2024 Indian general election

General elections were held in India from 19 April to 1 June 2024 in seven phases, to elect all 543 members of the Lok Sabha.[a] Votes were counted and the result was declared on 4 June to form the 18th Lok Sabha.[3][4] On 7 June 2024, Modi confirmed the support of 293 MPs to Droupadi Murmu, the president of India.[5] This marked Modi's third term as prime minister and his first time heading a coalition government,[6] with the Telugu Desam Party of Andhra Pradesh and Janata Dal (United) of Bihar emerging as two main allies.[7][8][9]

2024 Indian general election

← 2019 19 April – 1 June 2024 (2024-04-19 – 2024-06-01) Next →

All 543 seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered968,821,926[1] (Increase 6.24%)
Turnout65.79% (Decrease 1.61 pp)[2]
  First party Second party
 
Official Photograph of Prime Minister Narendra Modi Portrait (crop).png
Mallikarjun Kharge briefing the media after presenting the Interim Railway Budget 2014-15 in New Delhi (cropped).jpg
Leader Narendra Modi Mallikarjun Kharge
Party BJP INC
Alliance NDA INDIA
Leader since 12 September 2013 26 October 2022
Leader's seat Varanasi Karnataka (Rajya Sabha)
Last election 37.36%, 303 seats 19.49%, 52 seats
Seats won 240 99
Seat change Decrease 63 Increase 47
Popular vote 235,973,935 136,759,064
Percentage 36.56% 21.19%
Swing Decrease 0.8 pp Increase 1.7 pp
Alliance seats 293 234
Seat change Decrease 58 New
Alliance percentage 42.5% 40.6%


Prime Minister before election

Narendra Modi
BJP

Prime Minister after election

Narendra Modi
BJP

Seats by constituency (left), Election schedule (right)

More than 968 million people out of a population of 1.4 billion people were eligible to vote, equivalent to 70 percent of the total population.[10][11][12] 642 million voters participated in the election and 312 million of them were women, making it the highest ever participation by women voters.[13][14] This was the largest-ever election, surpassing the previous election, and lasted 44 days, second only to the 1951–52 Indian general election. The legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election, along with the by-elections for 25 constituencies in 12 legislative assemblies.

Incumbent prime minister Narendra Modi, who completed a second term, ran for a third consecutive term after his Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) had enjoyed an absolute majority—a minimum of 272 seats—in the 2019 and 2014 elections. The primary opposition was the Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (INDIA), a coalition formed by the Indian National Congress (INC) and many regional parties in 2023. The election was criticised for lack of action on hate speeches by Modi's BJP,[15] reported electronic voting machine (EVM) malfunctioning,[16][17] and suppression of political opponents of the BJP.[18]

Opinion surveys of mainstream media outlets projected a decisive victory for the BJP and its coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). However, the BJP won 240 seats, down from the 303 seats it had secured in 2019, and lost its singular majority in the Lok Sabha, whereas the overall NDA secured 293 of the house's 543 seats.[19] The INDIA coalition outperformed expectations, securing 234 seats, 99 of which were won by the Congress, garnering the party the official opposition status for the first time in 10 years.[20][21][22] Seven independents and ten candidates from non-aligned parties also won seats in the Lok Sabha.[23][24][25]

Background

Contemporary politics and previous elections

India has a multi-party system with two major parties, namely the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC), that dominate politics at the national level. The BJP has governed the country with Narendra Modi at the helm since 2014. The tenure of the 17th Lok Sabha is scheduled to end on 16 June 2024.[26] The previous general election was held in April–May 2019, after which the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), led by the BJP, formed the union government, with Modi continuing as Prime Minister.[27] The Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance, comprising of 26 opposition parties, was formed in 2023 to contest against the NDA in the elections.[28]

Electoral system

 
Chief Election Commissioner Rajiv Kumar announced the schedule for the elections on 16 March 2024

Article 83 of the Constitution of India requires elections to the Lok Sabha to be held once every five years.[29] The 543 MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting.[30] The 104th amendment to the constitution abolished the two seats that were reserved for the Anglo-Indian community.[31]

Indian citizens who are 18 years or older, ordinary residents of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote (name included in the electoral rolls), possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or equivalent are eligible to vote.[32] People convicted of electoral or other offenses and prisoners, are barred from voting.[33] Indians holding foreign citizenship are not eligible to vote in India. There is no postal or online absentee voting in India; members of the Indian diaspora are required to travel back to their home constituencies in order to cast a ballot.[34]

For the 2024 election, 968 million people were eligible to vote, an increase of about 150 million people from the 2019 election.[35] In Arunachal Pradesh, a polling station will be set up for the only registered voter in the village of Malogam, as electoral laws stipulate that voting booths need to be within two kilometres (1.2 mi) from any settlement.[36][37] A polling station was also set up inside the Gir Forest in Gujarat to cater for a single voter, a priest at a Hindu temple.[38] Polling stations were also set up inside a wildlife sanctuary in Kerala, in a shipping container in Gujarat, and 320 relief camps hosting nearly 59,000 people displaced during violence in Manipur.[39][40]

In March 2024, the Supreme Court of India rejected a petition by the Congress party to end the usage of electronic voting machines (EVMs) and revert to paper ballots and manual counting, which was the system used in elections until the late 1990s, with the party citing risks of electoral fraud.[41] Nearly 5.5 million EVMs were utilized in more than one million polling stations with 15 million election workers and security personnel tasked with managing the conduct of the election.[42]

For the first time, the Election Commission of India allowed voters with disabilities and those over the age of 85 to cast ballots from their homes.[43] In Telangana, voting in some areas was extended by an hour more to allow voters to come at a more convenient time.[44]

Planning

Key processes during a Lok Sabha election involved monitoring campaign expenditure, preventing the circulation of illicit goods, and ensuring adherence to the Model Code of Conduct. In the final 48 hours before voting, campaigns are ceased, and measures are implemented to maintain order and prevent disruptions. On polling day, strict rules are enforced to prevent undue influence and ensure a secure and free election process. After the elections, EVMs are sealed and stored under tight security with Booth Level Officers assisting throughout the process.[45]

Schedule

 
2024 Lok Sabha Election Schedule

The election schedule for the 18th Lok Sabha was announced by the Election Commission of India on 16 March 2024 and with it the Model Code of Conduct came into effect.[46][47][48] The tenure of the 17th Lok Sabha was scheduled to end on 16 June 2024.[49]

Date summary

Poll event Phase
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Notification date 20 March 28 March 12 April 18 April 26 April 29 April 7 May
Last date for filing nomination 27 March 4 April 19 April 25 April 3 May 6 May 14 May
Scrutiny of nomination 28 March 5 April 20 April 26 April 4 May 7 May 15 May
Last date for withdrawal of nomination 30 March 8 April 22 April 29 April 6 May 9 May 17 May
Date of poll 19 April 26 April 7 May 13 May 20 May 25 May 1 June
Date of counting of votes 4 June 2024
No. of constituencies 101+12[b] 87+12[b] 94 96 49 58 57

