The Sri Lanka Army (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා යුද්ධ හමුදාව, romanized: Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Tamil: இலங்கை இராணுவம், romanized: Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces. The army was officially established as the Ceylon Army in 1949, though the army traces it's roots back in 1881 when Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers was created; the army was renamed as the 'Sri Lanka Army' when Sri Lanka became a republic in 1972. In 2024, the Army had approximately 150,000 personnel.[2]

Sri Lanka Army
ශ්‍රී ලංකා යුද්ධ හමුදාව (Sinhala)
இலங்கை இராணுவம் (Tamil)
Emblem of the Sri Lanka Army
FoundedOctober 10, 1949; 74 years ago (1949-10-10)[1]
CountrySri Lanka Sri Lanka
RoleLand warfare
Size150,000 personnel[2]
Part ofSri Lanka Armed Forces
HeadquartersArmy Headquarters, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte
Motto(s)Latin: Pro Patria
"For the Fatherland"
ColoursGold, blue and orange
AnniversariesArmy Day: 10 October[1]
Engagements1971 JVP Insurrection
1987–89 JVP Insurrection
Sri Lankan Civil War
DecorationsMilitary awards and decorations of Sri Lanka
Commander-in-ChiefRanil Wickremesinghe (President of Sri Lanka)
Commander of the ArmyLieutenant General Vikum Liyanage
Chief of Staff of the ArmyMajor General W.H.K.S Peiris
Deputy Chief of Staff of the ArmyMajor General G.R.R.P Jayawardena
Presidential Colour

The Army Headquarters is situated in Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte; Commander of the Army is the highest appointment in the army who commands the army and is assisted by the Chief of Staff of the Army and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army.[3][4] The Commander-in-Chief of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the President of Sri Lanka, who heads the National Security Council through the Ministry of Defence, which is charged with formulating, executing defence policy and procurements for the armed forces.[5]

Background edit

Pre Anuradhapura period to the Transitional period edit

The first military engagements in Sri Lankan history were marked by the advent of Prince Vijaya, a prince from the Bengal region who landed along with his followers on the beaches of northwestern Sri Lanka around 543 BC. Prince Vijaya and his followers occupied the lands of the native Vedda people. Repeated incursions by South Indians, particularly the Cholas, into Sri Lankan territory occurred throughout the next few centuries and led to the engagement of the rival forces in battle.[6] In one famous encounter, Sinhalese King Dutugamunu (161-37 BC) raised an army of eleven thousand in his battle against the Chola invader Elara, whom he eventually defeated. Dutugemunu's organisational skills, bravery and chivalry are famous and his battles have gone down in history as outstanding offensive operations.[7]

Other Sri Lankan monarchs whose military achievements stand out include Gajabahu I (113-35), who sailed to India to bring back his captured soldiers, and Dhatusena (455-73) who is credited with repulsing numerous Indian invasions and for organising a naval build-up to deter seaborne attacks. He also had the foresight to cover his defences with artillery. Vijayabahu I (1055–1110) was another warrior king who dislodged Indian invaders and united the country. Parakramabahu the Great (1153–86) was an outstanding monarch of the Polonnaruwa period, and his accomplishments as a military leader and a great administrator are noteworthy. His reign included a military expedition to Burma in retaliation for indignities inflicted on his envoys and Burmese interference in the elephant trade. This marked the first overseas expedition in Sri Lankan military history. It is also reported that Parakramabahu's fame was such that his assistance was sought by South Indian rulers who were involved in internecine struggles. Another strong ruler in the Transitional period of Sri Lanka was Parakramabahu VI, who defeated Indian invaders, united the island and ruled it from capital Kotte.[7] Although the known epigraphical records do not indicate that the Sri Lankan rulers had a full-time standing army at their disposal, there is evidence supported by legend, designation, name, place and tradition that prove there were 'stand-by' equestrian, elephant, and infantry divisions to ensure royal authority at all times. Militias were raised as the necessity arose, and the soldiers returned to their pursuits, mainly for farming, after their spell of military duty.[7]

Transitional period edit

A Portuguese illustration of Sinhalese warriors, produced c. 1540

Parts of Sri Lanka came under the control of three colonial European powers, namely the Portuguese in the 16th century, the Dutch in the 17th century and the British in the 18th century. Yet, until the entire island was ceded to the British in 1815, regional kingdoms maintained most of their independent defence forces and were able to successfully repulse repeated thrusts by the European armies. However the British, unlike their counterparts, were not primarily restricted to maritime power, and thus had the capability to bring the entire island under their control and to integrate locals into the British defence forces.[7]

At the beginning of the 16th century, modern Europe first came in contact with Sri Lanka. In 1505 a Portuguese fleet, while operating in the Indian seas against Arab traders, was blown off course and landed at Galle, on the southern coast of the island.[8] In 1517 the Portuguese re-appeared, and with the consent of the Sinhalese King established a trading post in Colombo. Having initiated contact with Sri Lanka as traders, the Portuguese soon made themselves political masters of the western seaboard. Numerous forts were soon established, and features of European civilisation was introduced.[7]

