Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG (German pronunciation: [ˈliːdl̩]; UK: /ˈlɪdəl/ LID-əl) is a German international discount supermarket chain[1] that operates over 10,000 stores across Europe and the United States.[2] Headquartered in Neckarsulm, Baden-Württemberg, the company belongs to the Schwarz Group, who also operates the hypermarket chain Kaufland.

Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG
Lidl
Private Kommanditgesellschaft with a stiftung foundation as general partner
IndustryRetailing
Founded1930; 90 years ago (1930)
FounderJosef Schwarz
Headquarters,
Number of locations
10,000+ in 28 European countries and the United States
Area served
Europe
United States
Key people
Ignazio Paternò (CEO) Dieter Schwarz (Chairman)
ProductsDiscount store
Revenue€ 89.869 billion
€ 1.951 billion
€ 1.287 billion
Total assets€ 36.706 billion
Number of employees
315,000
ParentSchwarz Gruppe
Websitelidl.com

Lidl is the chief competitor of a similar German discount chain Aldi in several markets, including the United States.[3] There are Lidl stores in almost every member state of the European Union.[citation needed] Lidl stores are also present in Switzerland, Serbia, the United Kingdom and the United States.

HistoryEdit

 
European countries in which Lidl is active

In 1930, Josef Schwarz became a partner in Südfrüchte Großhandlung Lidl & Co., a fruit wholesaler, and he developed the company into a general food wholesaler.[4]

In 1977, under his son Dieter Schwarz, the Schwarz-Gruppe began to focus on discount markets, larger supermarkets, and cash and carry wholesale markets. He did not want to use the name Schwarz-Markt (Schwarzmarkt means "black market") and rather use the name of Josef Schwarz's former business partner, A. Lidl, but legal reasons prevented him from taking over the name for his discount stores. When he discovered a newspaper article about the painter and retired schoolteacher Ludwig Lidl, he bought the rights to the name from him for 1,000 German marks.[5][6]

Lidl is part of the Schwarz Group, the fifth-largest retailer in the world with sales of €104.3 billion (2018).[7]

The first Lidl discount store was opened in 1973, copying the Aldi concept.[4] Schwarz rigorously removed merchandise that did not sell from the shelves, and cut costs by keeping the size of the retail outlets as small as possible. By 1977, the Lidl chain comprised 33 discount stores.

Lidl opened its first UK store in 1994. Since then, Lidl UK has grown consistently, and today has over 800 stores. While it is still a small player in the United Kingdom, with a grocery market share of less than 5%, its importance, along with that of continental, no-frills competitor Aldi is growing, with half of the shoppers in the United Kingdom visiting Aldi or Lidl over Christmas 2014.[8]

Sven Seidel was appointed CEO of the company in March 2014, after the previous CEO Karl-Heinz Holland stepped down.[9] Holland had served as chief executive since 2008 but left due to undisclosed "unbridgeable" differences over future strategy. Seidel stepped down from his position in February 2017 after Manager Magazin reported he had fallen out of favour with Klaus Gehrig, who has headed the Schwarz Group since 2004. Seidel was succeeded as CEO by Dane Jesper Højer, previously head of Lidl's international buying operation.[10]

In June 2015, the company announced it would establish a United States headquarters in Arlington, Virginia.[11] Lidl has major distribution centers in Mebane, North Carolina, and Spotsylvania County, Virginia. The company initially focused on opening locations in East Coast states, between Pennsylvania and Georgia,[12] and as far west as Ohio.[13][14] In June 2017, Lidl opened its first stores in the United States in Virginia Beach, Virginia and other mid-Atlantic cities.[15] The company planned to open a total of one hundred U.S. stores by the summer of 2018.[3][15] In November 2018, Lidl announced plans to acquire 27 Best Market stores in New York and New Jersey.[16] In December 2018, Lidl opened its first location in New York City, in the Staten Island Mall.

Business modelEdit

 
A Lidl store in Greenville,
South Carolina, United States

Like fellow German supermarket Aldi, Lidl has a zero waste,[17] no-frills, "pass-the-savings-to-the-consumer" approach of displaying most products in their original delivery cartons, allowing the customers to take the product directly from the carton. When the carton is empty, it is simply replaced with a full one. Staffing is minimal.[18]

In contrast to Aldi, there are generally more branded products offered. Lidl distributes many low-priced gourmet foods by producing each of them in a single European Union country for its whole worldwide chain, but it also sources many local products from the country where the store is located. Like Aldi, Lidl has special weekly offers, and its stock of non-food items often changes with time. In contrast to Aldi, Lidl advertises extensively in its homeland of Germany.

As with Aldi, Lidl does not play mood music in most countries including homeland Germany, In Lidl stores in the United States, Croatia, Spain (at least not all of them), Poland, Lithuania and two stores in Denmark as a test, they do play music. Lidl stores have PA systems for important announcements but do not broadcast commercials.

The Lidl operation in the United Kingdom took a different approach than in Germany, with a focus on marketing and public relations, and providing employee benefits not required by law, including paying the independently verified living wage and offering a staff discount.[19] Upmarket products were introduced, especially in the lead-up to Christmas. This required significant investment in marketing to produce sales growth but had an effect on Lidl's logistical operation and pressure on profits. Ronny Gottschlich, who ran Lidl UK for the six years to 2016, was responsible for this approach, which led to friction with head office, due to the cost involved. In September 2016, Gottschlich unexpectedly left and was replaced by the Austrian sales and operations director, German-national Christian Härtnagel.[20] Lidl continued to have ambitious investment plans in the United Kingdom, ultimately doubling the number of stores to 1,500. In the financial year of 2015, Lidl Great Britain's revenue from its over 630 stores throughout Britain was £4.7 billion.