Seat summary

Phase-wise polling constituencies in each state
State/Union territory Total constituencies Election dates and number of constituencies
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 7
19 April 26 April 7 May 13 May 20 May 25 May 1 June
Andhra Pradesh 25 25
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2
Assam 14 5 5 4
Bihar 40 4 5 5 5 5 8 8
Chhattisgarh 11 1 3 7
Goa 2 2
Gujarat 26 26
Haryana 10 10
Himachal Pradesh 4 4
Jharkhand 14 4 3 4 3
Karnataka 28 14 14
Kerala 20 20
Madhya Pradesh 29 6 6[c] 9[c] 8
Maharashtra 48 5 8 11 11 13
Manipur 2 1+12[b] 12[b]
Meghalaya 2 2
Mizoram 1 1
Nagaland 1 1
Odisha 21 4 5 6 6
Punjab 13 13
Rajasthan 25 12 13
Sikkim 1 1
Tamil Nadu 39 39
Telangana 17 17
Tripura 2 1 1
Uttar Pradesh 80 8 8 10 13 14 14 13
Uttarakhand 5 5
West Bengal 42 3 3 4 8 7 8 9
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1
Chandigarh 1 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 2 2
Delhi 7 7
Jammu and Kashmir 5 1 1 1 1 1[d]
Ladakh 1 1
Lakshadweep 1 1
Puducherry 1 1
Total constituencies 543 101+12 87+12 94 96 49 58 57
Total constituencies by end of phase 101+12 189 284 379 428 486 543
Percentage complete by end of phase 18.7 34.8 52.3 69.8 78.8 89.5 100
  1. ^ Repolling at one booth each in the Barasat and Mathurapur constituencies of West Bengal were held on 3 June due to violence.
  2. ^ a b c d Polling in Outer Manipur constituency in Manipur was scheduled in two phases.[51]
  3. ^ a b Polling in Betul constituency in Madhya Pradesh was rescheduled from 26 April 2024 (Phase 2) to 7 May 2024 (Phase 3) due to death of BSP candidate.[50]
  4. ^ Polling in Anantnag–Rajouri constituency in Jammu and Kashmir was rescheduled from 7 May 2024 (Phase 3) to 25 May 2024 (Phase 6) due to weather conditions.[52]

Parties and alliances

The politics of India became increasingly bipolar in the run-up to the 2024 Indian general elections with two major alliances emerging; the incumbent National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and the opposition Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (INDIA). Six parties recognized as national parties contested the 2024 Indian general elections: the BJP, the INC, Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), National People's Party (NPP) and Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) with all except the BSP being a part of one of the two alliances.[53] Apart from the national parties, regional parties (who are allotted fixed symbols) and other unrecognized parties and independents contested the election.[54]

National Democratic Alliance (NDA)

The NDA is a big tent, mostly centre-right to right-wing political alliance led by the BJP.

Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (INDIA)

INDIA is a big tent, mostly centre-left to left-wing bloc of opposition parties, which came together to contest against the NDA.[57][58]

INDIA parties seat sharing
INDIA parties under regional coalition/outside the alliance

Other notable parties and alliances

BSP leader Mayawati announced that her party will contest the election on its own in most states and ally with other non-BJP, non-Congress parties in a few states.[64] On 11 May 2023, Biju Janata Dal leader and then Chief Minister of Odisha Naveen Patnaik said that his party would go alone for the Lok Sabha polls in Odisha after talks with the BJP fell through.[65]


Candidates

Incumbent Prime Minister Narendra Modi was announced as the prime ministerial candidate of the NDA.[66][67] The INDIA bloc announced that the alliance will decide the Prime Minister after the polls.[68][69]

National Democratic Alliance

 
National Democratic Alliance's seat sharing for the election

The BJP announced its first list of 195 candidates on 2 March 2024[70][71] and the second list of 72 candidates was published in 13 March,[72] while the third list of nine candidates was announced on 21 March.[73] The fourth list of 15 candidates was released on 22 March,[74] followed by the declaration of fifth list of 111 candidates on 24 March. Ultimately, the twentieth list of one candidate was released on 10 May.[75]

For the first time since 1996, the BJP did not field candidates in the Kashmir division, with analysts and opposition politicians attributing it to popular backlash over the BJP government's revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's autonomy enshrined under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution in 2019.[76]

Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance

The Congress released its first list of 39 candidates on 8 March 2024.[77][78] Eventually, the twenty-eighth list of one candidate was announced on 7 May.[79]

The All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) announced its list of 42 candidates for the West Bengal parliamentary seats on 10 March.[80] In the Left Front, the CPI(M) announced its list first list of 44 candidates contesting from 13 different states on 28 March.[81]

Major election issues

Unemployment

The issue of unemployment has been a major problem for the Indian economy, especially affecting the youth.[82][83] Unemployment in India has been at a 45-year old high.[84] According to a 2022 World Bank report, India's youth unemployment rate stood at 23.2%,[85] whereas the national unemployment hovered around 7%.[82] In 2023, 42.3% of graduates were unemployed, showing the lack of job growth needed to accommodate the increasing workforce.[86]

Unemployment took a centre stage in the election campaigns, with the opposition Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance criticising the BJP government's handling of the Indian economy for rising inflation, inequality and unemployment.[87] As a part of its separate youth manifesto, the Congress-led INDIA bloc promised to fill in the 3 million vacancies in government jobs and bring in the "Right to Apprenticeship", in which any diploma and degree holder up to the age of 25 can demand employment for one year and they will get a one-year salary of ₹100,000 for the term of the job.[88]

Ram Mandir consecration ceremony and sectarianism

The BJP prepared a pamphlet for the Ram Mandir Inauguration Programmes to connect with families across the nation. After the consecration of the Ram Mandir in Ayodhya, a new era of Hindu nationalistic sentiments have dominated the political sphere in India.[89][90] Modi kept a long-standing political pledge of the reconstruction of the Ram Mandir and was seen to have fulfilled the BJP's manifesto to the nation's Hindu population.[90] The Hindu nationalist ideology of Modi and the BJP has also garnered substantial support from Hindu community members.[91][92] At the same time, Bollywood productions have been released with themes supporting the Modi government's policies and Hindu nationalist ideologies.[93] In response to such concerns, BJP spokesperson Mmhonlumo Kikon acknowledged the existence of a "level of threat perception", but said that the party was trying to change that.[94]

A major controversy was stirred when the opposition Congress Party and its leaders declined an invitation to the Ram Mandir consecration ceremony, saying that the event was politicised into a 'BJP-RSS event'.[95] Assam chief minister Himanta Biswa Sarma said that the invitation was an opportunity for the Congress to 'reduce its sin', and that history would continue to judge it as 'anti-Hindu'.[96] The four Shankaracharyas also declined attending the event, stating that the ceremony was politicised as a campaign event at the half-built temple.[97][98]

During a campaign rally in Rajasthan on 21 April, Narendra Modi accused the Congress party of prioritizing Muslim access to national wealth and planning to distribute resources among "those who have more children" and "infiltrators" once it was in power, which reflected stereotypes about Muslims reproducing in greater numbers and conspiracy theories pushed by the BJP that Muslims were planning to outnumber Hindus. Congress leader Mallikarjun Kharge called Modi's remarks a panic-filled "hate speech" and a ploy to divert attention from the opposition outperforming the BJP during the first phase of the election, while officials in Rajasthan received complaints from the Azad Adhikar Sena and a non-profit organisation demanding Modi's arrest and for his campaign to be suspended.[99][100]