The Portuguese are credited with the introduction of European-style fortresses to Sri Lanka during this era. Although some locals already possessed military training and fighting experience, there is no evidence that the Portuguese employed local inhabitants into their own forces. Thus the Portuguese were forced to restrict their presence in the island due to their small numbers and their efforts were more focused toward projecting maritime power.[7]

In 1602 Dutch explorers first landed in Sri Lanka. By 1658 they had completely ousted the Portuguese from the coastal regions of the island. Much like the Portuguese, they did not employ locals in their military and preferred to live in isolation, pursuing their interests in trade and commerce. Like the Portuguese, they defended their forts with their own forces, but unlike the Portuguese, Dutch forces employed Swiss and Malay mercenaries. The Dutch Forts in Jaffna, Galle, Matara, Batticaloa and Trincomalee were sturdily built and are considered a tribute to their military engineering skills. Also, like the Portuguese, the Dutch focussed on maritime power and although they had the capability to develop and use local forces, they chose to isolate themselves from the local population.[7]

Kandyan period edit

The British Empire then ousted the Dutch from the coastal areas of the country, and sought to conquer the independent Kandyan Kingdom. In the face of repeated British assaults, the Kandyans were forced into a degree of guerilla warfare and fared well against their superior British adversaries.[7]

Initially the British stationed their forces, which included naval vessels, artillery troops and infantry, to defend the island nation from other foreign powers, using the natural harbor of Trincomalee as their headquarters in Sri Lanka. In 1796, the Swiss and Malay mercenaries who were previously in the service of the Dutch were transferred to the British East India Company. While the Swiss Regiment de Meuron left in 1806 and was eventually disbanded in Canada in 1822, the Malays, who initially formed a Malay Corps, were converted into the 1st Ceylon Regiment in 1802 and placed under a British commanding officer. In the same year, the British became the first foreign power to raise a Sinhalese unit, which was named the 2nd Ceylon Regiment, also known as the Sepoy Corps.[7]

In 1803 the 3rd Ceylon Regiment was created with Moluccans and recruits from Penang. All these regiments fought alongside British troops in the Kandyan Wars which began in 1803. Throughout the following years, more Sinhalese and Malays were recruited to these regiments, and in 1814 the 4th Regiment was raised, which was composed entirely of African troops. It was later renamed as the Ceylon Rifle Regiment. Eventually, the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to the British in 1815, and with that they gained control over the whole island. Resistance to British occupation cropped up almost instantly. During the first half-century of occupation, the British faced a number of uprisings, and were forced to maintain a sizable army in order to guarantee their control over the island. After the Matale Rebellion led by Puran Appu in 1848, in which a number of Sinhalese recruits defected to the side of the rebels, the recruitment of Sinhalese to the British forces was temporarily halted.[7]

History edit

Ceylon Volunteers edit

On 1 April 1881 by a proclamation issued by the Governor of Ceylon, a Volunteer Force was raised in Ceylon. It was designated the Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers (CLIV) in an attempt to compensated for the disbandment of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment in 1874. The Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers was originally administered as a single regiment. However, over the years various sections of the volunteers grew large enough to become independent regiments. The different units that emerged from the Volunteer Force were the

These volunteers saw active service when a contingent of the Ceylon Mounted Infantry (CMI) in 1900, and a contingent of the Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps (CPRC) in 1902, took part in the Second Boer War in South Africa. Their services were recognised by the presentation in 1902 of a colour to the CMI, and a presentation in 1904 of a banner to the CPRC.

Ceylon Defence Force Ordinance No. 8 of 1910 edit

First Prime Minister of Independent Sri Lanka D. S. Senanayake visiting the 1st battalion of the CLI at the Echelon Square and watching volunteers being trained to handle light machine guns.

In 1910, with the enactment of the Ceylon Defence Force Ordinance No. 8 of 1910, the Ceylon Defence Force (CDF) was formed bring under it all volunteer units for administrative, training and logistics purposes. It continued to grow throughout the early period of the 20th century.

During the First World War, many volunteers from the Defence Force travelled to Great Britain and joined the British Army, and many of them were killed in action. One of them mentioned by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was Private Jacotine of the CLI, who was the last man left alive in his unit at the Battle of Lys,[9] and who continued to fight for 20 minutes before he was killed.[10]

In 1922, the CDF was honoured by the presentation of the King's and Regimental colours to the Ceylon Light Infantry (CLI).[7]

In 1939, the CDF was mobilised and an enormous expansion took place which required the raising of new units such as the Ceylon Signals Corps, the Auxiliary Territorial Service (Ceylon) and also the Colombo Town Guard, which had been previously disbanded, but was later re-formed to meet military requirements. During the Second World War, Britain assumed direct control over the Armed Forces of Ceylon.[11] At the end of World War II, CDF which had increased in size during the war began demobilisation.

Army Act No. 17 of 1949 edit

Brigadier James Sinclair, Earl of Caithness inspecting a guard of honour wearing khaki drill.

