United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a centre-left political alliance of predominantly left-leaning political parties in India. It was formed after the 2004 general election. The largest party in UPA is Indian National Congress (INC). It formed a government with support from other left-aligned parties in 2004 after no single party could get the majority.
|Lok Sabha leader||Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Mallikarjun Kharge (Leader of the Opposition)|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
91 / 543
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
51 / 245
|Seats in State Legislative Assemblies|
964 / 4,036
|Number of states and union territories in government|
4 / 31
UPA was formed soon after the 2004 general elections when no party had won a majority. The then ruling Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 181 seats of 544, as opposed to the UPA's tally of 218 seats.
The Left Front with 59 MPs (excluding the speaker of the Lok Sabha), the Samajwadi Party with 39 MPs and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 19 MPs were other significant blocks that supported UPA at various times. UPA did not achieve a majority, rather it relied on external support, similar to the formula adopted by the previous minority governments of the United Front, the NDA, the Congress government of P. V. Narasimha Rao, and earlier governments of V. P. Singh and Chandra Shekhar.
An informal alliance had existed prior to the elections as several of the constituent parties had developed seat-sharing agreements in many states. After the election the results of negotiations between parties were announced. The UPA government's policies were initially guided by a common minimum programme that the alliance hammered out with consultations with Jyoti Basu and Harkishan Singh Surjeet of the 59-member Left Front. Hence, government policies were generally perceived as centre-left, reflecting the centrist policies of the INC.
On 22 July 2008, the UPA survived a vote of confidence in the parliament brought on by the Left Front withdrawing their support in protest at the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement. The Congress party and its leaders along with then SP leader Amar Singh were accused of a "cash for vote" scam as part of the cash-for-votes scandal, in which they were accused of buying votes in Lok Sabha to save the government. During UPA I the economy saw steady economic growth and many people escaped poverty.
In the Indian General Election in 2009, the UPA won 262 seats, of which the INC accounted for 206. During UPA II, the alliance was broiled in scams. This ranged from 2G spectrum to Coalgate scam. These scams impacted UPA's image nationwide and the approval rating for the govt fell. In addition many members left for YSRCP. This started a domino effect with members leaving to form their own parties and parties such as DMK leaving the alliance altogether. During this time UPA struggled with state election and leadership stability. The alliance suffered a defeat in 2019 Lok Sabha elections as it won only 60 seats. In addition UPA won only one state election and got wiped out from Andhra Pradesh 0 where they previously had 150+ MLA.
From 2014 to 2017, UPA won only 3 state elections. This was blamed on the alliance's failed leadership and weakness compared to the NDA. In addition the party lost power in states where they had once won state elections as in Bihar. In 2017 the alliance lost again. In 2018 UPA had a phenomenal comeback in the state elections as the party won important in Karnataka, Rajasthan and others. More parties joined the alliance and it was stronger than ever.
In 2019 Indian general election when UPA won only 91 seats in the general election and failed to secure the opposition post. The alliance lost another state to BJP with the party winning by-polls and pushing the UPA into the minority.
Towards the end of 2019, the alliance made huge gains in Haryana, won in Jharkhand and formed a sub alliance called Maha Vikas Aghadi to form the government in Maharashtra with Uddhav Thackeray of Shiv Sena leading the ministry. Shiv Sena had been a member of NDA for twenty five years. It left NDA and joined UPA in 2019.
Since 2020, more parties joined the alliance. The alliance lost the Bihar election that everyone expected it to win. In addition UPA only won 1 out of the 5 state elections in 2021. However the alliance made significant gain in a number of MLA races.
|Party||MPs in Lok Sabha||MPs in Rajya Sabha||MLA in state legislature||Base state|
|JKNC||3||0||0||Jammu and Kashmir|
As of May 2021, the UPA has chief ministers in five states.
