Cat's Cradle is a satirical postmodern novel, with science fiction elements, by American writer Kurt Vonnegut. Vonnegut's fourth novel, it was first published in 1963, exploring and satirizing issues of science, technology, the purpose of religion, and the arms race, often through the use of black humor. After turning down his original thesis in 1947, the University of Chicago awarded Vonnegut his master's degree in anthropology in 1971 for Cat's Cradle.
First edition hardback cover
|Original title||Cat's Cradle|
|Publisher||Holt, Rinehart and Winston|
|Media type||Print (hardcover and paperback)|
|Preceded by||Mother Night|
|Followed by||God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater|
The first-person everyman narrator, a professional writer introducing himself as Jonah (but apparently named John), frames the plot as a flashback. Set in the mid-20th century, the plot revolves around a time when he was planning to write a book called The Day the World Ended about what important Americans did on the day of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Throughout, he also intersperses meaningful as well as sarcastic passages and sentiments from an odd religious scripture known as The Books of Bokonon. The events of the novel evidently occur before the narrator was converted to his current religion, Bokononism.
While researching for his upcoming book, the narrator travels to Ilium, New York, the hometown of the late Felix Hoenikker, a co-creator of the atomic bomb and Nobel laureate physicist, to interview Hoenikker's children, coworkers, and other acquaintances. There, he learns of a substance called ice-nine, created for military use by Hoenikker and now likely in the possession of his three adult children. Ice-nine is an alternative structure of water that is solid at room temperature and becomes a seed crystal in contact with any liquid water, causing that liquid water to instantly transform into more ice-nine. Among some odd unfoldings in Ilium, the narrator meets Hoenniker's younger son, a dwarf named Newt, who recounts that his father was doing nothing more than playing the string game "cat's cradle" when the first bomb was dropped.
Eventually, a magazine assignment takes the narrator to the (fictional) Caribbean island of San Lorenzo, one of the poorest countries on Earth. On the plane ride, the narrator is surprised to see Newt and also meets the newly appointed US ambassador to San Lorenzo, who provides a comprehensive guidebook on San Lorenzo's unusual culture and history. The guidebook describes a locally influential semi-parody religious movement called Bokononism, which combines irreverent, nihilistic, and cynical observations about life and God's will; an emphasis on coincidences and serendipity; and both thoughtful and humorous sayings and rituals into a holy text called The Books of Bokonon. Bokonon, the religion's founder, was a former leader of the island who created Bokononism as part of a utopian project to give people purpose and community in the face of the island's unsolvable poverty and squalor. As a deliberate attempt to give Bokononism an alluring sense of forbidden glamor, the religion is nominally outlawed (forcing Bokonon to live in hiding in the jungle) by the nominally-Christian government of its dictator, "Papa" Monzano, who threatens all opposition with impalement on a large hook. Intrigued by Bokononism, the narrator later deduces the strange reality that nearly all residents of San Lorenzo, even including "Papa" Monzano, practice it in secret, and so religious persecution by the hook is actually rare.
On San Lorenzo, the plane passengers are greeted by "Papa" Monzano; his beautiful adopted daughter Mona, who the narrator intensely lusts after; and a crowd of some five thousand San Lorenzans. Monzano is ill from cancer and wants his successor to be Frank Hoenikker: Monzano's personal bodyguard and, coincidentally, Felix Hoenikker's other son. However, Frank, uncomfortable with leading, confronts the narrator in private and somewhat randomly offers him the presidency. Startled at first, the narrator only grudgingly accepts after he is promised the beautiful Mona for his bride. Newt reiterates the idea of the cat's cradle, implying that the game, with its invisible cat, is an appropriate symbol for nonsense and the meaninglessness of life. Soon after, the bedridden "Papa" Monzano commits suicide by swallowing ice-nine and his corpse instantly turns into solid ice. Frank Hoenikker admits that he once gave Monzano a piece of ice-nine, and the Hoenikkers explain that when they were young their father would give them hints about the existence of ice-nine while experimenting with it in the kitchen. After their father's death, they gathered chunks of the substance into thermos flasks and have kept them ever since.