In 1948 Sri Lanka gained independence from Britain, becoming a Dominion within the Commonwealth and a year earlier Ceylon entered into the bi-lateral Anglo-Ceylonese Defence Agreement of 1947. This was followed by the Army Act No. 17 of 1949 which was passed by Parliament on April 11, 1949, and formalised in Gazette Extraordinary No. 10028 of October 10, 1949 marked the creation of the Ceylon Army, consisting of a regular and a volunteer force, the later being the successor of the disbanded CDF.[12][13] Therefore, October 10, 1949, is considered the day the Ceylon Army was raised, and as such October 10 is celebrated annually as Army Day. Brigadier James Sinclair, Earl of Caithness was appointed as Commandant of the Ceylon Army. The Defence Agreement of 1947 provided the assurance that British would come to the aid of Ceylon in the event it was attacked by a foreign power and provided British military advisers to build up the country's military. In November, a Ceylon Army Guard takes over duties at Echelon Barracks from the Guard of the British Army.[14]

The Army Headquarters, Ceylon was established in Colombo, with a General Staff Branch, an Adjutant General Branch, a Quartermaster General Branch and a Pay and Records Branch. Soon after the Headquarters, Ceylon Volunteer Force was established. The initial requirement was to raise an artillery regiment, an engineer squadron, an infantry battalion, a medical unit, and a service corps company. For much of the 1950s the army was preoccupied with the task of building itself and training existing and new personnel. To this aim the British Army Training Team (BATT) advisory group carried out training for ex-members of the CDF within the Ceylon Army, field rank officers were sent to the British Army Staff College, Camberley and some attached to units of the British Army of the Rhine to gain field experience. Newly recruited officer cadets were sent for training at Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, stating with 10 officer cadets in 1950, which continued until the 1968 and both officers and other ranks were sent to specialist training courses in Britain, India, Pakistan and Malaya. There were no formations and all units were structured to directly function under the Army Headquarters. However temporary field headquarters were to be formed at the time requirement arose.[13]

Due to a lack of any major external threats, the growth of the army was slow, and the primary duties of the army quickly moved towards internal security by the mid-1950s, the same time as the first Ceylonese Army Commander Major General Anton Muttukumaru took command of the army. The first internal security operation of the Ceylon Army began in 1952, code named Operation Monty to counter the influx of illegal South Indian immigrants brought in by smugglers on the north-western coast, in support of Royal Ceylon Navy coastal patrols and police operations. This was expanded and renamed as Task Force Anti Illicit Immigration (TaFII) in 1963 and continued up to 1981 when it was disbanded. The Army was mobilised to help the police to restore peace under provincial emergency regulations during the 1953 hartal, the 1956 Gal Oya Valley riots and in 1958 it was deployed for the first time under emergency regulations throughout the island during the 1958 Riots.[15]

During the 1950s and 1960s the army was called upon to carry to essential services when the workers went on strike which were organised by the left-wing parties and trade unions for various reasons, the most notable was the 1961 Colombo Port strike, during which ships threatened to bypass Colombo port and the country almost starved. To counter these common strikes several units were formed, who were employed in development work when there were no strikes. New regiments were formed, which included the Ceylon Armoured Corps, Ceylon Sinha Regiment and the Ceylon Pioneer Corps.[15]

In 1962 several senior officers attempted a military coup, which was stopped hours before it was launched. Thereafter the government mistrusted the military and reduced the size and growth of the army, especially the volunteer force, disbanding several units and forming the Gemunu Watch.

Sri Lanka Army flags

In 1971, the Army found itself facing a full blown insurgency, when the JVP Insurrection broke out in April 1971. Having been caught by surprise, as a result of failure to comprehend the magnitude of the insurgency from intelligence reports. Although completely ill-prepared to deal with an insurgency, lacking weapons, ammunition, equipment and training; the army responded quickly and successfully defeated the insurgency by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna by mid 1971.

In May 1972, when Ceylon was proclaimed a republic and changed its name from the Dominion of Ceylon to the Republic of Sri Lanka, all Army units were renamed accordingly.[16]

By the late 1970s the army was confronted with a new conflict, this time with Tamil militant groups in the north of the island. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) emerged as the prominent of these Tamil militant groups. The war escalated to the point where India intervened as a peacekeeping force. This was later seen as a tactical error, as the Indian Peace Keeping Force united nationalist elements such as the JVP to politically support the LTTE in their call to evict the IPKF. This led to a second insurgency by the JVP, forcing the army to deploy its forces in the south of the island and to fight on two fronts between 1987 and 1989. The 1980s saw a massive expiation of the army from 15,000 personal to over 30,000 and more. New regiments were raised, while others were expanded with new battalions. New weapons and equipment were introduced as the war shifted from counter-insurgency to conventional warfare tactics, with multi battalion, brigade and division scale operations. New regiments were formed which included the Commando Regiment, Special Forces Regiment, Mechanized Infantry Regiment, Gajaba Regiment, Vijayabahu Infantry Regiment, Military Intelligence Corps, Sri Lanka Army Women's Corps, Sri Lanka Rifle Corps and the Sri Lanka National Guard.