List of state governmentsEdit
|S.No||State/UT||Government||Chief minister||Party/alliance partner||Seats in assembly||Last election|
|1||Chhattisgarh||17 December 2018||Bhupesh Baghel||INC||71||17 December 2018||None||71/90||11 December 2018|
|2||Rajasthan||17 December 2018||Ashok Gehlot||INC||108||17 December 2018||None||13||121/200||11 December 2018|
|3||Jharkhand||28 December 2019||Hemant Soren||JMM||30||28 December 2019||INC (18)||RJD (1)||NCP (1)||CPI(M-L) (1)||None||51/81||23 December 2019|
|4||Tamil Nadu||7 May 2021||M.K Stalin||DMK||133||7 May 2021||INC (18)||VCK (4)||CPI (2)||CPI (M) (2)||None||159/234||6 April 2021|
Strength in legislative assembliesEdit
|State/UT||MLA seats||INC||UPA||Overall seats||Chief minister party||Ref(s)|
0 / 175
4 / 60
28 / 126
19 / 243
71 / 90
12 / 40
65 / 182
31 / 90
22 / 68
50 / 81
70 / 224
40 / 140
96 / 230
97 / 288
6 / 60
0 / 60
5 / 40
0 / 60
10 / 147
19 / 117
121 / 200
0 / 32
159 / 234
6 / 119
0 / 60
2 / 403
19 / 70
0 / 294
0 / 70
|Jammu and Kashmir||90||NA|||
8 / 33
1,037 / 4,036
Strength in legislative CouncilEdit
|State/UT||MLA seats||INC||UPA||Overall seats||Chief minister party||Vacant (If Any)||Ref(s)|
0 / 58
|YSR Congress Party||1|||
4 / 75
|Janata Dal (United)|
26 / 75
|Bharatiya Janata Party||None|
37 / 78
|Bharatiya Janata Party||13|
1 / 40
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||6|
1 / 100
|Bharatiya Janata Party||1|
|Total||MLA seats||40||37||77/426||UPA (1)||45||Ref(s)|
UPA runs a few Sub-Alliance in an effort to connect to more parties. The goal of the sub-alliance is to get parties which do not want to be in the UPA national level but only in state level :-
- Secular Progressive Alliance (Tamil Nadu)
- Maha Vikas Aghadi (Maharashtra)
- Manipur Progressive Secular Alliance (Manipur)
- United Democratic Front (Kerala)
- Mahagthbandhan (Jharkhand)
|Party||State||Date||Reason for withdrawal|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhgam||Tamil Nadu||2004||Alliance with BJP.|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||Telangana||2006||Differences over proposed statehood for Telangana|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||National Party||2008||Congress opposed the UP government where the BSP was the ruling party|
|Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||Jammu and Kashmir||2009||Congress decided to support National Conference Government in Jammu and Kashmir|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi||Tamil Nadu||2009||PMK declared that it would join the AIADMK led front|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||Telangana||2012||Accused Congress led State Government of Communalism|
|All India Trinamool Congress||National Party||2012||TMC's demands on rollbacks and reforms not met, including the governments decision to allow FDI in retail|
|Socialist Janata (Democratic)||Kerala||2014||It merged with Janata Dal (United) on 29 December 2014.|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||Uttar Pradesh||2014||Decided to leave after 2014 election performance.|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||Karnataka||2019||After JD(S)-INC alliance govt fell in Karnataka, two parties decided to end alliance.|
|Telugu Desam Party||Andhra Pradesh||2019||Decided to leave after 2019 election performance.|
|Rashtriya Lok Samta Party||Bihar||2020||Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with BSP+ on 29 September 2020.|
|Vikassheel Insaan Party||Bihar||2020||Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with NDA|
|Hindustani Awam Morcha||Bihar||2020||Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with NDA|
|Kerala Congress (M)||Kerala||2020||Decided to join LDF|
|Bodoland People's Front||Assam||2021||Withdrew due to performance in 2021 Assam election.|
|All India United Democratic Front||Assam||2021||Party was expelled from the alliance.|
|Rashtriya Janata Dal||Bihar||2021||The RJD-Congress alliance ended after seat sharing talks for by-elections failed.|
|Sr.no||Party||Seats Won||Seat Change||Vote%|
|1.||Indian National Congress||145||32||26.7%|
|2.||Rashtriya Janata Dal||21||12||2.2%|
|3.||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||16||4||1.8%|
|4.||Nationalist Congress Party||9||1||1.8%|
|5.||Lok Janshakti Party||4||0.6%|
|6.||Telangana Rashtra Samithi||2||0.6%|
|7.||Pattali Makkal Katchi||6||1||0.5%|
|8.||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||5||0.5%|
|9.||Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||4||0.4%|
|10.||Indian Union Muslim League||1||1||0.2%|
|11.||Republican Party of India (Athawale)||1||0.1%|
|12.||Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||1||0.1%|
|Sr.no||Party||Seats Won||Seat Change|
|1.||Indian National Congress||206||61|
|2.||Rashtriya Janata Dal||4||17|
|3.||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||18||2|
|4.||Nationalist Congress Party||9||1|
|5.||All India Trinamool Congress||19||18|
|6.||Jammu & Kashmir National Conference||3||3|
|7.||Bodoland People's Front||1||1|
|8.||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||3|
|9.||All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||1||1|
|10.||Indian Union Muslim League||2||1|
|11.||Kerala Congress (Mani)||1||1|
List of presidents and vice presidentsEdit
Note that it refers to nomination by alliance, as the offices of President and Vice President are apolitical.
|Term of office
Time in office
|Previous post||Vice president||Party|
|25 July 2007||25 July 2012||Governor of Rajasthan||Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (2007)
Mohammad Hamid Ansari (2007–12)
|Indian National Congress|
|5 years, 0 days|
|25 July 2012||25 July 2017||Union Minister of Finance||Mohammad Hamid Ansari (2012–17)|
|5 years, 0 days|
|Took office||Left office||Term||President(s)||Party|
|12||Mohammad Hamid Ansari
|11 August 2007||10 August 2012||10 years, 0 days||Pratibha Patil||Indian National Congress|
|11 August 2012||10 August 2017||Pranab Mukherjee|
List of prime ministersEdit
|No.||Prime ministers||Portrait||Term in office||Lok Sabha||Government||Cabinet||Constituency|
|14||Manmohan Singh||22 May 2004||22 May 2009||10 years, 4 days||14th||UPA I||Manmohan Singh I||Rajya Sabha MP From Assam|
|22 May 2009||26 May 2014||15th||UPA II||Manmohan Singh II|
List of chief ministersEdit
|1.||Chhattisgarh||Bhupesh Baghel||Baghel I|
|2.||Jharkhand||Hemant Soren||Soren II|
|3.||Rajasthan||Ashok Gehlot||Gehlot III|
|4.||Tamil Nadu||M. K. Stalin||Stalin I|
List of party candidates by electionEdit
- UPA had its worst performance to date in the 2014 general election and ended up losing the power
- The JKNC left the alliance due to INC deciding to contest in all the seats by itself.