A complaint letter by the Samvidhan Bacchao Nagrik Abhiyan (Save the Constitution Citizens' Campaign) organisation to the Election Commission of India, signed by over 17,400 people, alleged that Modi had violated the Model Code of Conduct and the Representation of the People Act, 1951 by making a speech "aiming at not only appealing to 'communal feelings' but also instigating and aggravating hatred in the Hindus against Muslims".[101][102]

Electoral Bonds

On 15 February 2024, the Supreme Court of India ruled that the Electoral Bond system of campaign financing that was introduced by the Modi government in 2017 which allowed individuals and companies to donate money to political parties anonymously and without limits was unconstitutional, saying that the process allowed donors to assert "influence over policymaking".[103] On 18 March, the court ordered the State Bank of India (SBI) to provide all records regarding the electoral bonds to the Election Commission of India by 21 March in order to match electoral donors with their recipients and rejected a plea by the Confederation of Indian Industry, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, and the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India from divulging the identities of donors. Initial reports suggest that among the leading donors to political parties were some of India's largest firms such as Vedanta Limited, Bharti Airtel, RPSG Group and Essel Mining. It also found that the BJP was the recipient of nearly half of all recorded donations.[104]

In total, the top five political parties in terms of electoral bonds received are the BJP, which received Rs 6,060.5 crore, the All India Trinamool Congress (TMC), which received Rs 1,609.5 crore, the Congress Party, with Rs 1,421.8 crore, the Bharat Rashtra Samithi (BRS), which received Rs 1,214.7 crore, and the Biju Janata Dal (BJD), which received Rs 775.5 crore.[105][106][107] The biggest buyer of electoral bonds was found to be Santiago Martin, the Tamil Nadu-based head of the lottery firm Future Gaming and Hotel Services Private Limited, who bought bonds worth 13.68 billion rupees ($163 million) between 2020 and 2024 and made donations to the TMC, the BJP, and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), which rules Tamil Nadu. The biggest single donor to any political party was Megha Engineering and Infrastructure Limited (MEIL), a construction firm based in Hyderabad that bought electoral bonds worth over 12 billion rupees ($144 million) between 2019 and 2024 and made donations to the Bharat Rashtra Samithi (BRS), the BJP, and the Congress Party, who alternated in ruling Telangana during that time.[108]

Some politicians from the opposition have termed Electoral Bonds a "scam" and an "extortion racket".[109][110][111] In response to allegations regarding the electoral bonds, BJP spokesperson Syed Zafar Islam denied that the party had done any wrongdoing and said that its electoral bonds were gained "on merit".[108] However, Indian political observers have reached the conclusion that either Indian businessmen have been regularly bribing their way out of trouble, or that the BJP-controlled government has been using government agencies to extort them. From the data released by the SBI, it was found that companies gave donations around the time they received major government contracts. Close to half of the top 30 corporate donors were facing investigations by government agencies around the time they purchased electoral bonds.[112][113][114]

Party campaigns

Bharatiya Janata Party

The national executive meeting of the BJP held on 16 and 17 January 2023 saw the party reaffirm its faith in Prime Minister Narendra Modi and extend the tenure of BJP national president J. P. Nadda.[115]

Charting out the BJP's strategy for the upcoming polls, Modi said in a speech to party workers that they should reach out to every section of society, including the marginalised and minority communities, "without electoral considerations".[116]

Following the 2023 Legislative Assembly elections, Modi debuted the slogan "Modi Ki Guarantee" for the 2024 polls.[117] Another slogan used was Abki Baar 400 Paar (This Time Surpassing 400),[118][119] referring to the party's goal of winning more than 400 out of 543 seats in the Lok Sabha.[120] Having been used by the BJP in previous elections, including the 2019 general election with some changes,[121] election analysts have said that the path for the BJP to achieve this goal will likely be by winning more seats in the south of India than in previous elections.[122]

The party held political rallies in multiple states with national leadership including Modi, BJP President J. P. Nadda and Amit Shah campaigning actively.[123][124][125]

During a campaign rally, Uttar Pradesh chief minister Yogi Adityanath described the election as a contest between "devotees of Ram" and "anti-Ram forces" and urged voters to select the former. Modi also accused the opposition of plotting to raze the Ram Mandir temple once they were in power.[126]

During a campaign rally in Rajasthan on 21 April, Narendra Modi accused the Congress party of prioritizing Muslim access to national wealth and planning to distribute resources among "those who have more children" and "infiltrators" once it was in power, which reflected stereotypes about Muslims reproducing in greater numbers and conspiracy theories pushed by the BJP that Muslims were planning to outnumber Hindus. Congress leader Mallikarjun Kharge called Modi's remarks a panic-filled "hate speech" and a ploy to divert attention from the opposition outperforming the BJP during the first phase of the election, while officials in Rajasthan received complaints from the Azad Adhikar Sena and a non-profit organisation demanding Modi's arrest and for his campaign to be suspended.[99][100] Following Modi's speech, the BJP posted an animated video on its official Instagram account reiterating Modi's claims and showing Rahul Gandhi holding a copy of the Congress Party's election manifesto that morphs into the symbol of the All-India Muslim League. After being flagged by multiple users, the video was taken down less than 24 hours after its publication.[127] A similar video posted on X towards voters in Karnataka was also ordered taken down by the Electoral Commission and led to police opening cases against senior BJP leaders.[128]

A complaint letter by the Samvidhan Bacchao Nagrik Abhiyan (Save the Constitution Citizens' Campaign) organisation to the Election Commission of India, signed by over 17,400 people, alleged that Modi had violated the Model Code of Conduct and the Representation of the People Act, 1951 by making a speech "aiming at not only appealing to 'communal feelings' but also instigating and aggravating hatred in the Hindus against Muslims".[101][102]

On 14 April 2024, the BJP invited foreign diplomats posted in the country as well as 25 overseas political parties including the Conservative and the Labour parties of the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) of Germany and the Awami League of Bangladesh to observe the party's electoral campaign.[129][130] This initiative is part of the "Know BJP" campaign, aimed at external outreach and familiarisation with the election process. As part of this program, BJP president J. P. Nadda met with envoys from 13 countries.[131][132]

Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance

The bloc's first joint rally was held in Patna, Bihar on 3 March 2024. The rally saw, among others, Congress president Mallikarjun Kharge, party leader Rahul Gandhi, Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) chief Lalu Prasad Yadav, former Bihar deputy chief minister Tejashwi Yadav, Samajwadi Party leader Akhilesh Yadav, and senior Left leaders Sitaram Yechury and D. Raja. Kharge attacked Kumar for frequently changing alliances and criticised the BJP for not fulfilling its promise of jobs and neglecting the country's poor and the majority.[133]

The alliance jointly held a rally at Shivaji Park in Mumbai on 17 March, a day after the end of Rahul Gandhi's Bharat Jodo Nyay Yatra. The rally was attended by Gandhi, SS(UBT) president Uddhav Thackeray, NCP(SP) leader Sharad Pawar, RJD leader Tejashwi Yadav, and DMK leader and Tamil Nadu chief minister M. K. Stalin, among many others.[134] At the rally, Gandhi said that he was compelled to launch his yatra due to rising inflation and unemployment in the nation.[135]