The war with the LTTE was halted several times for peace negotiations, the last of which following the signing of a ceasefire agreement in 2002 with the help of international mediation. However, renewed violence broke out in December 2005 and following the collapse of peace talks, the Army has been involved in the heavy fighting that has resumed in the north and east of the country.

Since 1980 the army has undertaken many operations against the LTTE rebels. The major operations conducted by the army eventually led to the recapture of Jaffna and other rebel strongholds. On 19 May 2009 Sri Lankan army declare the victory of war as they found the dead body of LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran. This marked the end of the war, with the LTTE ceasing to exist in Sri Lanka as a result of prolonged military offensives conducted by Sri Lanka army.[17] The Sri Lankan Armed Forces, including the army, have been accused of committing war crimes during the war, particularly during the final stages.[18][19] A panel of experts appointed by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan Armed Forces and the Tamil Tigers.[20][21][22]

Deployments edit

Military gathering on Galle Face Green in Colombo

As of present, the bulk of the Sri Lankan Army is deployed for domestic defensive and combat operations, while a sizable foreign deployment is maintained.

Domestic edit

Due to the Sri Lankan Civil War the army has been on a constant mobilized (including volunteers) state since the 1980s. The majority of the army has been deployed in the North and Eastern provinces of the country, which includes 14 Divisions coming under six operational headquarters and 2 independent Divisions and several independent Brigades. The army is also based in other parts of the island for internal security including a Division for the defence of the capital.

Foreign edit

The Sri Lanka Army currently participates in several major overseas deployments:

Peacekeeping edit

The Sri Lanka Army has taken part in two peacekeeping missions with United Nations over the course of its history. First assignment was in the Congo (ONUC) (1960–1963). Most recently, following the signing of a ceasefire agreement was signed between the government and the LTTE in 2002, Sri Lankan forces were invited by the United Nations to be part of the UN peacekeeping force in Haiti. In the process of the peacekeeping operations, two soldiers were killed in a raid in Petit-Goave.[27] After over 6 months of service, the first contingent of the peacekeeping force returned to Sri Lanka on May 17, 2005.[28] In December 2007, 7th rotation of the Sri Lankan contingent had been deployed with a force of 991 officers and other ranks, many of those deployed have been awarded the United Nations Medal for their services.[29] In November 2007, 114 members of the 950 member Sri Lankan Army peacekeeping mission in Haiti was accused of sexual misconduct and abuse[30][31] which resulted in 108 members, including three officers, being sent back after being implicated in alleged misconduct and sexual abuse where sex was exchanged for money and valuable items, with some acts considered rape as they involved those under 18.[32][31][33][34] In January 2019, a Sri Lankan army officer and trooper on peace keeping duty in Mali were killed and three more wounded when their convoy came under an IED attack.[35] The incident prompted the army to accelerate its Avalon program.[36]

Sri Lanka Army's newest contingent of 243 professionally-trained Army personnel in the Combat Convoy Company (CCC), well-prepared to serve in the United Nations (UN) Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) left the island on 21 April 2021.[37]

Organization structure edit

The professional head of the army is the Commander of the Army. He is assisted by the Chief of Staff of the Sri Lanka Army and a Deputy Chief of Staff. The Commandant of the Volunteer Force is head of the Army Volunteer Force and is responsible for the administration and recruitment of all reserve units and personal. The Army Headquarters, housed in the Defence Headquarters Complex in Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is the main administrative and the operational headquarters of the Sri Lanka Army.[38]

Administrative edit

The Army Headquarters is divided into a number of branches, namely the General Staff (GS) branch responsible for coordination of operations and training and the Adjutant General's (AGs) branch responsible for personal administration, welfare, medical services, and rehabilitation. The Quarter Master General's (QMGs) branch is responsible for feeding, transport, movement, and construction and maintenance. The Master General of Ordnance's (MGOs) branch is responsible for procurement and maintenance of vehicles and special equipment.[39] The Military Secretary's Branch is responsible for handling all matters pertaining to officers such as promotions, postings and discipline. Each branch is headed by an officer in the rank of Major General who is directly responsible to the Commander of the Army for the smooth functioning of the Branch. Under each Branch, there are several Directorates, each headed by a Brigadier.[39]

The headquarters of field formations each have its own staff. For instance a divisional headquarters is divided into a GS branch as an AQ branch, each headed by a Colonel and is responsible for operations & training and administration & logistics respectively. Similarly, a Brigade Major and Major AQ is responsible for operations and administration in a brigade.[39]

Like the Indian Army, the Sri Lanka Army has largely retained the British-style regimental system that it inherited upon independence. The individual regiments (such as the Sri Lanka Light Infantry and the Sri Lanka Sinha Regiment) operate independently and recruit their own members. Officers tend to remain in a single battalion throughout their careers. The infantry battalion, the basic unit of organization in field operations, includes five companies of four platoons each. Typical platoon has three squads (sections) of ten personnel each. In addition to the basic infantry forces, a commando regiment was also established in 1986. Support for the infantry is provided by an armoured regiment, five reconnaissance regiments, three mechanized infantry regiments, five field artillery regiments, a rocket artillery regiment, three commando regiments, three special forces regiments, six field engineering regiments, five signals battalions, a medical corps, and a variety of logistics units.[40]

