United Progressive Alliance

United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of predominantly centre-left[citation needed] political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election.[2] The largest member party of the UPA is the INC, whose President Sonia Gandhi is chairperson of the UPA. It formed a government with support from some other left-aligned parties in 2004, after no single party could get the majority on its own.

United Progressive Alliance
AbbreviationUPA
ChairpersonSonia Gandhi[1]
Lok Sabha leaderRavneet Singh Bittu
Rajya Sabha leaderMallikarjun Kharge
(Leader of the Opposition)
FounderSonia Gandhi
Founded2004
Political positionMajority: Centre-left
Seats in Lok Sabha
92 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
56 / 245
Seats in State Legislative AssembliesSee § UPA Strength in Legislative Assemblies

HistoryEdit

The UPA was formed soon after the 2004 general elections when it had become clear that no party had won an absolute majority. The hitherto ruling Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) had won 181 seats[3] in the 543-member 14th Lok Sabha, as opposed to the UPA's tally of 218 seats.

The Left Front with 59 MPs (excluding the speaker of the Lok Sabha), the Samajwadi Party with 39 MPs and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 19 MPs were other significant blocks that opted to support UPA at various phases of its rule.[4][5] The UPA did not enjoy a simple majority on its own in the parliament, rather it has relied on the external support to ensure that it enjoys the confidence of the Indian parliament similar to the formula adopted by the previous minority governments of the United Front, the NDA, the Congress government of P. V. Narasimha Rao, and earlier governments of V. P. Singh and Chandra Shekhar.

An informal alliance had existed prior to the elections as several of the current constituent parties had developed seat-sharing agreements in many states. However, it was only after the election that the results of negotiations between parties were announced. The UPA government's policies were initially guided by a common minimum programme that the alliance hammered out with fruitful consultations with Jyoti Basu and Harkishan Singh Surjeet of the 59-member Left Front.[6] Hence, government policies were generally perceived as centre-left, reflecting the centrist policies of the INC.

During the tenure of Jharkhand Chief Minister Madhu Koda, the constituents of the UPA were, by mutual consent, supporting his government.[7]

On 22 July 2008, the UPA narrowly survived a vote of confidence in the parliament brought on by the Left Front withdrawing their support in protest at the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement.[8] The Congress party and its leaders along with then SP leader Amar Singh were accused for cash for vote scam (see: Cash-for-votes scandal) in which they were accused for buying votes in Lok Sabha to save the government.[9][10][11] In the Indian General Election in 2009, the UPA won 262 seats, of which the INC accounted for 206.

Current membershipEdit

Currently, the parties in and supporting the UPA are:

Party MPs in Lok Sabha MPs in Rajya Sabha Base State
1 INC 52 35 National Party
2 DMK 24 7 Tamil Nadu
3 NCP 5 4 National Party
4 RJD - 5 Bihar
5 IUML 3 1 Kerala, Tamil Nadu
6 JKNC 3 - Jammu and Kashmir
7 JMM 1 1 Jharkhand
8 MDMK - 1 Tamil Nadu
9 RSP 1 - Kerala
10 VCK 2 - Tamil Nadu
11 AIUDF 1 - Assam
12 Ind. 1 1 None
Total 92 55 India

Current governmentsEdit

  BJP (12)
  Coalition with BJP (6)
  INC (3)
  Coalition with INC (3)
  Other Parties (AAP, AITC, BJD, TRS, YSRCP, CPI(M))
  President's Rule (2)
  Without Legislature (5)

As of May 2021, the UPA has Chief Ministers in 5 states

List of current state governmentsEdit

S.No State/UT UPA Govt Since Chief Minister Party/alliance partner Seats in Assembly Last election
Name Party Seats Since 1 2 3 Others IND
1 Punjab 16 March 2017 Amarinder Singh INC 80 16 March 2017 None 80/117 4 February 2017
2 Chhattisgarh 17 December 2018 Bhupesh Baghel INC 70 17 December 2018 None 70/90 11 December 2018
3 Rajasthan 17 December 2018 Ashok Gehlot INC 104 17 December 2018 RLD (1) None 12 117/200 11 December 2018
4 Maharashtra 28 November 2019 Uddhav Thackeray SS 57 28 November 2019 NCP (53) INC (44) BVA (3) SP (2), PJP (2), SWP (1), PWPI (1) 6 169/288 21 October 2019
5 Jharkhand 28 December 2019 Hemant Soren JMM 29 28 December 2019 INC (18) RJD (1) NCP (1) CPI(ML)L (1) None 50/81 23 December 2019
6 Tamil Nadu May 7 2021 M.K Stalin DMK 133 May 7 2021 INC (18) VCK (4) CPI (2), CPI (M) (2), None 159/234 6 April 2021

As of May 2021 the UPA has power in 5 states -

- Punjab (CM from INC)

- Chattisgarh (CM from INC)

- Rajasthan (CM from INC)

- Maharashtra (CM from SS)

- Jharkhand (CM from JMM)

- Tamil Nadu (CM from DMK)

The UPA had never had power in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh (It had power in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana before the division, however after there division in 2014 it never had power in them)

Note : The UPA govt since shows since when did UPA govt had power and the Since column in Chief Minister shows since when did that CM take the office.

