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Kolkata, and Delhi headed by special directors of enforcement.
Zonal offices of the directorate are at Pune, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Chennai, Kochi, Delhi, Panaji, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jalandhar, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Patna, and Srinagar. These are headed by a joint director.
The directorate has sub-zonal offices at Mangaluru, Bhubaneshwar, Kozhikode, Indore, Madurai, Nagpur, Allahabad, Raipur, Dehradun, Ranchi, Surat, Shimla, Vishakhapatnam and Jammu which are headed by a deputy director.
For the trial of an offence punishable under section 4 of PMLA, the Central Government (in consultation with the chief justice of the High Court), designates one or more Sessions Court as Special Court(s). The court is also called "PMLA Court". Any appeal against any order passed by PMLA court can directly be filed in the High Court for that jurisdiction.
In July 2022, according to data shared by the union government in Parliament, only 23 people have been convicted in 5,422 cases registered under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) in the 17 years after the law was passed, which is a conviction rate of less than 0.5%. The cases by ED have gone up six times in Modi's second term, which led to accusations by opposition parties stating that ED is being misused by the BJP for their political ends.
Main Law and Act Of EDEdit
There are major law and act of ED:
Foreign Exchange Management Act , 1999 ( FEMA )
Prevention Of Money Laundering Act , 2002 ( PMLA )
Fugitive Economic Offenders Act , 2018 ( FEOA )
Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (COFEPOSA)
- Central Bureau of Investigation, anti organised crime which are international, multi-state or multi-agency
- Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, anti-smuggling
- Financial Intelligence Unit, anti money laundering
- National Investigation Agency, anti terrorism
- NIA Most Wanted
- Narcotics Control Bureau, anti drug trafficking
- List of Indian intelligence agencies
- "Official Website".
- "ED (Enforcement Directorate)". Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018.
- "Organisational History". Enforcement Directorate.[dead link]
- "Sanjay Kumar Mishra may get a full charge of Enforcement Directorate". The Hindu. 27 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018 – via thehindu.com.
- "Directorate of Enforcement". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "ED (Enforcement Directorate)". Directorate of Enforcement. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018.
- "ED website - FAQ". directorateofenforcement. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Only 23 convicted in 5,422 cases under PMLA till date: Govt to Lok Sabha". Hindustan Times. 26 July 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
- "ED Action Has Increased Dramatically Under Modi Govt, Parliament Reply Reveals". The Wire. 26 July 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
- @Digitalhindi (3 January 2023). "What is ED and ED Full Form". Retrieved 4 January 2023.