Regiments and corps edit


Name Headquarters/Regimental Centre Regular Units Volunteer Units Headquarters Units
Armoured Corps Rock House Army Camp 5 2 0
Artillery Panagoda Cantonment 9 2 0
Engineers Panagoda Cantonment 10 2 0
Signals Corps Panagoda Cantonment 10 1 1
Light Infantry Panagoda Cantonment 16 6 1
Sinha Regiment Ambepussa Camp 14 6 1
Gemunu Watch Kuruwita Army Camp 15 6 1
Gajaba Regiment Saliyapura Camp 14 6 1
Vijayabahu Infantry Regiment Boyagane Camp 15 6 1
Mechanized Infantry Regiment Dambulla 4 1 0
Commando Regiment Ganemulla 4 0 1
Special Forces Regiment Naula 4 0 0
Military Intelligence Corps Polhengoda 4 2 0
Engineer Services Regiment Panagoda Cantonment 7 9 0
Service Corps Panagoda Cantonment 7 2 0
Medical Corps Boralesgamuwa 4 1 0
Ordnance Corps Dombagoda 6 1 0
Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Slave Island 7 1 0
Corps of Military Police Polhengoda 7 0 0
General Service Corps Panagoda Cantonment 3 3 0
Women's Corps Borella 2 2 0
Rifle Corps Pallekele 0 2 0
Pioneer Corps Matugama 0 2 0
National Guard Kurunegala 0 19 1

Operational command edit

Organized and controlled by the Army General Staff at Army HQ, various formations are raised from time to time to suit various security requirements and operations in the country and overseas. The Army at present has deployed 12 Divisions, 7 task forces and several independent brigades. Except for the 11 Division based at the Panagoda Cantonment which is responsible for the maintenance of capability for the defence of the capital, all other divisions, task forces and brigades are deployed for operations in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka, coming under five regional commands known as Security Forces Headquarters, which are the Security Forces Headquarters Jaffna (SFHQ-J), Wanni (SFHQ-W), East (SFHQ-E), Mullaittivu (SFHQ-MLT), West (SFHQ-W) and Central (SFHQ-C). One Security Forces Headquarters, the SFHQ-KLN was disbanded in 2021.

Each SFHQ and most divisions are commanded by a General Officer Commanding in the rank of Major General. A SFHQ has several divisions under its command and each division is further divided into brigades. Each brigade is commanded by an officer in the rank of Brigadier and has a number of Infantry battalions, support arms (Artillery, Engineers and Signals) and support services (Service Corps, Engineering Services, Ordnance Corps, Electrical and Mechanical Engineers) under assigned to it. There are also several administrative brigades (Artillery Brigade, Armoured Brigade, etc.) and the Air Mobile Brigade.

In other parts of the country, there are Area and Sub-Area Headquarters. Armour, Artillery, Engineers and Signals Units are grouped under Brigade Headquarters of their own arm; Armoured Brigade, Artillery Brigade and so on.

Formations edit

Army Headquarters Formation
  • Independent Brigade HQ
  • Commander Security Unit
SLAVF Headquarters
1 Corps, based in Kilinochchi
Security Forces Headquarters - Jaffna (SFHQ-J)
Security Forces Headquarters - Wanni (SFHQ-W)[41]
Security Forces Headquarters - East (SFHQ-E)
Security Forces Headquarters – Mullaitivu (SFHQ-MLT)[41]
Security Forces Headquarters – West (SFHQ-W)[44]
Security Forces Headquarters – Central (SFHQ-C)
Army Training Command
Logistic Command
Specialist Formations

Training edit

At the formation of the Ceylon Army in 1949, the need to train a standing army was felt strongly since the Ceylon Defence Force had operated on a regimental training model to maintain the efficiency of its volunteers culminating with the annual two week training camp at the garrison town of Diyatalawa, in the Badulla District which became the traditional training grounds for the newly formed army. The Army Recruit Training Depot was established in Diyatalawa in 1950 and later renamed as the Army Training Centre. Officer cadets were sent to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, along with specialized training at trade schools of the British Army, while officers of field rank were sent to the Staff College, Camberley and to the Royal College of Defence Studies. With the economic limitations in the 1960s, focus was given for local training in order to save foreign exchange. The army initiated basic officer training at the Army Training Centre in 1968. With the rapid expansion of the army in the 1980s and 1990s saw the establishment of local specialist and trade schools, along with staff colleges and a defence university. At present the Army Training Command (ARTRAC) with its headquarters at Diyatalawa formulates all training doctrine of the army and all its training centres. ARTRAC directs all army training establishments, regimental training establishments and battalion training schools.[45]