UPA strength in legislative assembliesEdit

State/UT Assembly INC UPA Chief Minister from Ref(s)
Andhra Pradesh 175 0 None YSRCP [12]
Arunachal Pradesh 60 4 None BJP [13]
Assam 126 29 AIUDF (16) BJP [14]
BPF (4)
CPI(M) (1)
Bihar 243 19 RJD (75) JD(U) [15]
CPI(ML)L (12)
CPI(M) (2)
CPI (2)
Chhattisgarh 90 70 None INC [16]
Goa 40 5 NCP (1) BJP [17]
IND (2)
Gujarat 182 65 IND (1) BJP [18]
Haryana 90 31 None BJP [19]
Himachal Pradesh 68 20 None BJP [20]
Jharkhand 81 18 JMM (30) JMM [21]
RJD (1)
NCP (1)
CPI(ML)L (1)
Karnataka 224 68 IND (1) BJP [22]
Kerala 140 21 IUML (15) LDF [23]
KC (2)
KC(J) (1)
RMPI (1)
IND (1)
Madhya Pradesh 230 96 None BJP [24]
Maharashtra 288 43 SHS (57) SHS
NCP (53)
BVA (3)
PJP (2)
SP (2)
SWP (1)
PWPI (1)
IND (6)
Manipur 60 17 None BJP [25]
Meghalaya 60 17 NCP (1) NDA [26]
Mizoram 40 5 None MNF [27]
Nagaland 60 0 None NDA [28]
Odisha 147 9 CPI(M) (1) BJD [29]
Punjab 117 80 None INC [30]
Rajasthan 200 106 RLD (1) INC [31]
IND (12)
Sikkim 32 0 None NDA [32]
Tamil Nadu 234 18 DMK (133) DMK [33]
VCK (4)
CPI (2)
CPI (M) (2)
Telangana 119 6 None TRS [34]
Tripura 60 0 None BJP [35]
Uttar Pradesh 403 7 None BJP [36]
Uttarakhand 70 11 None BJP [37]
West Bengal 294 0 None AITC [38]
Delhi 70 0 None AAP [39]
Jammu and Kashmir TBD NA [40]
Puducherry 33 2 DMK (6) NDA [41]
IND (1)
Total 4036 767 454 UPA (6) 31

Past membersEdit

Party Base State Withdrawal Date Reason for Withdrawal
Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 2006 Differences over proposed statehood for Telangana[42]
Bahujan Samaj Party National Party 2008 Congress opposed the UP government where the BSP was the ruling party
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Jammu and Kashmir 2009 Congress decided to support National Conference Government in Jammu and Kashmir[43]
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu 2009 PMK declared that it would join the AIADMK led front
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen Telangana 2012 Accused Congress led State Government of Communalism[44][45]
All India Trinamool Congress National Party 2012 TMC's demands on rollbacks and reforms not met, including the governments decision to allow FDI in retail[46][47]
Socialist Janata (Democratic) Kerala 2014 It merged with Janata Dal (United) on 29 December 2014.[48][49]
Janata Dal (Secular) Karnataka 2019 After JD(S)-INC alliance govt fell in Karnataka, two parties decided to end alliance.[50]
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Bihar 2020 Withdrawn support before Bihar Assembly Election 2020 & Allied with BSP+ on 29 September 2020.

List of prime ministersEdit

No. Prime ministers Portrait Term in office Lok Sabha Cabinet Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Manmohan Singh   22 May 2004 22 May 2009 10 years, 4 days 14th Manmohan Singh I Rajya Sabha MP From Assam
22 May 2009 26 May 2014 15th Manmohan Singh II

List of current chief ministersEdit

Incumbent chief ministers from the United Progressive Alliance
S.No State Name Portrait Cabinet
1. Chhattisgarh Bhupesh Baghel   Baghel I
2. Jharkhand Hemant Soren   Soren II
3. Maharashtra Uddhav Thackeray   Thackeray I
4. Punjab Amarinder Singh   Amarinder II
5. Rajasthan Ashok Gehlot   Gehlot III
6. Tamil Nadu M. K. Stalin  

List of deputy chief ministersEdit

Deputy Chief Minister from the United Progressive Alliance
S.No State Name Portrait
1. Maharashtra Ajit Pawar  

List of UPA candidates by electionEdit

TimelineEdit

2014Edit

2015Edit

  • UPA lost elections in Delhi
  • UPA won elections in Bihar

2016Edit

2017Edit

2018Edit

2019Edit

2020Edit

2021Edit

  • 3 MLA have resigned from UPA in Puducherry causing the government to go from majority to minority, and during the no trust confidence UPA fail to prove majority causing the govt to fall.
  • UPA lost state election in Assam, Kerala, Puducherry and West Bengal
  • UPA won state election in Tamil Nadu

