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Chandra Shekhar (1 July 1927 – 8 July 2007) was an Indian politician who, served as the eighth Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal with outside support from the Indian National Congress as a stop gap arrangement to delay elections.[1]Chandrasekhar is the first Indian Prime Minister who has never held any Government office.[2] His government was largely seen as a "puppet"[3][4] and "lame duck" and the government was formed with the fewest party MPs in the Lok Sabha .[5][6] His government could not pass the budget[7] at a crucial time when Moody had downgraded India and it further went down after the budget was not passed and global credit-rating agencies further downgraded India from investment grade making it impossible to even get short term loans and in no position to give any commitment to reform the World Bank and IMF stopped their assistance. Chandrasekhar had to authorise mortgaging of gold to avoid default of payment and this action came in for particular criticism as it was done secretly in the midst of the election.[8][9][10] The Indian economic crisis, 1991, and the Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi plunged his government into crisis.


Chandra Shekhar
Chandra Shekhar
8th Prime Minister of India
In office
10 November 1990 – 21 June 1991
PresidentR. Venkataraman
DeputyChaudhary Devi Lal
Preceded byV. P. Singh
Succeeded byP. V. Narasimha Rao
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
In office
1977–1984
Preceded byChandrika Prasad
Succeeded byJagannath Chowdhary
In office
1989–2004
Preceded byJagannath Chowdhary
Succeeded byNeeraj Shekhar
ConstituencyBallia ,Uttar Pradesh
Personal details
Born(1927-04-17)17 April 1927
Ibrahimpatti, Ballia, United Provinces, British India (now in Uttar Pradesh), India
Died8 July 2007(2007-07-08) (aged 80)
New Delhi, India
Political partySamajwadi Janata Party (1990–2007)
Other political
affiliations
Congress Socialist Party (Before 1964)
Indian National Congress (1964–75)
Independent (1975–77)
Janata Party (1977–88)
Janata Dal (1988–90)
Alma materAllahabad University
Signature

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

Chandra Shekhar was born on 1 July 1927 in Rajput Family Ibrahimpatti, a village in the Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh. He came from a poor farming family.[11] He was awarded a Bachelor of Arts (graduate) degree at Satish Chandra P.G. College. He attended Allahabad University, obtaining his master's degree in political science in 1951.[12] He was known as a firebrand in student politics and started his political career with Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia. After when he had completed his graduation, he became active in socialist politics.[citation needed]

He married Duja Devi.[13]

Political lifeEdit

Start of careerEdit

He joined the socialist movement and was elected secretary of the district Praja Socialist Party (PSP), Ballia. Within a year, he was elected joint secretary of the PSP's State unit in Uttar Pradesh. In 1955–56, he took over as general secretary of the party in the State. His career as a parliamentarian began with his election to the Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh in 1962. He came under the spell of Acharya Narendra Dev, a fiery Socialist leader in the beginning of his political career. From 1962 to 1977, Shekhar belonged to the Rajya Sabha, the Upper house of the Parliament of India. First time He was elected from Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh on 03/04/1962 as an independent candidate and successfully completed his tenure on 02/04/1968. After this he was Re-elected for Rajya Sabha for two times from Uttar Pradesh as a INC candidate from 03/04/1968 to 02/04/1974 and From 03/04/1974 to 02/04/1980 he resigned from Rajya Sabha on 22/03/1977 because he was elected for Lok Sabha from Ballia CONSTUIENCY When the Emergency was declared, even though he was a Congress party politician, he was arrested and sent to Patiala jail.[14] He had a nationwide padayatra in 1983 to know the country better, which he claimed gave the jitters to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. He was called a "Young Turk".

Join CongressEdit

Chandra Shekhar was a prominent leader of socialists. He joined Congress in 1964. From 1962 to 1967, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha. He first entered the Lok Sabha in 1967.He came to be known as a 'young Turk' for his conviction and courage in the fight against the vested interests. The other 'young Turks', who formed the 'ginger group' in the Congress in the fight for egalitarian policies, included[15] leaders like Feroze Gandhi, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Mohan Dharia and Ram Dhan As a member of the Congress Party, he vehemently criticised Indira Gandhi for her declaration of emergency in 1975. Chandrashekhar was arrested during the emergency and sent to prison along with other "young turks".[16]

In Janata PartyEdit

Chandrasekhar was jailed during after the emergency, he became the President of Janata Party. In the parliamentary elections, Janata Party formed the government after the 1977 Indian general election headed by Morarji Desai.However the party lost the 1980 elections and were routed in 1984 Indian general election winning just 10 seats and Chandrasekhar losing his own Ballia seat to Jagannath Chowdhary.[17]

In 1988, his party merged with other parties and formed the government under the leadership of V.P. Singh. Again his relationship with the coalition deteriorated and he formed another party, Janata Dal socialist faction. With the support of Congress (I) headed by Rajiv Gandhi, he replaced V.P. Singh as the Prime Minister of India in November 1990.After 1977, he was elected to Lok Sabha in all the elections, except in 1984 when the Congress swept the polls after Indira Gandhi's assassination. The post of Prime Minister, which he thought he genuinely deserved, eluded him in 1989 when V. P. Singh pipped him at the post and was chosen to head the first coalition government at the Centre.[citation needed]