All pre-commissioning training for officers are carried out at the Sri Lanka Military Academy (SLMA) (formally the Army Training Centre) and at the Volunteer Force Training School (VFTS) situated in Diyatalawa. The officer cadets graduating from SLMA are commissioned as officers in the regular and volunteer forces, while VFTS conducts shorter commissioning courses for prospective officers for the volunteer force and the National Cadet Corps. The course for officer cadets runs for ninety weeks and includes training in tactics and administration which helps prepare the cadets to take up the positions of platoon and company commanders. The course consisted of military and academic subjects and also trained the cadets physically. The course helps to promote leadership qualities and the understanding of each one's role as an officer and a servant of the state. Due to the lack of officers within the lower levels, the training process was sped up in the 1980s by developing a short commission course. The cadets were given a training of fifty-six weeks and devoted themselves to continue their careers in the military with the mandatory ten years of service for regular army officers and five years of service for volunteer officers. Once completing their basic training at SLMA, junior officers would receive specialized training at training centres which would include young officers courses in their area of specialization followed by advanced training on weapon systems.[39][40]

Selected field officers attended command and staff courses at the Army War College followed by the Command and Staff Course at the Defence Services Command and Staff College (DSCSC) at Batalanda, Makola which was established in 1997 as the Army Command and Staff College. Officers may attend specialist long courses such as the Logistics Staff Course that is conducted at the Army School of Logistics which was established in 2011. Senior field officers with the potential to advance to general officer rank are selected to attend the prestigious National Defence College (NDC) in Colombo which is the highest level of military training in Sri Lanka.[39][40]

The General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University (KDU) formed in 1981 and situated in Ratmalana, fourteen kilometres south of Colombo, as only university specializing in defence studies in the island. Each year, approximately fifty cadets from all three services are admitted to the university (aged 18–22) to participate in a three-year programme of academic work and as sent to their service academies for their final year of training. In addition KDU conducts postgraduate and masters programs in defence related subjects for officers who attend staff and defence courses at DSCSC and NDC.[39][40]

Training for the new recruits are carried out by the Army Training School in Maduru Oya and at several locations by training battalions, followed by additional specialized training in arms or trade at training centres such as the Infantry Training Centre in Minneriya and the Combat Training School in Ampara.[39][40]

At its formation the armed forces of Sri Lanka had limited indigenous training facilities, especially in technical and advanced roles, they have depended greatly on military training provided by foreign countries. The United Kingdom played a major role in the early years following independence and have continued to be an important source of military expertise to the Sri Lankan military. Other sources include India, Pakistan, the United States, Australia and Malaysia. Additionally, in an agreement reached in 1984, Israeli security personnel (reportedly from Shin Bet, the Israeli counterespionage and internal security organisation) trained army officers in counterinsurgency techniques. With the rapid expansion of the army, in recent years it has expanded its training facilities locally.[40]

The Sri Lankan Army has also provided special training to the United States Army on their request as well as many other countries in military education regarding civilian rescue, jungle combat, and guerilla warfare etc.[46]

Training establishments edit

Personnel edit

As of 2024 the Sri Lanka Army had 150,000 personnel.[2] In 2023 the army had 200,783 personnel and the number was reduced to 150,000 in 2024.[2]

In late 1987, the army had a total estimated strength of up to 40,000 troops, about evenly divided between regular army personnel and reservists on active duty. The approximately 20,000 regular army troops represented a significant increase over the 1983 strength of only 12,000. Aggressive recruitment campaigns following the 1983 riots raised this number to 16,000 by early 1985.[40] By 1990 the army had expanded to over 90,000 personnel and by 2007, it had expanded to over 120,000.[48]

Since the Sri Lankan armed forces are all volunteer services, all personal in the Sri Lanka Army have volunteered as regular personnel or reservists. This should not be confused with the traditional term volunteers used for reservists or reservist units. Recruitment of the personal are carried island wide with a restrictions in the northern and eastern provinces during the civil war in those areas. The Rifle Corps is the only territorial unit that carries out recruitment from a specific area.

Parama Weera Vibhushanaya recipients edit

The Parama Weera Vibhushanaya is the highest award for valour awarded in the Sri Lankan armed forces. Army recipients include;

Notable fallen members edit

Over 23,790 Sri Lankan armed forces personnel were killed since the begin of the civil war in 1981 to its end in 2009, this includes 12 general officers killed in active duty or assassinated.[49] 659 service personnel were killed due to the second JVP Insurrection from 1987 to 1990. 53 service personnel were killed and 323 were wounded in the first JVP Insurrection from 1971 to 1972.[50] Notable fallen members include;

Directorate of Rehabilitation edit

The Directorate of Rehabilitation was established with the intention and focus towards the rehabilitation of Officers and Other Ranks Wounded in Action. However, with the increase of a number of casualties due to the operations, the Sri Lanka Army proceeded to utilize the services of battle casualties with the view of obtaining a productive service from these individuals. As a result, under mentioned institutes had been established.[55]

  • Ranaviru Sevana
  • Ranaviru Apparels
  • Abhimansala Wellness Resort 1 (Anuradhapura)
  • Abhimansala Wellness Resort 2 (Kamburupitiya)
  • Abhimansala Wellness Resort 3 (Panagoda)
  • Ranaviru Resources Centre
  • Mihindu Seth Medura

Equipment edit

In the 1980s, the army expanded its range of weapons from the original stock of World War II-era British Lee–Enfield rifles, Sten Submachine guns, Vickers machine guns, Bren machine guns, 6-inch coastal guns, Daimler Armoured Cars, Bren Gun Carriers,[56] 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, 3.7-inch heavy anti-aircraft guns and 4.2-inch heavy mortars as well as post war Alvis Saladins, Alvis Saracen, Ferrets and Shorland S55s. New sources of weaponry in the mid-to-late 1970s included the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and China – countries with which the leftist Bandaranaike government had close ties.