A few days after arrest of Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal in connection with the alleged Delhi liquor scam on 22 March,[136] the opposition alliance held a protest rally against the same in Ramlila Maidan, Delhi on 31 March, where opposition leaders alleged the corruption case on him and his subsequent arrest to be a "fabrication with political motives" and a "witch hunt".[137][138][139] At the rally, named "Loktantra Bachao" (Save Democracy), amid current events, the opposition tried to frame the election as being "democracy vs dictatorship".[140]

Indian National Congress

The Congress campaign was launched from Nagpur at a huge rally in which over 1 million people were expected to have attended on 28 December 2023.[141] This rally also marked the 138th Congress Foundation Day and was being held to energise party cadres for the 2024 general election.[142] Party workers from all over the state were called to join the rally.[142][143]

 
Bharat Jodo Nyay Yatra logo & slogan

On 14 January, the party launched its Bharat Jodo Nyay Yatra,[144] a sequel to the Bharat Jodo Yatra held the previous year.[145] The yatra started in Thoubal, Manipur and ended in Mumbai on 16 March 2024.[144] It covered 6,713 kilometres (4,171 miles) across 14 states.[146]

 
Attendees display banners at the gathering

Rahul Gandhi warned that the whole of India will be on fire if the BJP wins the 2024 parliamentary elections and changes the Constitution, during an address at Delhi's Ramlila Maidan.[147][148][149][150]

Crowdfunding

The Congress started a crowdfunding campaign known as Donate for Desh (Donate for the Country) ahead of the general elections. It formally launched the campaign's digital version on 18 December 2023 at a dedicated website. It claimed to be inspired from Mahatma Gandhi's Tilak Swaraj Fund (1920–21). The physical version of the campaign, which be done via door-to-door collection drives, was launched on 28 December.[151][152]

The campaign received 1.45 crore (US$170,000) on its first day, with the top five states in amount of donations being Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and Karnataka.[153]

By the end of 2023, the campaign received around 9 crore (US$1.1 million), with 30% of the funds being collected from Telangana and Maharashtra alone.[154]

The campaign had collected about 20 crore (US$2.4 million) according to the party when on 28 January, it rebranded its crowdfunding campaign to Donate for Nyay (Donate for Justice), in line with Rahul Gandhi's ongoing Bharat Jodo Nyay Yatra.[155] The ensuing crowdfunding campaign collected four crores[convert: needs a number] in 4 days.[156]

Funding issues

On 16 February 2024, the Congress Party alleged that the Income Tax Department (IT) ordered the freezing of bank accounts by the Congress Party containing 2.1 billion rupees ($25.3 million) as part of an ongoing legal dispute.[157] The Congress Party's treasurer Ajay Maken later added that tax authorities imposed a 2.1-billion rupee ($25 million) lien on 13 February, "virtually sealed" its bank accounts and confiscated 1.1 billion rupees ($14 million). The party's leader Rahul Gandhi complained that the restrictions had rendered the party unable to campaign properly, adding that "Our entire financial identity has been erased." Gandhi also accused Modi and Home Minister Amit Shah of conducting a "criminal action" against the party, which the BJP denied. His mother and former Congress leader Sonia Gandhi also alleged that the tax issues are "part of the systemic efforts to cripple" the party. An appeal is currently pending in the Supreme Court.[158]

According to the IT Department's official sources, it has recovered 135 crore[convert: needs a number] from the Congress for breaking the legislation exempting political parties from paying taxes, rather than freezing the party's bank accounts as the opposition party had claimed.[159] The party received notices from the IT department again on 29 March asking it to pay 1,823.08 crore (US$218 million). The Congress accused the BJP of engaging in "tax terrorism" and alleged that the BJP is in serious violation of income-tax laws and that the IT department should raise a demand of 4,617.58 crore (US$553 million) crore[convert: needs a number] from the BJP for such violations.[160]

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) began their election campaign in Kerala after announcing 15 candidates in the state.[161]

Rashtriya Janata Dal

The Rashtriya Janata Dal began its campaign with its Jan Vishwas Yatra ("People's Trust Yatra") on 20 February 2024. RJD leader Tejashwi Yadav launched the yatra from Muzaffarpur in Bihar. The yatra lasted until 1 March 2024 and covered 33 districts.[162][163] In Siwan on 23 February, Yadav termed the BJP "a dustbin" which takes in other parties that have become "garbage".[164][165]

Aam Aadmi Party

The election period also coincided with investigations by authorities into state officials belonging to opposition parties, such as Delhi Chief Minister and Aam Aadmi Party leader Arvind Kejriwal, who is under investigation for alleged corruption in the allocation of liquor licences, and Jharkhand Chief Minister Hemant Soren, who was arrested in February 2024 for allegedly facilitating an illegal land sale. The Enforcement Directorate is also investigating four chief ministers not allied with the BJP on various charges, while investigations have been closed on former opposition politicians who have since joined the BJP. Hartosh Singh Bal, a journalist for the current affairs magazine The Caravan told Agence France-Presse that the move by government agencies indicated their behavior as "handmaidens of the ruling party to cow down the political opposition".[157]

Following Kejriwal's arrest on 21 March over the liquor license scam charges, Delhi's finance minister Atishi Marlena Singh accused the BJP of orchestrating a "political conspiracy" against Kejriwal.[166] His arrest also led to clashes between party leaders, supporters and the police on 22 March.[167] Rahul Gandhi, reacting to Kejriwal's arrest, said that a "scared dictator" wants to create a "dead democracy", without naming anyone.[168] After he was released on bail and allowed to vote, Kejriwal urged citizens to vote "vote against dictatorship".[169] He then returned to prison as part of his bail conditions.[170]

The BJP-led government has been known to use Enforcement Directorate raids to target opposition politicians critical of it, with 95% of cases registered being against opposition leaders.[171][172][173] Since 2014, 25 opposition leaders facing corruption charges have joined the BJP, with 23 of them having their inquiries closed or frozen after joining the ruling party.[174] This has led the Congress Party to compare the trend to a "washing machine" in one of its campaign videos.[127]

Shiv Sena

After an intraparty dispute that led to the splitting of the Shiv Sena party based in Maharashtra, the Supreme Court of India barred the Shiv Sena (UBT) faction which joined the I.N.D.I.A. alliance from using the party's historic bow-and-arrow symbol as its electoral symbol in balloting and awarded it instead to the Balasahebanchi Shiv Sena wing which joined the NDA. This led the UBT faction to adopt a torch as its electoral symbol.[175]

Party manifestos

Bharatiya Janata Party

The BJP proposed a 'GYAN' formula consisting of four segments – Garib (poor), Yuva (youth), Annadata (farmers) and Nari (women) in its manifesto.[176] The Bharatiya Janata Party started a campaign to gather public recommendations and suggestions for the advancement of the State and the country, which will be incorporated into the party's manifesto titled 'Modi ki guarantee' for the 2024 general elections.[177][178][179][180][181][182][183]

  • Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam: In order to assure women's representation in the legislatures of the states and the national leadership, the BJP pledged to systematically implement the Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam.
  • Lakhpati Didi: 30,000,000 rural women are being empowered to become "Lakhpati Didis".
  • Free ration: Under the PM Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana, the BJP announced that it would give 800,000,000 citizens free rations for the next five years.
  • Increasing MSP: on crops on a periodic basis was pledged in the manifesto. 6,000 rupees in annual financial support under the PM Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana.
  • Free electricity: The PM Surya Ghar Muft Bijli Yojana's free power for low-income homes was another pledge in the manifesto.
  • 3 Crore house: In the PM Housing Scheme, the BJP manifesto pledges to build 30,000,000 houses, people with disabilities will now be given priority, and care will be taken to make sure they are housed in accordance with their unique requirements.
  • For youngsters: BJP pledge to enact laws to stop the leak of competitive test question papers. Increase the startup ecosystem's reach to encourage youth entrepreneurship. Expanding job prospects in the manufacturing sector. Creating jobs through the development of infrastructure. Creating jobs through growing the tourism industry.
  • For truck drivers: Construction of modern buildings with facilities which allows truck drivers to rest, park, and have access to clean drinking water and food on all national highways.
  • One Nation, One Election: In its manifesto, or Sankalp Patra, the BJP includes "One Nation, One Election," for the general elections. This implies that simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and all the state assemblies may take place in 2029.[184]
  • Uniform Civil Code: The manifesto includes the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code (UCC).[185]
  • Free Ayushman for all senior citizens: Under the Ayushman Bharat Yojana, all senior citizens would be eligible for free, high-quality healthcare up to Rs 5 Lakhs.
  • US$5 trillion economy: The BJP pledges to increase India's GDP to US$5 trillion by 2025 and $10 trillion by 2032. The Ministry of Finance has predicted that India's economy will rank third overall in the world.[186][187] Earlier in 2018 and then again in 2019, Modi had stated the goal of the country reaching a GDP of US$5 trillion by 2022 and 2024 respectively, which went unrealized.[188][189]
  • United Nations Security Council: committed to securing India's UN Security Council permanent membership.
  • Crack down on terrorism: Initiatives to create partnership to eliminate global terror and crack down on terror funding.
  • Left wing extremism: Fighting Left-Wing Extremism by promoting growth and utilizing a variety of approaches.
  • Third-largest economic power: India will rank as the country with the third-largest GDP. India's rank rose from the 11th to the 5th largest GDP in the last ten years.
  • Man on Moon and Bharatiya Antariksha Station: to establish a permanent Bharatiya Antariksha Station and send a man to the moon.

Indian National Congress

The Congress released their group-specific manifesto promises for the general election in the month of March.[190] The manifesto focuses on five major segments of the population and promises them:

  • Youth Manifesto: formal employment for a year to under 25 graduate students, filling of 3,000,000 government job vacancies, transparency in government job recruitment, ₹5,000 crore (US$605,000) fund for startups, standardisation of the government recruitment exam process, and social security for gig workers.[191][192][193]
  • Women Manifesto: ₹100,000 in financial assistance to women from poor families, 50% of new government job recruitments to women, double central government's contribution to the salary of anganwadi, ASHA, and midday meal workers, legal assistance in every panchayat, and at least one hostel for working women in district headquarters.[194][195]
  • Farmers Manifesto: legal guarantee on MSP for farmers, waiving off of farmers' loans, an import-export policy favourable to them, removal of GST from agricultural commodities, and payments directly into farmers' bank accounts within 30 days in case of crop loss.[196]
  • Labourers Manifesto: Universal healthcare coverage for workers, increasing national minimum wage to ₹400 (US$4.8) per day from the current ₹172 (US$2.1) per day, an urban employment guarantee law similar to MGNREGA in the rural areas, life and accident insurance for informal sector workers.[197][198]
  • Caste census: The Congress party declared that, if it wins the election, it will conduct a comprehensive census called to survey the population, socio-economic conditions, and representation in governance institutions. It also promised to bring in legislation to eliminate the 50% cap on reservations for SC, ST, and backward classes and to protect tribal forest rights.[199] Rahul Gandhi's call for "jitni abadi, utna haq" (distribution of public resources proportionate to the population) and the combined demands of the opposition parties (SP, RJD, and Congress) for a caste census.[200]

The complete manifesto titled Nyay Patra (Hindi: न्याय पत्र, lit.'Justice Paper') was released on 5 April 2024.[201][202] Some noticeable points in the manifesto include (apart from above promises released earlier) the:

  • Introduction of a law to recognize civil unions between couples belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community.
  • Implementation of the Rajasthan Model of cashless insurance up to 2,500,000 for universal healthcare.
  • Prohibitions on dumping of effluents into water bodies across India.
  • Increasing of forest cover as India has lost the second – highest forest cover after Brazil between 2015 and 2020.
  • Establishment of community sports centers at every block and municipality level as well as multi – sport center at every district level.
  • Establishment of government medical colleges – cum – hospitals in all districts of India.
  • Abolition of the Agnipath Scheme and a return to the normal recruitment processes followed by the Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • Waiving of student education loans as a one – time measure outstanding as of 15 March 2024.
  • Provision of one day in a week to discuss the agenda suggested by the opposition benches in each House of Parliament.
  • Non – intervention with personal choices of food and dress, to love and marry, and to travel and reside in any part of India. All laws and rules that interfere unreasonably with personal freedoms will be repealed.
  • Decriminalisation of the offence of defamation and provide, by law, a speedy remedy by way of civil damages.
  • Rejection of the 'One Nation One Election' idea.
  • Establishment of a National Judicial Commission (NJC) responsible for the selection and appointment of judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court.
  • Amending of the Constitution to create two divisions in the Supreme Court: a Constitutional Court and a Court of Appeal. The Constitutional Court consisting of the seven most senior judges will hear and decide cases involving the interpretation of the Constitution and other cases of legal significance or national importance. The Court of Appeal will be the final court of appeal that will, sitting in Benches of three judges each, hear appeals from the High Court and National Tribunals.
  • Elimination of the "Angel tax" and all other exploitative tax schemes that inhibit investment in new micro, small companies and innovative start-ups.


Misinformation

Narendra Modi, on 21 April during an election campaign rally in Rajasthan, falsely claimed that former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh once said "Muslims have the first right on the country's resources". However, Singh's speech also mentioned backward communities, including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, Other Backward Classes, women, children, and minorities.[203] Modi falsely claimed that Rahul Gandhi had not named Gautam Adani and Mukesh Ambani throughout the elections. Gandhi had mentioned Adani and Ambani about 25 times.[204]

An alleged doctored video of BJP leader Amit Shah’s speech regarding reservations in Telangana on April 23 was posted by Telangana Congress on their social media platform X (formerly Twitter), where Amit Shah was wrongly shown to be announcing the curtailment of reservations granted to the SC, ST, & OBC communities.[205] Amit Shah accused the opposition of tampering with his video, leading to the registration of an FIR and a summons being issued to Telangana's Chief Minister Revanth Reddy.[206] The police arrested two people, one from the Congress party, and another from the opposition Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) in connection with Shah's case.[207] The arrested Congress worker was associated with the its social media unit, and was alleged to have created Shah's fake video.[208] [209] The Congress Party denied the involvement of its worker in this case.[210]