Festivities for the narrator's presidential inauguration begin, but during an air show performed by San Lorenzo's fighter jets, one of the jets malfunctions and crashes into the seaside palace, causing Monzano's still-frozen body to fall into the sea. Instantly, all the water in the world's seas, rivers, and groundwater transform into solid ice-nine. The freezing of the world's oceans immediately causes violent tornadoes to ravage the Earth, but the narrator manages to escape with Mona to the palace bunker. When the initial storms subside after several days, they emerge. Exploring the island for survivors, they discover a mass grave where all the surviving San Lorenzans committed suicide by touching ice-nine from the landscape to their mouths on the facetious advice of Bokonon, who has left a note of explanation. Displaying a mix of grief for her people and resigned amusement, Mona promptly follows suit and dies. The horrified narrator is discovered by a few other survivors, including Newt and Frank Hoenikker, and he lives with them in a cave for several months, during which time he writes the contents of the book. Driving through the barren wasteland one day, he parks after spotting Bokonon himself, who is contemplating what the last words of The Books of Bokonon should be. Bokonon states that if he were younger, he would place a book about human stupidity at the peak of San Lorenzo's highest mountain, swallow ice-nine, and die while thumbing his nose at God.
Many of Vonnegut's recurring themes are prevalent in Cat's Cradle, most notably the issues of free will and man's relation to technology. The former is embodied in the creation of Bokononism, an artificial religion created to make life bearable to the beleaguered inhabitants of San Lorenzo through acceptance and delight in the inevitability of everything that happens. The latter is demonstrated by the development and exploitation of ice-nine, which is conceived with indifference but is misused to disastrous ends. In his 1969 address to the American Physical Society, Vonnegut describes the inspiration behind ice-nine and its creator as the type of "old-fashioned scientist who isn't interested in people," and draws connections to nuclear weapons.
More topically, Cat's Cradle takes the threat of nuclear destruction in the Cold War as a major theme. The Cuban Missile Crisis, in which world powers collided around a small Caribbean island, bringing the world to the brink of mutual assured destruction, occurred in 1962, and much of the novel can be seen as allegorical.
Like most of Vonnegut's work, irony, black humor and parody are used heavily throughout. Cat's Cradle, despite its relatively short length, contains 127 discrete chapters. Vonnegut himself has claimed that his books "are essentially mosaics made up of a whole bunch of tiny little chips...and each chip is a joke."
After World War II, Kurt Vonnegut worked in the public relations department for the General Electric research company. GE hired scientists and let them do pure research, and his job was to interview these scientists and find good stories about their research. Vonnegut felt that the older scientists were indifferent about the ways their discoveries might be used. The Nobel Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir, who worked with Vonnegut's older brother Bernard at GE, became the model for Dr. Felix Hoenikker. Vonnegut said in an interview with The Nation that "Langmuir was absolutely indifferent to the uses that might be made of the truths he dug out of the rock and handed out to whoever was around, but any truth he found was beautiful in its own right, and he didn’t give a damn who got it next."
|'Cat's Cradle' location|
General location of San Lorenzo
Flag of San Lorenzo
|Created by||Kurt Vonnegut|
|Notable locations||Bolivar (capital)|
|Other name(s)||Republic of San Lorenzo|
|Anthem||San Lorenzan National Anthem|
|Language(s)||San Lorenzan dialect of English|
The Republic of San Lorenzo is a fictional country where much of the book's second half takes place.
San Lorenzo is a tiny, rocky island nation located in the Caribbean Sea, positioned in the relative vicinity of Puerto Rico. San Lorenzo has only one city, its seaside capital of Bolivar. The country's form of government is a dictatorship, under the rule of ailing president "Papa" Monzano, who is a staunch ally of the United States and a fierce opponent of communism. No legislature exists. The infrastructure of San Lorenzo is described as being dilapidated, consisting of worn buildings, dirt roads, an impoverished populace, and having only one automobile taxi running in the entire country.