Deposing V. P. SinghEdit

Chandra Shekhar seized the moment and left the Janata Dal with several of his own supporters to form the Samajwadi Janata Party/Janata Dal (Socialist).[18] He won a confidence motion with the support of his 64 MPs and Rajiv Gandhi, the leader of the Opposition, and was sworn in as Prime Minister.[19] Eight Janata Dal MPs who voted for this motion were disqualified by the speaker Rabi Ray.[citation needed]

Prime MinisterEdit

Chandra Shekhar was prime minister for seven months, the second shortest period after that of Charan Singh. He also handled the portfolios of Defence and Home Affairs during this period. His government included preamble and fighting of the Gulf War of 1990–91. However, it could not introduce a full budget because Congress withdrew support during its formulation. In the spring of 1991, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi decided to precipitate a new election.[citation needed] Chandra Shekhar resigned the office of prime minister on 6 March 1991.[20]

Post-premiershipEdit

After handing the premiership to P. V. Narasimha Rao, Chandra Shekar's political importance was reduced, although he was able to retain his seat in the Lok Sabha for many years afterwards. He established Bharat Yatra Centres in various parts of the country and set up a trust in Bhondsi village in Haryana's Gurgaon to focus on rural development.[citation needed]

DeathEdit

Chandra Shekhar died on 8 July 2007, a week after his 80th birthday. He had been suffering with multiple myeloma for some time and had been in the Apollo Hospital at New Delhi since May. He was survived by two sons.[21]

Politicians from across the spectrum of Indian parties paid tribute to him[22] and the government of India declared seven days of state mourning.[21] He was cremated with full state honours on a traditional funeral pyre at Jannayak sthal,[23] on the banks of the river Yamuna, on 10 July.[24] In August, his ashes were immersed in the river Siruvani.[25]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Rival of Singh Becomes India Premier". Sanjoy Hazarika. The New York Times. 10 November 1990. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Socialist Is Installed as India's Eleventh Prime Minister". Sanjoy Hazarika. The New York Times. 11 November 1990. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  3. ^ The Working Class. Centre of Indian Trade Unions. 1990. p. 86. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  4. ^ Puppet on a String. Far Eastern Economic Review. October 1990. p. 6.
  5. ^ "Chandra Shekhar exploits fears, weaknesses of Congress(I) and Janata Dal(S)". Inderjit Badhwar,.Prabhu Chawla. India Today. 15 December 1990. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  6. ^ The Interim Man. The Economist. 1990. p. 42.
  7. ^ "1991, the untold story". Yashwant Sinha. The Hindu. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  8. ^ "How the economy found its feet". Deepak Nayar. The Hindu. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  9. ^ "In fact: How govts pledged gold to pull economy back from the brink". Shaji Vikraman. The Indian Express. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  10. ^ Stuart Corbridge; John Harriss (28 May 2013). Reinventing India: Liberalization, Hindu Nationalism and Popular Democracy. Wiley. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-7456-6604-4. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  11. ^ Chand, Attar (1991). The Long March: Profile of Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar. Mittal. p. 59. ISBN 978-8-17099-272-1.
  12. ^ Dubey, Scharada (2009). Movers and Shakers Prime Minister of India. Westland. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  13. ^ Chand, Attar (1991). The Long March: Profile of Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar. Mittal. p. 13. ISBN 978-8-17099-272-1.
  14. ^ Movers and Shakers Prime Minister of India by Scharada Dubey – 2009 When Emergency was declared, Chandra Shekhar was among the very few individuals within the ruling Congress party to be sent to jail.
  15. ^ http://www.sjpchandrashekhar.org/samajwadijantaparty-founder-chandra-shekhar/
  16. ^ Kapoor, Coomi (2015). The Emergency: A Personal History, Chapter 4. Penguin/Viking. ISBN 9789352141197. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  17. ^ "General Elections, 1984 - Constituency Wise Detailed Results" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  18. ^ Dissidents Split Indian Prime Minister's Party. New York Times. (6 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  19. ^ Rival of Singh Becomes India Premier. New York Times. (10 November 1990). Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  20. ^ "Chandra Shekhar critical". The Hindu. 8 July 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  21. ^ a b "Chandra Shekhar dead". The Hindu. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  22. ^ "Leaders mourn Chandra Shekhar's death". The Hindu. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Former PM Chandrashekhar's samadhi to be called Jannayak Sthal". The Times of India.
  24. ^ "Dignitaries bid adieu to Chandra Shekhar". The Hindu. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Chandra Shekhar's ashes immersed in Siruvani". The Hindu. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.

Further readingEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
V. P. Singh
Prime Minister of India
1990–91
Succeeded by
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Minister of Defence
1990–91
Succeeded by
Sharad Pawar
Preceded by
Mufti Mohammad Sayeed
Minister of Home Affairs
1990–91
Succeeded by
Shankarrao Chavan