In April 2024, BBC reported that AI and deepfake videos were allegedly used by both the BJP and the opposition parties in the 2024 elections.[211] In June 2024, Time noted throughout the elections, associates and supporters of the BJP circulated fake news in order to discredit its opponents and spread hatred against religious minorities.[212]

Surveys and polls

Opinion polls

 
Vote share projections
Vote share projections
Polling agency Date published Sample size Margin of error Lead
NDA INDIA Others
ABP News-CVoter April 2024[213] 57,566 ±3–5% 46.6 39.8 13.6 6.8
News 18 March 2024[214] 118,616 ±4% 48 32 20 16
ABP News-CVoter March 2024[215] 41,762[216] ±5% 46 39 15 7
Times Now-ETG March 2024[217] 323,357[218] ±3% 52 42 6 10
Zee News-Matrize February 2024[219] 167,843 ±2% 43.6 27.7 24.9 15.9
India Today-CVoter February 2024[220] 149,092[221] ±3–5% 45 38 17 8
Times Now-ETG February 2024[222] 156,843[223] ±2% 41.8 28.6 29.6 13.2
ABP News-CVoter December 2023[224] 200,000 ±3–5% 42 38 20 4
Times Now-ETG December 2023[225][226] 147,231[227] ±3% 44 39 17 5
India TV-CNX October 2023[228][229] 54,250 ±3% 43.4 39.1 17.5 4.3
Times Now-ETG October 2023[230] 135,100[231] ±3% 42.6 40.2 17.2 2.4
August 2023[232][233] 110,662[234] ±3% 42.6 40.2 17.2 2.4
India Today-CVoter August 2023[235] 160,438 ±3–5% 43 41 16 2
Formation of the big-tent INDIA opposition bloc
India Today-CVoter January 2023[236] 140,917 ±3–5% 43 30 27 13
2019 election results 45.3% 27.5% 27.2% NDA
Seat projections
Polling agency Date published Sample size Margin of error Lead
NDA INDIA Others
2024 election results 293 234 16 NDA
TV9 Bharatvarsh -People's Insight- Polstrat April 2024[237] 2,500,000 3% 362 149 32 NDA
ABP News-CVoter April 2024[213] 57,566 ±3–5% 373 155 15 NDA
Times Now-ETG April 2024[238] 271,292[239] ±3% 384 118 41 NDA
News18 March 2024[240] 118,616[241] ±4% 411 105 27 NDA
ABP News-CVoter March 2024[242] 41,762 ±5% 366 156 21 NDA
India TV-CNX March 2024[243] 162,900[244] ±3% 378 98 67 NDA
Times Now-ETG March 2024[245] 323,357 ±3% 358–398 110–130 40–50 NDA
Zee News-Matrize February 2024[219] 167,843 ±2% 377 93 73 NDA
India Today-CVoter February 2024[246] 149,092[247] ±3–5% 335 166 42 NDA
Times Now-ETG February 2024[248] 156,843 ±2% 366 104 73 NDA
ABP-CVoter December 2023[224] 200,000 ±3–5% 295–335 165–205 35–65 NDA
Times Now-ETG December 2023[225][226] 147,231 ±3% 319–339 148–168 52–61 NDA
India TV-CNX October 2023[228][229] 54,250 ±3% 315 172 56 NDA
Times Now-ETG October 2023[230] 135,100 ±3% 297–317 165–185 57–65 NDA
August 2023[249][233] 110,662 ±3% 296–326 160–190 56–64 NDA
India Today-CVoter August 2023[235] 160,438 ±3–5% 306 193 54 NDA
Formation of the big-tent INDIA opposition bloc
India Today-CVoter January 2023[250] 140,917 ±3–5% 298 153 92 NDA
2019 election results 353 91 99 NDA

Exit polls

The Election Commission of India banned the publication of all exit polls starting 48 hours before Phase 1 of the election until the end of Phase 7. This was intended to prevent exit polls from earlier phases affecting voter decisions in later phases. The ban ended after the close of Phase 7 voting at 18:30 IST on 1 June 2024.[251]

Polling agency Lead
NDA INDIA Others
2019 election results 353 91 99 81
ABP News-CVoter[252] 368±15 167±15 8±4 96
Agni News Services[253] 242 264 37 HUNG
Dainik Bhaskar[253] 316±34 173±28 41±8 44
DB Live[254] 221±20 275±15 38±10 3
India Today-Axis My India[255] 381±20 148±18 14±6 109
India News-Dynamics[253] 371 125 47 99
India TV-CNX[256] 386±15 134±15 33±5 96
NDTV-Jan Ki Baat[257] 377±15 151±10 15±5 105
News18-CNBC[258] 362±8 132±8 47±5 90
News 24-Today's Chanakya[253] 400±15 107-11 36±9 128
News Nation[253] 360±18 161±8 22±1 88
Republic TV-Matrize[253] 360±8 126±8 30 88
Republic TV-PMarq[253] 359 154 30 87
Times Now-ETG[253] 358 152 33 86
TV9 Bharatvarsh- People's Insight- Polstrat[259] 346 162 35 74
2024 election results 293 234 16 21

Voting

 
Polling officials carrying electronic voting machine (EVMs) and other election related materials for the 5th Phase of the General Elections at Serampore, West Bengal on 19 May 2024.
  • The Phase 1 voting was conducted on 19 April 2024.[260][261] Re-polling in 11 polling stations of Inner Manipur was held on 22 April due to violence.[262][263] Re-polling was conducted for eight polling stations in Arunachal Pradesh on 24 April due to reports of violence and EVM damage.[264][265]
  • The Phase 2 voting was conducted on 26 April 2024.[266][267] Re-polling was conducted on 29 April for a polling station in Chamarajanagar due to violence and EVM damage[268][269] and for six polling stations in Outer Manipur on 30 April due to violence, EVM damage and forced voting allegedly carried out by unidentified armed individuals.[270][271] Re-polling was also conducted for a polling station in Ajmer on 2 May 2024 due to misplaced voters' register.[272][273]
  • The Phase 3 voting was conducted on 7 May 2024. The voter turnout for the third phase of Lok Sabha elections reached 65.68%. In this phase, 17.24 crore (172,400,000) citizens, comprising 8.85 crore (88,500,000) men and 8.39 crore (83,900,000) women, were eligible to cast their votes.[274]
  • The Phase 4 voting was conducted on 13 May 2024, where 96 constituencies voted.[275]
  • The Phase 5 voting was conducted on 20 May 2024, where 49 constituencies voted.[126]
  • The Phase 6 voting was conducted on 25 May 2024, where 58 constituencies voted.[276]
  • The Phase 7 voting was conducted on 1 June 2024, where 57 constituencies voted.[277] Repolling at one booth each in the Barasat and Mathurapur constituencies of West Bengal were held on 3 June due to violence.[278]

Incidents

During Phase 1 of the election, violence broke out outside a polling station in Thamanpokpi in Manipur.[279][280] Clashes between BJP and TMC party workers were reported in the Cooch Behar, Alipurduar and Jalpaiguri constituencies of West Bengal,[281][282] and one Central Reserve Police Force (CPRF) personnel was found dead in a polling booth in Cooch Behar.[283][284] In Chhattisgarh, one CRPF personnel was killed during polling.[285][286] Clashes between VCK and BJP cadres were reported in Chidambaram constituency in Tamil Nadu, where two VCK cadres and one BJP cadre were injured.[287][288]