The language of San Lorenzo is a fictitious English-based creole language (for example "twinkle, twinkle, little star" is rendered "tsvent-kiul, tsvent-kiul, lett-pool store") that is referred to as "the San Lorenzan dialect". The San Lorenzan national anthem is based on the tune of Home on the Range. Its flag consists of a U.S. Marine Corps corporal's chevrons on a blue field (presumably the flag was updated, since in the 1920s Marine Corps rank insignia did not include crossed rifles). Its currency is named corporals, at a rate of two corporals for every United States dollar; both the flag and the monetary unit are named after U.S. Marine Corporal Earl McCabe, who deserted his company while stationed at Port-au-Prince during the American occupation in 1922, and in transit to Miami, was shipwrecked on San Lorenzo. McCabe, along with accomplice Lionel Boyd Johnson from Tobago, together threw out the island's governing sugar company, and after a period of anarchy, proclaimed a republic.
San Lorenzo also has its own native religion, Bokononism, a religion based on enjoying life through believing "foma", harmless lies, and taking encouragement where you can. Bokononism, founded by McCabe's accomplice Boyd Johnson (pronounced "Bokonon" in San Lorenzan dialect), however, is outlawed – an idea Bokonon himself conceived, since forbidding the religion would only make it spread quicker. Bokononists are liable to be punished by being impaled on a hook, but Bokononism privately remains the dominant religion of nearly everyone on the island, including the leaders who outlaw it. Officially, however, San Lorenzo is a Christian nation.
- The narrator is a writer who claims his parents named him John but asks to be called Jonah; beyond the first page, neither name is brought up again. He describes the events in the book with humorous and sarcastic detail. While writing a book about the day of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, he becomes involved with the Hoenikker children. He begins the book by stating "Call me Jonah", alluding to the first line of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick ("Call me Ishmael"). In a way, the narrator and Moby-Dick's narrator Ishmael share the traits of simultaneously being both a narrator and a protagonist within their own stories. Eventually, he is offered the presidency of San Lorenzo by Franklin Hoenikker.
- Felix Hoenikker is the "Father of the Atom Bomb" and an unseen character who died many years before the novel's plot begins. Felix Hoenikker was proclaimed one of the smartest scientists on Earth. An eccentric and emotionless man, he is depicted as amoral and apathetic towards anything other than his research. He needed only something to keep him busy, such as in his role as one of the "Fathers of the Atomic Bomb", and in his creation of "ice-nine," a potentially catastrophic substance with the capability to destroy all life on Earth, but which he saw merely as a mental puzzle (a Marine general suggested developing a substance that could solidify mud so soldiers could run across it more easily). During experiments with "ice nine", Felix takes a nap in his rocking chair and dies. It is the narrator's quest for biographical details about Hoenikker that provides both the background and the connecting thread between the various subsections of the story. His beautiful wife, Emily, died giving birth to their youngest child Newt. According to Dr. Asa Breed, a former lover of Emily's, the complications at Newt's birth were the result of a pelvic injury she sustained in a car accident some time before.
- Dr. Asa Breed is Felix Hoenikker's former supervisor. He takes the narrator around Illium and to the General Forge and Foundry Company where the late Felix worked. Later in the tour, Dr. Breed becomes upset with the narrator for misrepresenting scientists.
- Marvin Breed is Asa Breed's brother. He owned and operated the tombstone shop in the city where Felix Hoenikker worked on the atomic bomb. Here, the narrator is shocked to find a tombstone with his own last name on it.
- Newton "Newt" Hoenikker: The dwarf ("midget") son of famed scientist Felix Hoenikker, and a painter. He is the brother of both Frank and Angela Hoenikker. His main hobby is painting minimalist abstract works. He briefly had an affair with a Ukrainian dwarf dancer named Zinka, who turned out to be a KGB agent sent to steal ice-nine for the Soviet Union.
- Franklin "Frank" Hoenikker is Felix Hoenikker's older son, and a Major General in San Lorenzo. He is the brother of Newt and Angela Hoenikker. He is an utterly technically minded person who is unable to make decisions except for giving technical advice. His main hobby is building models. Expected to take over for "Papa" Monzano after his death, he anxiously hands the presidency over to the narrator instead.