To meet the threat posed by predominantly the LTTE, Army purchased modern military hardware including 50-calibre heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers, Night Vision Devices, 106 mm recoilless rifles, 60 mm and 81 mm mortars, 40 mm grenade launchers and some sniper rifles. Refurbished armoured personnel carriers were added to the 'A' vehicle fleet of the 1st Reconnaissance Regiment, Sri Lanka Armoured Corps. These APCs enabled the Armoured Corps to have their own assault troops to provide close contact protection to their Alvis Saladin and Ferret Scout Cars which were vulnerable to anti-tank weapons. The capability of the Sri Lanka Artillery was enhanced with the introduction of Ordnance QF 25 pounders.[40][57] Chinese-made 122 mm, 130 mm and 152 mm howitzers were introduced to the Sri Lankan Army in 1995 and 1998 whilst 122 mm Multi Barrel Rocket Launchers (MBRL), were first used in 2000 by the Sri Lanka Army.[58]

Though the weapons were obsolete at the time of purchase, security forces found them to be successful in combat. Land mines proved to be the most lethal threat to personnel, as a number of mines were deployed against unprotected trucks and buses by the LTTE in the northern and eastern Provinces. These land mines weighed approximately 50 – 100 kg, against which no armoured vehicle that the SLA possessed was able to withstand the blast effect. Consequently, Armscor BuffelsSouth African armoured personnel carriers constructed on a Unimog chassis – were imported in quantity. By 1987 Sri Lanka's indigenous Unicorn APC had been engineered from the Buffel, followed by the improved Unibuffel class.[59] Both the Unicorn and the Unibuffel are assembled by the Sri Lanka Electrical & Mechanical Engineers (SLEME).[40][57]

In recent years, Sri Lanka has become increasingly reliant on China for weapons.[60] This is due to most European nations and the United States Governments passing regulations about the selling of weaponry to nations which are suffering or suffered from internal conflict.[61] However the United States has expressed its intent to maintain military training assistance. Recently the Sri Lankan Army started to produce locally weapons such as a new multiple rocket launcher, with 10 barrels and a firing range of 20 km.[62] The SLEME is also producing vehicles for transport, the UniCOLT series trucks,[63] and landmine-resistant vehicles, the UniAIMOVs and the UniAVALONs.[64] In 2020, the Army shipped several modernized Unibuffels to the Sri Lankan forces who are serving in a peacekeeping mission in Mali.[65]

Sri Lanka also continues to receive a variety of weapons from Britain, India, Japan, Pakistan, Israel and other former suppliers.[60][66]

Armour edit

Sri Lanka Army WZ551 APC
Unibuffel MK II Armoured Personnel Carrier – Sri Lanka Army
Type 89 (YW534) Armoured Fighting Vehicles
Sri Lanka Army BTR80A
Sri Lanka Army MT-55A Armoured Vehicle-launched Bridge pulled by Tatra T815 Truck
Unicob Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected Vehicle (MRAPV)
Type Origin Quantity Notes
Main battle tanks
T-55AM2   Soviet Union
62[67] Czech variant based on T-55 of Soviet Union
Type 69   China 0 Active 30[68] In reserve.
Type 59   China 0 Active 90[citation needed] in reserve.
Infantry fighting vehicles
BMP-3   Soviet Union 50[69]
BMP-2   Soviet Union 49[67]
BMP-1   Soviet Union 13[67]
Type 92 (WZ551)   China 200 Wheeled
Armoured cars
Land Rover Hotspur   United Kingdom N/A
UniAIMOV   Sri Lanka N/A 4x4 Light armoured High-Mobility/Forward Command vehicle
Armoured personnel carriers
Type 89 (YW534)   China 15+[70] Tracked
Type 85 (YW531H)   China 32+ Tracked, amphibious
Type 63 (YW531)   China 20+[71] Tracked
BTR-80   Soviet Union
25[67] Wheeled
Buffel   South Africa
  West Germany
31[67] Mine-protected APC
Unibuffel   South Africa
  West Germany
  Sri Lanka
60+ Locally manufactured, mine-protected APC
Unicorn   Sri Lanka 70+ Locally manufactured, mine-protected APC
Avalon   Sri Lanka N/A[72] 6x6 Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected Command vehicle
Unicob   Sri Lanka N/A Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle
Engineering support vehicles
VT-55   Soviet Union
18+[73] Armoured recovery vehicle
MT-55A   Soviet Union
14+[74] Armoured vehicle-launched bridge
BREM-K   Soviet Union
N/A[75] Armoured recovery vehicle
Type 89 Recovery Vehicle   China N/A[76] Armoured recovery vehicle