During Phase 2 of voting, eight voters in Kerala died of heat stroke while voting.[289][290] In Manipur, two CPRF personnel were killed and two more were seriously injured in a militant attack in Bishnupur district,[291][292] a man was killed in a gunfight between two unidentified groups in the Kangpokpi and Imphal East districts,[293][294] and incidents of EVM vandalism, voter intimidation and coercion were reported in two polling stations in Ukhrul.[295][296]

A complaint letter by the Samvidhan Bacchao Nagrik Abhiyan (Save the Constitution Citizens' Campaign) organisation to the Election Commission of India, signed by over 17,400 people, alleged that Modi had violated the Model Code of Conduct and the Representation of the People Act, 1951 by making a speech "aiming at not only appealing to 'communal feelings' but also instigating and aggravating hatred in the Hindus against Muslims".[297][298]

During Phase 6 of voting, Mehbooba Mufti, who is contesting the Anantnag–Rajouri constituency in Jammu and Kashmir for the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party, said several of her party workers were detained by police to prevent them from voting. In West Bengal, TMC workers blocked the car of BJP candidate Agnimitra Paul while she was on her way to vote in the Medinipur constituency.[299] Prashant Jagdev, the BJP candidate for the 2024 Odisha Legislative Assembly election in Begunia, was arrested on suspicion of vandalising an EVM.[300]

During Phase 7 of voting, a mob looted election material from a polling booth and dumped it into a pond in Kultali, Jaynagar in West Bengal. Clashes erupted between BJP and TMC supporters in Sandeshkhali.[301] In Uttar Pradesh, at least 33 election workers, including security and sanitation staff, died of heat stroke, along with a voter waiting in line in Ballia.[302] State election officials subsequently stated that compensation of 1.5 million rupees ($18,000) would be given to the families of the deceased workers.[303] At least ten election related deaths were also reported in Bihar that day.[304] In response to the ongoing heatwave, ECI chief Rajiv Kumar said they had learned a lesson and "should have completed the election at least one month before".[305]

Instances of EVM malfunctioning and removal of candidates belonging to the opposition were reported throughout the elections.[306] On 18 April, the Supreme Court asked the ECI to look into reported EVM malfunctioning in Kerala.[17] 150 EVMs were replaced in Assam after reported malfunctioning.[307] In Varanasi, about 33 nominations challenging Narendra Modi were rejected, of which 8 applicants claimed that the process was rigged in favour of the BJP.[18]

On 4 June, former Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Bhupesh Baghel said there was a discrepancy in EVM numbers while former Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav accused the administration of carrying out arrests of his party workers in order to stop them from counting votes.[308]

Voter turnout

642 million people voted in the election including 312 million women voters, making it the highest ever participation in a single election.[13][14]

Voter turnout:[309][310][311][312]
State/UT Total Voter turnout by phase
Phase 1

19 April

Phase 2

26 April

Phase 3[313]

7 May

Phase 4

13 May

Phase 5

20 May

Phase 6

25 May

Phase 7

1 June

Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%)
Andhra Pradesh 25 81.86    –  –  –  –  –  – 25 81.86  –  –  –  –  –  –
Arunachal Pradesh 2 77.68   2 77.68  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Assam 14 81.62   5 78.25 5 81.17 4 85.45  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Bihar 40 56.19   4 49.26 5 59.45 5 59.14 5 58.21 5 56.76 8 57.18 8 53.29
Chhattisgarh 11 72.17   1 68.29 3 76.24 7 71.98  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Goa 2 76.06    –  –  –  – 2 76.06  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Gujarat 26 60.13    –  –  –  – 25 60.13  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Haryana 10 64.80    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 10 64.80  –  –
Himachal Pradesh 4 70.90    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 4 70.90
Jharkhand 14 66.19    –  –  –  –  –  – 4 66.01 3 63.21 4 65.39 3 70.88
Karnataka 28 70.64    –  – 14 69.56 14 71.84  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Kerala 20 71.27    –  – 20 71.27  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Madhya Pradesh 29 66.87   6 67.75 6 58.59 9 66.74 8 72.05  –  –  –  –  –  –
Maharashtra 48 61.29   5 63.71 8 62.71 11 63.55 11 62.21 13 56.89  –  –  –  –
Manipur 2 80.47   1+12 76.10 12 84.85  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Meghalaya 2 76.60   2 76.60  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Mizoram 1 56.87   1 56.87  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Nagaland 1 57.72   1 57.72  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Odisha 21 74.51    –  –  –  –  –  – 4 75.68 5 73.50 6 74.45 6 74.41
Punjab 13 62.80    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 13 62.80
Rajasthan 25 61.34   12 57.65 13 65.03  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Sikkim 1 79.88   1 79.88  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tamil Nadu 39 69.72   39 69.72  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Telangana 17 65.67    –  –  –  –  –  – 17 65.67  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tripura 2 80.92   1 81.48 1 80.36  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Uttar Pradesh 80 56.92   8 61.11 8 55.19 10 57.55 13 58.22 14 58.02 14 54.04 13 55.85
Uttarakhand 5 57.22   5 57.22  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
West Bengal 42 79.29   3 81.91 3 76.58 4 77.53 8 80.22 7 78.45 8 82.71 9 76.80
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 64.10   1 64.10  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Chandigarh 1 67.98    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 1 67.98
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 2 71.31    –  –  –  – 2 71.31  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Delhi 7 58.69    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 7 58.69  –  –
Jammu and Kashmir 5 58.58   1 68.27 1 72.22  –  – 1 38.49 1 59.10 1 55.40  –  –
Ladakh 1 71.82    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 1 71.82  –  –  –  –
Lakshadweep 1 84.16   1 84.16  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Puducherry 1 78.90   1 78.90  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Total 543 66.33   101+12 66.14 87+12 66.71 93 65.68 96 69.16 49 62.20 58 63.37 57 63.88

Results

Seat share of parties in the election

  BJP (44.20%)
  INC (18.24%)
  SP (6.82%)
  AITC (5.35%)
  DMK (4.06%)
  TDP (2.21%)
  JD(U) (2.95%)
  SS(UBT) (1.66%)
  NCP(SP) (1.48%)
  SS (1.29%)
  Other (11.74%)

Vote share of parties in the election

  BJP (36.56%)
  INC (21.96%)
  SP (4.58%)
  AITC (4.37%)
  YSRCP (2.06%)
  BSP (2.04%)
  TDP (1.98%)
  DMK (1.82%)
  CPI(M) (1.76%)
  RJD (1.57%)
  Other (21.3%)

Following the first round, the BJP won its first seat after Mukesh Dalal, its candidate for Surat constituency in Gujarat, was elected unopposed following rejection and withdrawal of other candidates.[314][315] No voting was held in the constituency, as the ECI had certified the results two weeks prior due to the absence of rival candidates.[316]