- Angela Hoenikker Conners is Felix Hoenikker's daughter and a clarinetist. She is the married sister of Frank and Newt Hoenikker. In contrast to her dwarf brother, Angela is unusually tall for a woman. She used to take care of her father after her mother's death and acts as a mother figure to Newt. She and her brothers all have samples of ice-nine, which they found along with their father's body, dead in his chair. She dies when she blows on a clarinet contaminated with ice-nine after the apocalyptic event at the end of the novel.
- Bokonon (birth name Lionel Boyd Johnson) co-founded San Lorenzo as a republic, along with Earl McCabe (a now-dead US Marine deserter), and created the religion of Bokononism, which he asked McCabe to outlaw in order to give it an alluringly forbidden sense of mystery, giving some meaning to the miserable lives of San Lorenzo's extremely impoverished citizens. He therefore has lived for years in exile somewhere in San Lorenzo's jungles. He only appears once in the novel in person: in the very final chapter.
- "Papa" Monzano is the ailing dictator of San Lorenzo. He was once Earl McCabe's right-hand man and chosen successor. He appoints Frank Hoenikker as his own successor, and then commits suicide with a piece of ice-nine. He is the adopted father of Mona Monzano.
- Mona Aamons Monzano is the 18-year-old adopted daughter of "Papa" Monzano. A gorgeous black girl with blond hair due to her Finnish biological father, her adoption was a political ploy to integrate different races under Monzano's rule and provide a beloved poster child for his regime. The narrator describes her as "the only beautiful woman on San Lorenzo". She is expected to marry Monzano's successor, and she therefore agrees to marry the narrator before the disaster at the end of the novel.
- Julian Castle is the multi-millionaire ex-owner of Castle Sugar Cooperation, whom the narrator travels to San Lorenzo to interview for a magazine. He eventually changed his outlook in life, abandoning his business ventures to set up and operate a humanitarian hospital in the jungle of San Lorenzo.
- H. Lowe Crosby is a fervently pro-American bicycle manufacturer the narrator meets on his plane ride to San Lorenzo. His main goal is to move his American factory to San Lorenzo, so he can run it with cheap labor.
- Hazel Crosby is the wife of H. Lowe Crosby, a Hoosier who believes in some cosmic fraternity among Hoosiers and asks all Hoosiers she meets around the globe to call her "Mom".
- Philip Castle is the son of Julian Castle, and the operator of a hotel on San Lorenzo. He also wrote a history of San Lorenzo that the narrator reads on his flight to the island. Bokonon taught both him and Mona when they were young students. Through reading the index of Castle's book, Claire Minton deduces that he's a homosexual.
- Horlick Minton is the new American ambassador to San Lorenzo, whom the narrator meets on his plane ride. He was blacklisted as a Communist sympathizer during the McCarthy era.
- Claire Minton is the wife of the new American ambassador to San Lorenzo, and is a writer of book indexes. She is so well versed at indexing that she even claims to be able to deduce strange knowledge about writers based on reading their indexes. She and her husband are extremely close, forming what the narrator calls a duprass.
The semi-humorous religion secretly practiced by the people of San Lorenzo, called Bokononism, encompasses concepts unique to the novel. Many of these concepts use words from the San Lorenzan creole "dialect" of English. Many of its sacred texts, collectively called The Books of Bokonon, are written in the form of calypso songs. Bokononist rituals are equally strange or absurdist; for example, the supreme religious act consists of any two worshippers rubbing the bare soles of their feet together to inspire spiritual connection. Here are some Bokononist terms:
- karass – A group of people linked in a cosmically significant manner, even when superficial linkages are not evident.
- duprass – a karass of only two people, who almost always die within a week of each other. The typical example is a loving couple who work together for a great purpose.
- granfalloon – a false karass; i.e., a group of people who imagine they have a connection that does not really exist. An example is "Hoosiers"; Hoosiers are people from Indiana, and Hoosiers have no true spiritual destiny in common, so really share little more than a name.
- wampeter – the central theme or purpose of a karass. Each karass has two wampeters at any given time, one waxing and one waning.