ControversiesEdit

The winter session of parliament in October 2008 came under intense criticism from the Left parties and the BJP to demand a full-fledged winter session instead of what was seen as the UPA to having "scuttled the voice of Parliament" by bringing down the sittings to a record low of 30 days in the year. The tensions between the UPA and the opposition parties became evident at an all-party meeting convened by Lok Sabha speaker Somnath Chatterjee when the leader of opposition, LK Advani questioned the status, timing and schedule of the current session of parliament.[51]

Karunanidhi had said he felt "let down" by the "lukewarm" response of the Centre and had demanded amendments in the resolution on Sri Lanka.[citation needed]

One of the amendments was to "declare that genocide and war crimes had been committed and inflicted on the Eelam Tamils by the Sri Lankan Army and the administrators".

The second one was "establishment of a credible and independent international commission of investigation in a time-bound manner into the allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity, violations of international human rights law, violations of international humanitarian law and crime of genocide against the Tamils". Karunanidhi said Parliament should adopt the resolution incorporating these two amendments.[52]

The UPA has also been criticised for its alleged involvement in a number of scams such as the Commonwealth Games Scam of 2010, the 2G spectrum case, and the Coalgate scam. Apart from the above-mentioned scams, the UPA has been under intense fire for the alleged doles handed out to the son-in-law of the Gandhi family, Robert Vadra, by different state governments run by the UPA.[53]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "No decision yet on Sonia Gandhiji continuing as UPA chairperson: Veerappa Moily". The Times of India. 26 December 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  2. ^ "United Progressive Alliance, UPA, UPA Performance General Election 2009, UPA Tally, UPA in Lok Sabha Elections 2009, India Elections 2009, General Elections, Election Manifesto, India Election News, India Elections Results, Indian Election Schedule, 15th Lok Sabha Elections, General Elections 2009, State Assembly Elections, State Assembly Elections Schedule, State Assembly Election Results". electionaffairs.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.
  3. ^ Small parties, independents in great demand Archived 28 May 2009 at WebCite.
  4. ^ Originally the SP had 39 MPs Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. 6 MPs defied party whip and have been expelled from the party.
  5. ^ Lok Sabha members Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Congress pins hopes on Jyoti Basu". The Times of India.[dead link]
  7. ^ Madhu Koda to be next Jharkhand CM Archived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  8. ^ "Indian government survives vote". BBC News. 22 July 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Cash-for-votes scam: The deadly secrets of sting Singh : Cover Story - India Today". intoday.in. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  10. ^ "Cash For Vote Scam - Amar Singh - Supreme Court - Sudheendra Kulkarni - Swamajwadi Party - BJP". www.oneindia.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  11. ^ "Cash-for-vote scam 2008: Court orders further probe". indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  12. ^ Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  13. ^ Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  14. ^ Assam Legislative Assembly
  15. ^ Bihar Legislative Assembly
  16. ^ Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
  17. ^ Goa Legislative Assembly
  18. ^ Gujarat Legislative Assembly
  19. ^ Haryana Legislative Assembly
  20. ^ Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  21. ^ Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
  22. ^ Karnataka Legislative Assembly
  23. ^ Kerala Legislature
  24. ^ Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  25. ^ Manipur Legislative Assembly
  26. ^ Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
  27. ^ Mizoram Legislative Assembly
  28. ^ Nagaland Legislative Assembly
  29. ^ Odisha Legislative Assembly
  30. ^ Punjab Legislative Assembly
  31. ^ Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
  32. ^ Sikkim Legislative Assembly
  33. ^ Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
  34. ^ Telangana Legislative Assembly
  35. ^ Tripura Legislative Assembly
  36. ^ Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  37. ^ Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
  38. ^ West Bengal Legislative Assembly
  39. ^ Delhi Legislative Assembly
  40. ^ Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
  41. ^ Puducherry Legislative Assembly
  42. ^ TRS withdraws support to the UPA Archived 29 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ PDP withdraws from UPA, The Indian Express. 5 January 2009
  44. ^ "Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen withdraws support to Andhra Pradesh government and UPA". The Times of India. 13 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  45. ^ "MIM withdraws support to UPA, Congress in Andhra Pradesh". dna. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  46. ^ "Rupee falls after TMC pulls out from government". Monetcontrol.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  47. ^ "Mamata's party ready to meet President tomorrow to officially quit UPA". NDTV. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  48. ^ "Nitish Kumar hails SJD's merger with JD-U in Kerala". India Today. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  49. ^ "SJD Merges with Sharad Yadav's Janata Dal (United)". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  50. ^ "Alliance govt gone, Congress and JD(S) are back to being rivals in Karnataka". The Print. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  51. ^ Political Bureau. "Left joins BJP to sing chorus against UPA". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  52. ^ "DMK pulls out of UPA govt over Sri Lanka Tamils issue – The Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  53. ^ "CAG raps Haryana govt. for showing undue favours to Robert vadra". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2015.

External linksEdit