The overall election result was described in several media sources as a "shock" to Narendra Modi,[317][318] with the BJP falling short of its expectations of winning 400 seats.[319] Though pre-poll predictions were for an overwhelming majority for the BJP, the INDIA bloc performed much better than exit polls had predicted it to,[320] with upset victories in major states such as Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal.[321] The BJP had to rely on the 28 cumulative seats won by the Andhra Pradesh-based Telugu Desam Party led by Chandrababu Naidu and the Bihar-based Janata Dal (United) led by Nitish Kumar in order for the NDA to retain its majority in the Lok Sabha.[322][323][324]

By alliance and party

 
Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
NDABharatiya Janata Party[325]235,973,935240–63
Telugu Desam Party12,775,27016+13
Janata Dal (United)8,039,66312–4
Shiv Sena7,401,4477–11
Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas)2,810,2505+5
Janata Dal (Secular)2,173,7012+1
Jana Sena Party1,454,1382+2
Rashtriya Lok Dal893,4602+2
All Jharkhand Students Union458,67710
Nationalist Congress Party2,059,1791–4
United People's Party Liberal488,9951+1
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha164,3961+1
Apna Dal (Soneylal)808,2451–1
Asom Gana Parishad1,298,7071+1
Hindustani Awam Morcha494,9601+1
Pattali Makkal Katchi1,879,68900
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena505,75300
Tamil Maanila Congress410,40100
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazhagam521,78700
National People's Party417,9300–1
Naga People's Front299,5360–1
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party350,9670–1
Rashtriya Lok Morcha253,87600
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha467,28200
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party340,18800
Independents342,8820–1
Total293–60
INDIAIndian National Congress136,759,06499+47
Samajwadi Party29,549,38137+32
All India Trinamool Congress28,213,39329+7
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam11,754,71022–2
Communist Party of India (Marxist)11,342,5534+1
Rashtriya Janata Dal10,107,4024+4
Shiv Sena (Uddhav Balasaheb Thackeray)9,567,7799+9
Aam Aadmi Party7,147,8003+2
Nationalist Congress Party (Sharadchandra Pawar) NCPSP5,921,1628+8
Communist Party of India3,157,18420
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha2,652,9553+2
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation1,736,7712+2
Indian Union Muslim League1,716,18630
Jammu and Kashmir National Conference1,147,0412–1
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi990,2372+1
Bharat Adivasi Party1,257,0561+1
Kerala Congress364,63110
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam542,2131+1
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party RLTP596,95510
Revolutionary Socialist Party587,36310
All India Forward Bloc289,94100
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party435,98000
Vikassheel Insaan Party1,187,45500
Assam Jatiya Parishad414,44100
Kerala Congress (Mani)277,36500
Total234+143
YSR Congress Party YSRCP13,316,0394–18
Shiromani Akali Dal SAD1,814,3181–1
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen AIMIM1,400,2151–1
Zoram People's Movement ZPM208,5521+1
Azad Samaj Party (Kanshi Ram) ASPKR691,8201+1
Voice of the People Party571,0781+1
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam ADMK8,952,5870–1
Bahujan Samaj Party13,153,8180–10
Karnataka Rashtra Samithi51,52900
Biju Janata Dal BJD9,413,3790–12
Uttama Prajaakeeya Party40,49100
Bharat Rashtra Samithi BHRS3,657,2370–9
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar)521,74900
Indian National Lok Dal226,97500
Jannayak Janta Party113,82700
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam1,128,61600
Gondwana Ganatantra Party00
All India United Democratic Front AIUDF625,9540–1
Revolutionary Goans Party64,57800
Sikkim Democratic Front77,17100
Bodoland People's Front777,57000
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party350,9670–1
Mizo National Front140,2640–1
United Democratic Party (Meghalaya)44,56300
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party (Bhim)23,26800
Other parties0–2
Independents7–1
None of the above6,372,220
Total5430
Valid votes638,934,79999.00
Invalid/blank votes6,428,6461.00
Total votes645,363,445100.00
Registered voters/turnout968,821,92666.61
Source: ECI

Results by Region

Region Seats
NDA INDIA Others
North India 151 83 72 6
West India 78 45 31 2
Central India 40 39 1 0
East India 118 72 45 1
Northeast India 25 16 7 2
South India 131 49 77 5
Total 543 293 234 16

By state or union territory

State/Union Territory Seats
NDA INDIA Others
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1 0 0
Andhra Pradesh 25 21 0 4
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2 0 0
Assam 14 11 3 0
Bihar 40 30 9 1
Chandigarh 1 0 1 0
Chhattisgarh 11 10 1 0
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 2 1 0 1
Delhi 7 7 0 0
Goa 2 1 1 0
Gujarat 26 25 1 0
Haryana 10 5 5 0
Himachal Pradesh 4 4 0 0
Jammu and Kashmir 5 2 2 1
Jharkhand 14 9 5 0
Karnataka 28 19 9 0
Kerala 20 1 19 0
Ladakh 1 0 0 1
Lakshadweep 1 0 1 0
Madhya Pradesh 29 29 0 0
Maharashtra 48 17 30 1
Manipur 2 0 2 0
Meghalaya 2 0 1 1
Mizoram 1 0 0 1
Nagaland 1 0 1 0
Odisha 21 20 1 0
Puducherry 1 0 1 0
Punjab 13 0 10 3
Rajasthan 25 14 11 0
Sikkim 1 1 0 0
Tamil Nadu 39 0 39 0
Telangana 17 8 8 1
Tripura 2 2 0 0
Uttar Pradesh 80 36 43 1
Uttarakhand 5 5 0 0
West Bengal 42 12 30 0
Total 543 293 234 16

Aftermath

Reactions

National

Narendra Modi called the NDA's lead "a historical feat in India's history", while Congress party president Mallikarjun Kharge said the election was a "moral and political loss" for Modi and a "win for democracy" and the public.[326] In a speech to his supporters on 4 June, Modi said that the NDA would form a third consecutive government.[327] Following a meeting with other members of the NDA on 5 June, Modi was formally endorsed to become prime minister again.[328] On 7 June, he was selected as leader of the NDA[329] and was inaugurated as prime minister on 9 June.[330] On 10 June, Modi unveiled his 71-member cabinet, of which the BJP took 61 portfolios, including foreign affairs, home affairs, finance and defence, while the Telugu Desam Party and Janata Dal (United) took two ministries each, with the rest going to other members of the NDA.[331]

Sangli independent MP Vishal Patil, who is a primary member of the Congress party, extended support to it after the election, in effect increasing the opposition alliance tally to 235.[332][333][334] On 8 June, the leadership of the Congress Party unanimously nominated Rahul Gandhi to become Leader of the Opposition, a position which had been vacant since 2014.[335]

International

Leaders and officials of Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, China, Comoros, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Eswatini, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, the Maldives, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Moldova, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor Leste, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia congratulated Modi on the victory.[336][337][338][339][340][341][342][343]

Stock markets

The benchmark BSE Sensex and Nifty50 indices hit intraday record highs and the Indian rupee strengthened after the exit polls were released. However, on the day results were announced, Indian stock markets crashed.[344] Rahul Gandhi subsequently called for an investigation, saying that Modi, Amit Shah and finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman had misled investors into buying stocks before the release of the election results on 4 June in anticipation of a landslide victory by the BJP.[345]

See also

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