- The Socialist Janata (Democratic) had left the alliance after it had merged with Janata Dal (United)
- UPA lost state election in Telangana, Odisha, Sikkim, J&K, Jharkhand, AP, Maharashtra, Haryana
- UPA managed to win 1 state election and that was in Arunachal Pradesh
- UPA won state elections in Puducherry
- UPA lost state elections in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala
- Janata Dal (United) quit the Mahagathbandhan alliance formed by UPA for Bihar and joined NDA giving Bihar power from UPA to NDA
- UPA won in state election of Punjab
- UPA lost in state election of Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Gujarat
- In addition UPA lost the presidential election to NDA's Ram Nath Kovind
- MDMK (state party in TN) left NDA and joined UPA
- VCK (State party in TN) joined UPA after leaving in 2014
- In 2018 Janata Dal (Secular) joined UPA to help form Karnataka govt
- UPA lost election in state election of Telangana, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura
- UPA won in the state elections of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka
- RJD ( state party in Bihar) joined UPA
- UPA created a sub-alliance called "Maha Kutami" with TDP, TJS, CPI for the Telangana election however the alliance lost and was ended after the election.
- Telangana Jana Samithi (party in Telangana) joined UPA
- UPA lost in the 2019 Indian general election to NDA
- UPA lost state elections in AP, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Haryana
- UPA won in state election in Jharkhand, Maharashtra
- In 2019 UPA lost power in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka after the by-polls gave majority to opposition and pushed UPA to minority.
- Janata Dal (Secular) left the alliance after the fall of Karnataka govt.
- AIUDF joined UPA after UPA invited as it was against the implementation of CAA-NRC, and JKNC joined UPA back at national level after a break-up in 2014.
- UPA lost state election in Delhi, Bihar
- The KC(M) was expelled by INC from the alliance due to the factions forming in the party.
- 3 MLA have resigned from UPA in Puducherry causing the government to go from majority to minority, and during the no trust confidence UPA fail to prove majority causing the govt to fall.
- BPF (left NDA) and joined the alliance ahead of the 2021 Assam election.
- UPA lost state election in Assam, Kerala, Puducherry and West Bengal
- UPA won state election in Tamil Nadu
- GFP or Goa Forward Party had joined UPA
- UPA cut all ties with ISF (Indian Secular Front) after defeat in West Bengal elections.
- Bodoland People's Front had left the alliance due to poor performance in the 2021 Assam elections.
- AIUDF was expelled from UPA.
- RJD has left the alliance due to seat sharings for 2024 Lok Sabha Elections.
The winter session of parliament in October 2008 came under intense criticism from the Left parties and the BJP to demand a full-fledged winter session instead of what was seen as the UPA to having "scuttled the voice of Parliament" by bringing down the sittings to a record low of 30 days in the year. The tensions between the UPA and the opposition parties became evident at an all-party meeting convened by Lok Sabha speaker Somnath Chatterjee when the leader of opposition, LK Advani questioned the status, timing and schedule of the current session of parliament.
Karunanidhi had said he felt "let down" by the "lukewarm" response of the Centre and had demanded amendments in the resolution on Sri Lanka.
The second one was "establishment of a credible and independent international commission of investigation in a time-bound manner into the allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity, violations of international human rights law, violations of international humanitarian law and crime of genocide against the Tamils". Karunanidhi said Parliament should adopt the resolution incorporating these two amendments.
The UPA was criticised for its alleged involvement scams such as the Commonwealth Games Scam of 2010, the 2G spectrum case, and the Coalgate scam. Apart from the above-mentioned scams, the UPA has been under intense fire for the alleged doles handed out to the son-in-law of the Gandhi family, Robert Vadra, by UPA-run state governments.
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- Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Assam Legislative Assembly
- Bihar Legislative Assembly
- Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
- Goa Legislative Assembly
- Gujarat Legislative Assembly
- Haryana Legislative Assembly
- Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
- Karnataka Legislative Assembly
- Kerala Legislature
- Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
- Manipur Legislative Assembly
- Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
- Mizoram Legislative Assembly
- Nagaland Legislative Assembly
- Odisha Legislative Assembly
- Punjab Legislative Assembly
- Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
- Sikkim Legislative Assembly
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Telangana Legislative Assembly
- Tripura Legislative Assembly
- Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
- Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
- West Bengal Legislative Assembly
- Delhi Legislative Assembly
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
- Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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- Common Minimum Programme of the UPA.
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