List of Prime Ministers of India
The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India. In India's parliamentary system, the Constitution names the President as head of state de jure, but his or her de facto executive powers are vested in the prime minister and their Council of Ministers. Appointed and sworn-in by the President, the prime minister is usually the leader of the party or alliance that has a majority in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India.
Since 1947, India has had 14 prime ministers, 15 including Gulzarilal Nanda who twice acted in the role. The first was Jawaharlal Nehru of the Indian National Congress party, who was sworn in on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence from the British Raj. Serving until his death in May 1964, Nehru remains India's longest-serving prime minister. He was succeeded by fellow Congressman Lal Bahadur Shastri, whose 19-month term also ended in death. Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter, succeeded Shastri in 1966 to become the country's first woman prime minister. Eleven years later, she was voted out of power in favour of the Janata Party, whose leader Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress prime minister. After he resigned in 1979, his former deputy Charan Singh briefly held office until Indira Gandhi was voted back six months later. Her second stint as prime minister ended five years later on 31 October 1984, when she was assassinated by her own bodyguards. Her son Rajiv Gandhi was then sworn in as India's youngest premier and the third from his family. Members of Nehru–Gandhi family have been prime minister for a total of 37 years and 303 days.
Rajiv's five-year term ended with his former cabinet colleague, V. P. Singh of the Janata Dal, forming the year-long National Front coalition government in 1989. A seven-month interlude under prime minister Chandra Shekhar followed, after which the Congress party returned to power, forming the government under P. V. Narasimha Rao in June 1991. Rao's five-year term was succeeded by four short-lived governments—Atal Bihari Vajpayee from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 16 days in 1996, a year each under United Front prime ministers H. D. Deve Gowda and I. K. Gujral, and Vajpayee again for 19 months in 1998–99. After Vajpayee was sworn-in for the third time, in 1999, he managed to lead his National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government to a full five-year term, the first non-Congress alliance to do so. Vajpayee was succeeded by Manmohan Singh, whose United Progressive Alliance government was in office for 10 years between 2004 and 2014. The incumbent prime minister of India is Narendra Modi who has headed the BJP-led NDA government since 26 May 2014 which is India's first non-Congress single party majority government.
Prime Ministers of India
|Elected constituency||Term of office||Appointed by||Lok Sabha[a]|
|Indian National Congress||Phulpur, Uttar Pradesh||15 August 1947||15 April 1952||16 years, 286 days||Lord Mountbatten||Constituent Assembly[b]|
|15 April 1952||17 April 1957||Rajendra Prasad||1st|
|17 April 1957||2 April 1962||2nd|
|2 April 1962||27 May 1964[†]||3rd|
|–||Gulzarilal Nanda (acting)
|Indian National Congress||Sabarkantha, Gujarat||27 May 1964||9 June 1964||13 days||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|2||Lal Bahadur Shastri
|Indian National Congress||Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh||9 June 1964||11 January 1966[†]||1 year, 216 days|
|–||Gulzarilal Nanda (acting)
|Indian National Congress||Sabarkantha, Gujarat||11 January 1966||24 January 1966||13 days|
|Indian National Congress||Rajya Sabha MP for Uttar Pradesh||24 January 1966||4 March 1967||11 years, 59 days|
|Rae Bareli, Uttar Pradesh||4 March 1967||15 March 1971||4th|
|15 March 1971||24 March 1977||V. V. Giri||5th|
|Janata Party||Surat, Gujarat||24 March 1977||28 July 1979[RES]||2 years, 126 days||B. D. Jatti||6th|
|Janata Party (Secular)
|Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh||28 July 1979||14 January 1980[RES]||170 days||Neelam Sanjiva Reddy|
|Indian National Congress (I)||Medak, Andhra Pradesh||14 January 1980[§]||31 October 1984[†]||4 years, 291 days||7th|
|Indian National Congress (I)||Amethi, Uttar Pradesh||31 October 1984||31 December 1984||5 years, 32 days||Zail Singh|
|31 December 1984||2 December 1989||8th|
|7||Vishwanath Pratap Singh
|Fatehpur, Uttar Pradesh||2 December 1989||10 November 1990[NC]||343 days||R. Venkataraman||9th|
|Samajwadi Janata Party
|Ballia, Uttar Pradesh||10 November 1990||21 June 1991[c]||223 days|
|9||P. V. Narasimha Rao
|Indian National Congress (I)||Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh||21 June 1991||16 May 1996||4 years, 330 days||10th|
|10||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Bharatiya Janata Party||Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh||16 May 1996||1 June 1996[RES]||16 days||Shankar Dayal Sharma||11th|
|11||H. D. Deve Gowda
|Rajya Sabha MP for Karnataka||1 June 1996||21 April 1997[RES]||324 days|
|12||Inder Kumar Gujral
|Rajya Sabha MP for Bihar||21 April 1997||19 March 1998||332 days|
|(10)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Bharatiya Janata Party
|Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh||19 March 1998[§]||10 October 1999||6 years, 64 days||K. R. Narayanan||12th|
|10 October 1999||22 May 2004||13th|
|Indian National Congress
|Rajya Sabha MP for Assam||22 May 2004||22 May 2009||10 years, 4 days||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam||14th|
|22 May 2009||26 May 2014||Pratibha Patil||15th|
|Bharatiya Janata Party
|Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh||26 May 2014||30 May 2019||5 years, 20 days||Pranab Mukherjee||16th|
|30 May 2019||Incumbent||Ram Nath Kovind||17th|
- Although the Prime Minister can be a member of either house of the Parliament, they have to command the confidence of the Lok Sabha. Upon dissolution of the Lok Sabha, the outgoing PM remains in office until their successor is sworn in.
- The Constituent Assembly of India consisted of 389 members elected in 1946 by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Assembly was replaced by the Provisional Parliament of India after adoption of the Constitution on 26 January 1950 until the first general elections.
- Chandra Shekhar officially resigned as Prime Minister on 13 March 1991, but he and his ministers continued in office until Rao succeeded him.
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