- foma – harmless untruths
- wrang-wrang – Someone who steers a Bokononist away from their line of perception. For example, the narrator of the book is steered away from Nihilism when his Nihilist house sitter kills his cat and leaves his apartment in disrepair.
- kan-kan – An object or item that brings a person into their karass. The narrator states in the book that his kan-kan was the book he wrote about the Hiroshima bombing.
- sinookas – The intertwining "tendrils" of peoples' lives.
- vin-dit – a sudden shove in the direction of Bokononism
- saroon – to acquiesce to a vin-dit
- stuppa – a fogbound child (i.e. an idiot)
- duffle – the destiny of thousands of people placed on one "stuppa"
- sin-wat – a person who wants all of somebody's love for themself
- pool-pah – shit storm, but in some contexts: wrath of God
- Busy, busy, busy – words Bokononists whisper when they think about how complicated and unpredictable the machinery of life really is
- Now I will destroy the whole world – last words of a Bokononist before committing suicide
- boko-maru – the supreme act of worship of the Bokononists, which is an intimate act consisting of prolonged physical contact between the naked soles of the feet of two persons
- zah-mah-ki-bo – Inevitable destiny
- Borasisi and Pabu, the Sun god and Lunar goddess; the binary trans-Neptunian object 66652 Borasisi and its moon, 66652 Borasisi I Pabu, now bear their names.†
- Borasisi, the Sun, held Pabu, the Moon, in his arms and hoped that Pabu would bear him a fiery child. But poor Pabu gave birth to children that were cold, that did not burn...Then poor Pabu herself was cast away, and she went to live with her favorite child, which was Earth.
After The Sirens of Titan (1959) and Mother Night (1962) received good reviews and sold well in paperback, large hardcover publisher Holt, Rinehart, and Winston issued Cat's Cradle. Theodore Sturgeon praised Cat's Cradle, describing its storyline as "appalling, hilarious, shocking, and infuriating", and concluded that "this is an annoying book and you must read it. And you better take it lightly, because if you don't you'll go off weeping and shoot yourself".
In 1972, the board of Strongsville, Ohio, banned the book without stating an official reason, although notes from the meeting include references to it being "completely sick" and "garbage". However, this ban was overturned in 1976 by the US District Court. Additionally, the book was also challenged in 1982 at New Hampshire's Merrimack High School.
Awards and nominationsEdit
Cat's Cradle was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1964.
Film, television or theatrical adaptationsEdit
- Portions of Cat's Cradle were adapted in the television movie Between Time and Timbuktu (1972), which presented elements from various works by Vonnegut.
- The book has been optioned by Leonardo DiCaprio's production company, Appian Way Productions. James V. Hart, screenwriter for the film Contact (1997) and his son Jake Hart have been linked to the developing script.
- A calypso musical adaptation was presented by the Untitled Theater Company #61 in New York in 2008.
- Vonnegut collaborated with US composer Dave Soldier for a CD titled Ice-9 Ballads, featuring nine songs with lyrics taken from Cat's Cradle. Vonnegut narrated his lyrics to Soldier's music.
- A straight theatrical adaptation of the book was presented in Washington, DC in August and September 2010 by Longacre Lea Productions.
- On November 18, 2015, it was announced that Fargo TV series-creator Noah Hawley was adapting Cat's Cradle as a limited series for the American TV channel FX.
- From Tom Robbins' 1971 novel Another Roadside Attraction: "In Bokonon, it is written that 'peculiar travel suggestions are dancing lessons from God.'"
- The 1963 Discordian text Principia Discordia presents Bokonon as an example of a "Brigadier Saint" in its Classification of Saints.
- In "Truth and Seeing: Magic, Custom, and Fetish" in Africa and the Disciplines (ed. V. Y. Mudimbe et al), the Harvard art historian, Suzanne Preston Blier references The Book of Bokonon.
- Jack Lancaster fronted a band in the early 1970s named "Karass" which included Chick Web, Percy Jones, John Goodsall and Robin Lumley.
- Dave Soldier's CD Ice-9 Ballads sets Vonnegut's lyrics to music. Includes "14th Calypso," "119th Calypso," and "Nice Very Nice." Narrated by Kurt Vonnegut.