Multi Purpose Trucks edit

Type Origin Quantity Notes
UniCOLT   Sri Lanka N/A Multi Purpose Truck
Tata Model 1210 SD   India Field Artillery Tractor
Tata Defence Troop Carrier LPT 709   India Troop carrier
Ashok Leyland Stallion   India Troop carrier
NORTHBENZ Tiema XC2200   China Troop carrier, Field Artillery Tractor
Tatra 815   Czechoslovakia
/   Czech Republic
Troop Carrier, Heavy Equipment Transporter
Sinotruk HOWO 371   China Heavy Equipment Transporter
Tata LPTA 1628 6x6   India Used for UN missions.

Artillery edit

RM-70 Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher – Sri Lanka Army
Type Origin Quantity Notes
Rocket artillery
RM-70 Multiple rocket launcher   Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 22[67]
CRD 122mm Multiple rocket launcher   Sri Lanka N/A Locally produced by Centre for Research and Development (CRD) of the Ministry of Defence.[77]
Towed artillery
Type 56 85 mm field gun   China N/A[67] 85 mm field gun
Type 66 152 mm gun-howitzer 40[67] 152 mm gun-howitzer
Type 59 130mm field gun 40[67] 130 mm field gun
Type 60 122mm howitzer 74[67] 122 mm howitzer
Ordnance QF 25 pounder   United Kingdom N/A Field guns – ceremonial gun troop
76 mm mountain gun M48   Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia N/A
M-43   Soviet Union 55[67] 160 mm heavy mortar
Type 86 (W86)   China 55 120 mm towed mortar
Type 84 (W84) N/A 82 mm mortar
Type 89 (W89) N/A 60 mm light mortar
Weapon locating radar
AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder Radar   United States N/A Weapon locating and counter-battery radar
SLC-2 Radar   China N/A

Special Vehicles edit

Type Origin Quantity Notes
BJ2022   China 10[78] Field Communication Vehicle

Infantry weapons edit

Handguns Country of manufacture
M9   Italy
Glock 17   Austria
Glock 19   Austria
CZ 75   Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Assault rifles, Battle rifles and Carbines
Type 56 (ceremonial use only)[79]   China
Type 56-2   China
Type 81 assault rifles[80]   China
M16   US
M4 Carbine   US
SAR-21   Singapore
QBZ-95   China
SAR-80 (Retd)[79]   Singapore
FN FNC (Retd)   Belgium
G3 (Retd)   West Germany
Sub-machine guns
MP5 (MP5A3, MP5SD6, MP5KA5)   West Germany
Uzi submachine guns[79]   Israel
Taurus SMT-9   Brazil
Sniper rifles Country of manufacture
Accuracy International L96A1[81]   UK
Heckler & Koch PSG1 sniper rifles   West Germany
Machine guns
Type 80[82]   China
FN Minimi[79]   Belgium
FN MAG[79]   Belgium
M240 machine gun   US
HK21 Belt-fed light machine gun[83]   West Germany
Grenade launchers
Milkor MGL grenade launcher[79]   South Africa
HK 69 breech-loading grenade launcher[79]   West Germany
M203 grenade launcher[79]   US
STK 40 AGL automatic grenade launcher[79]   Singapore
Rocket launchers
M72 LAW   US
RPO-A Shmel man-portable rocket launcher   Soviet Union
Type 12 RPG rocket launchers[40]   China
IMI Shipon shoulder-launched rocket system   Israel
Anti-tank weapons
HJ-8 Anti-tank guided missile   China
Carl Gustaf 8.4cm recoilless rifle   Sweden

Welfare edit

Sri Lanka Army Seva Vanitha Unit edit

Sri Lanka Army Seva Vanitha Unit President with the presidents of Regimental Branches

Inaugurated on 12 July 1984,[84] Sri Lanka Army Seva Vanitha Unit[85] functions with the main objective of providing welfare facilities to the next of kin of war heroes who have sacrificed their lives, gone missing in action or injured whilst defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of their motherland while also empowering the families of the serving Army personnel. Traditionally the organization functions under the leadership of the wife of the serving Commander of the Army, and the members are the spouses of Army Officers as well as Lady Officers. The organization extends to 22 Regimental branches[86][84] functioning under the patronage of the wives of the respective Regimental Commanders.

Sri Lanka Army Seva Vanitha Unit conducts various welfare projects such as Viru Kekulu pre-schools, day care centres, welfare shops, bakeries and salons,[87] with the committed contribution of the dedicated membership. Construction of houses, giving away of educational scholarships and assisting in times of natural disasters, are done at both organizational and Regimental levels. The volunteer service extended by the spouses of the Army Officers whilst multitasking at their roles as wives, mothers and professionals, is an immense strength to Sri Lanka Army.[87]

Gallery edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • Army, Sri Lanka. (1st Edition – October 1999). Sri Lanka army: 50 years on, 1949–1999 ISBN 978-955-8089-02-6

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External links edit