The House of Sforza (pronounced [ˈsfɔrtsa]) was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. Sforza rule began with the family's acquisition of the Duchy of Milan following the extinction of the Visconti family in the mid-15th century and ended with the death of the last member of the family's main branch, Francesco II Sforza, in 1535.

Sforza
Country Duchy of Milan
Golden Ambrosian Republic
Founded1411
FounderMuzio Attendolo Sforza
Final ruler
Milan:
Francesco II (1535)
Pesaro:
Galeazzo Sforza (1512)
Titles

Cadet branches:

Estate(s)Milan, Pesaro, Gradara
Cadet branches
  • House of Sforza-Pesaro (extinct in 1515)
  • House of Sforza-Cotignola (extinct in 1624)
  • House of Sforza-Demartini

History

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The first son of Muzio Attendolo Sforza, Francesco I Sforza, married Bianca Maria (1425–1468) in 1441.[1][2][3] She was the daughter and only heir of the last Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti.[2] He thus acquired the title of Duke of Milan (1450–1466), ruled Milan for 16 years, and made the Sforzas the heirs of the house of Visconti.

The family also held the seigniory of Pesaro, starting with Muzio Attendolo's second son, Alessandro (1409–1473).[4] The Sforza held Pesaro until 1512, after the death of Costanzo II Sforza.[5]

Muzio's third son, Bosio (1411–1476), founded the branch of Santa Fiora, who held the title of count of Cotignola; the Sforza ruled the small county of Santa Fiora in southern Tuscany until 1624. Members of this family also held important ecclesiastical and political positions in the Papal States, and moved to Rome in 1674, taking the name of Sforza Cesarini.

The Sforza became allied with the Borgia family through the arranged marriage (1493–1497) between Lucrezia Borgia and Giovanni (the illegitimate son of Costanzo I of Pesaro).[6] This alliance failed, as the Borgia family annulled the marriage once the Sforza family were no longer needed.

In 1499, in the course of the Italian Wars, the army of Louis XII of France took Milan from Ludovico Sforza (known as Ludovico il Moro, famous for taking Leonardo da Vinci into his service).

After Imperial German troops drove out the French, Maximilian Sforza, son of Ludovico, became Duke of Milan (1512–1515) until the French returned under Francis I of France and imprisoned him.

In 1521 Charles V drove out the French and restored the younger son of Ludovico, Francesco II Sforza to the duchy. Francesco remained the ruler of Milan until his death in 1535 and as he was childless the Duchy reverted to the Emperor, who passed it to his son Philip II in 1540, thus beginning the period of Spanish rule in Milan.

Sforza rulers of the Duchy of Milan

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Map of Italy in 1494. Insert shows the Duchy of Milan ruled by the Visconti family and inherited by the Sforzas.

Sforza rulers of Pesaro and Gradara

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Sforza family tree

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A family tree of the House of Sforza

Notable members

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Name Portrait Relationship to the House of Sforza
Muzio Attendolo   Founder of the House of Sforza
Francesco Sforza   Son of Muzio Attendolo, first Sforza ruler of Milan
Bianca Maria Visconti   Wife of Francesco I Sforza
Galeazzo Maria Sforza   Son of Francesco I Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan
Gian Galeazzo Sforza   Son of Galeazzo Maria Sforza
Bona Sforza   Daughter of Gian Galeazzo Sforza
and Queen of Kingdom of Poland and Grand Princess of Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
as the wife of Sigismund I the Old, King of Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Bianca Maria Sforza   Daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza and
Holy Roman Empress, as the wife of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Anna Sforza Daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza and wife of Alfonso I d'Este
Her successor would be the infamous Lucrezia Borgia
Caterina Sforza   Illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan
Ludovico Sforza   Son of Francesco I Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan
Beatrice d'Este   Wife of Ludovico Sforza
Maximilian Sforza   Son of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan
Francesco II Sforza   Son of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan
Giovanni Paolo I Sforza Illegitimate son of Ludovico Sforza, first Marquess of Caravaggio

Castellini Baldissera

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While the House of Sforza has died out over the last[specify] century, it is closely related to the Castellini Baldissera family, who inherited a number of their palazzos and estates.[10]

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ "Muzio Attendolo Sforza". British Museum.
  2. ^ a b "Mila, Leonardo and the Sforza Family". Cenacolo Vinciano (Last Supper Museum).
  3. ^ "Bianca Maria Sforza". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  4. ^ "Alessandro Sforza, 1409-1468, Lord of Pesaro 1445 [reverse], 1475". National Gallery of Art.
  5. ^ a b Eiche, Sabine (May 1985). "Towards a Study of the 'Famiglia' of the Sforza Court at Pesaro". Renaissance and Reformation – via JSTOR.
  6. ^ "La Signoria degli Sforza". Gradara.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  7. ^ Cartwright, Julia (1899). Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475–1497: A Study of the Renaissance. Hallandale.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ Mulazzani, Germano (May 1971). "Observations on the Sforza Triptych in the Brussels Museum". The Burlington Magazine. 113 (818) – via JSTOR.
  9. ^ "Sigismund I | king of Poland | Britannica".
  10. ^ de Sio, Gian Filippo (March 2019). "Lo sfarzo abituale di una nobile famiglia milanese. Gli eredi Mellerio 1783-1792". Società e Storia (163): 57–89. doi:10.3280/ss2019-163004. ISSN 0391-6987. S2CID 187172458.
  11. ^ Miller, Matt (12 October 2010). "The Real Life Characters of Assassin's Creed". Game Informer. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
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