- The Grateful Dead's publishing company, Ice Nine, was named after the fictional substance. Between 1983 and 1985, the band's leader Jerry Garcia worked with the scriptwriter and comedian Tom Davis on a screenplay based on the book. The film was never produced.
- The 2009 game Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors has a material called Ice-9, very similar to the Ice-nine from this book.
- In the CIA training film The Recruit, a threatening virus that can destroy any electrical system it touches is called Ice-9.
- The metalcore band Ice Nine Kills took their name from the eponymous substance Ice-9 and are fans of Vonnegut's work.
- Season 5 of the TV show Person of Interest has a computer virus named Ice-nine, which is used to stop the spy program Samaritan.
- Katz, Joe (13 April 2007). "Alumnus Vonnegut dead at 84". Chicago Maroon. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- David Hayman, David Michaelis, George Plimpton, Richard Rhodes, "The Art of Fiction No. 64: Kurt Vonnegut", Paris Review, Issue 69, Spring 1977.
- Grossman, Edward. "Vonnegut & His Audience." Commentary (July 1974): 40–46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Carolyn Riley and Phyllis Carmel Mendelson. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 1976.
- Vonnegut, Kurt. Wampeters, Foma & Granfalloons. Dial Press. p. 98.
- "Cold War Literature." Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 186. Detroit: Gale, 2007.
- Musil, Robert K. (2 August 1980). "There Must Be More to Love Than Death: A Conversation With Kurt Vonnegut". The Nation. 231 (4): 128–132. ISSN 0027-8378.
- Vonnegut, 40
- 1911-1990, Hart, James D. (James David). "Cat's Cradle". The Oxford companion to American literature. Leininger, Phillip, 1928- (Sixth ed.). New York. ISBN 0195065484. OCLC 31754197.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- 1911-1990, Hart, James D. (James David). "Cat's Cradle". The Oxford companion to American literature. Leininger, Phillip, 1928- (Sixth ed.). New York. ISBN 0195065484. OCLC 31754197.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Latham, Rob (2009). "Fiction, 1950-1963". In Bould, Mark; Butler, Andrew M.; Roberts, Adam; Vint, Sherryl (eds.). The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction. Routledge. pp. 80–89. ISBN 9781135228361.
- Sturgeon, Theodore (August 1963). "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 180–182.
- "Taboo Titles". Indianapolis Monthly. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
- "Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut". Banned Library. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
- Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr. (1972). Between Time and Timbuktu or Prometheus-5. Script by David O'Dell. Delta Books.
- "NAMES & FACES". Washington Post. 10 July 2005. pp. D03. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- "Cat's Cradle, a calypso musical based on the book by Kurt Vonnegut". Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- Mulatta Records, MUL018
- Fitz-Gerald, Sean (November 19, 2015). "Noah Hawley Is Taking Charge of Cat's Cradle". Vulture.com. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- Robbins, Tom (1990). Another roadside attraction (Bantam ed.). New York: Bantam Books. p. 236. ISBN 978-0553349481.
- "The Principia Discordia". www.cs.cmu.edu. p. 00060.
- Africa and the Disciplines.
- "Interview with Jack Lancaster". dmme.net. November 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- "Kurt Vonnegut and Dave Soldier: "Ice-9 Ballads"". Mulatta Records. July 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- OLTEAN, A. a. (2013)." An Application of the General Theory of Verbal Humor to Kurt Vonnegut's 'Cat's Cradle'". Studii De Ştiintă Şi Cultură, 9(1), 143–149.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Cat's Cradle|
- Bokononism All text from Cat's Cradle that refers to Bokononism (including the Books of Bokonon)
- The Books of Bokonon online
- Wechner, Bernd (2004). "Bokononism". bernd.wechner.info. Archived from the original on 2005-10-01. All of the text from Cat's Cradle which refers to Bokononism (including the Books of Bokonon).
- Wallingford, Eugene (2010). "The Books of Bokonon". www.cs.uni.edu. All of the text from Cat's Cradle which refers to Bokononism (including the Books of Bokonon).