StoresEdit

 
A Lidl store in Zaprešić, Croatia
 
Interior of a Lidl store at Entrecampos railway station, Lisbon

As of 2020 Lidl was present in 29 countries.

Country Year opened No. of stores Ref.
Austria 1998 230 [21]
Belgium 1995 311
Bulgaria 2010 100 [22]
Croatia 2006 100 [23]
Cyprus 2010 17+1
Czech Republic 2003 220
Denmark 2005 125
Estonia 0[a] [24]
Finland 2002 188 [25]
France 1989 1,500
Germany 1973 3,301
Greece 1999 232
Hungary 2004 172
Italy 1992 600 [26]
Ireland 2000 162 [27]
Latvia 0[b] [28]
Lithuania 2016 48 [29]
Luxembourg 2001 10
Malta 2008 8
Netherlands 1997 411
Poland 2002 700 [30]
Portugal 1995 247
Romania 2011 256 [31]
Serbia 2018 41
Slovakia 2004 132
Slovenia 2007 54 [32]
Spain 1994 600 [33]
Sweden 2003 171 [34][35][36]
Switzerland 2020 144 [37]
United Kingdom 1994 761
United States 2017 103 [38]
Total 10,000+

Other servicesEdit

In October 2009, Lidl Movies was launched in the United Kingdom,[39] undercutting Tesco DVD Rental, which had previously been the United Kingdom's cheapest online rental service for DVDs. The service was powered by OutNow DVD Rental. OutNow went into liquidation in October 2011, taking Lidl Movies with it.[40]

In January 2012, Lidl launched bakeries in their stores across Europe. They consist of a small baking area with a number of ovens, together with an area where bread and pastries, such as croissants, are displayed for sale. The bakeries were initially trialed in a limited number of stores, to determine whether there was a demand for freshly baked products in-store. [41]

In August 2013, Lidl UK also launched an online photo service, which prints photos and photo gifts at discounted prices.[42]

As of May 2019, Lidl US has partnered with Boxed.com to test a home delivery service using the online retailer's technology. Lidl plans to open its first stores in Long Island, N.Y., in early 2020. Lidl also partners with Target Corp. subsidiary Shipt for grocery home delivery.[43]

Lidl also runs Representative Offices in China and Bangladesh, though there is no mention of Lidl stores opening in said countries.

ControversiesEdit

 
A fake Lidl store in Hurghada, Egypt

FoodEdit

 
Opening weekend at Lidl in Vilnius, Lithuania
  • In 2020, Lidl was fined one million euros by the Italian Competition Authority because Lidl had been misleading consumers about the origin of Italiamo and Combino pasta.[44]
  • In 2018, it was reported that Lidl imports raw sausage from Poland into Germany. Pig farmers in Germany have been worried that African swine fever will spread to Germany.[45]
  • In 2017, Lidl was involved in controversy over eggs contaminated with insecticide fipronil.[46]
  • In 2016, poisonous xylene was discovered in a gravy sold by Lidl UK.[47] After being notified of the product error, Lidl waited for more than two weeks before recalling the toxic product.[48]
  • In 2014, a former Lidl UK worker won a case against Lidl after reporting a food safety violation and being bullied from his job.[49]
  • In 2013, Lidl was named as one of the supermarket chains selling products involved in the horse meat scandal.[50]
  • In 2011, minced meat steaks sold under Lidl's private label Steak Country contained E. coli bacteria.[51] 18 persons in France, predominantly children, fell seriously ill from the steaks. Many of the children require lifetime treatment.[52] One child was left profoundly and permanently disabled,[53] and he died years later.[54]
  • In 2010, cheese sold under Lidl's private label Reinhardshof contained listeria. The company failed to prompt a suspension of deliveries in time. One person in Germany died of food poisoning after eating the cheese. Lidl was fined €1.5 million for violating food law.[55][56]
  • In 2008, Lidl was forced to issue an official apology because staff at a Lidl store in Sweden deliberately poisoned homeless people by poisoning food in trash containers.[57]
  • In 2005, Lidl was caught putting additives in meat, which means they are classified as "meat preparations" and allows avoiding salmonella testing and origin labeling, yet marketed the products as "meat", according to the National Food Agency in Sweden.[58]

Working conditions and labor rightsEdit

 
A Lidl store in Santorini, Greece

Stores and warehousesEdit

  • In 2017, a scandal over the heavy workload and intimidation of workers at Lidl broke in France.[59]
  • In 2017, a court ruled against Lidl UK's attempts to suppress trade union representation for its warehouse workers in Bridgend, Wales.[60][61]
  • In 2015, a Lidl warehouse worker committed suicide by hanging himself at his workplace in Rousset, Bouches-du-Rhône, France. According to a labour inspection survey, Lidl had repeatedly harassed the worker with demeaning comments and unreachable orders. The worker had told a relative that he had been doing the work of five employees.[62] An appellate court found that there had been gross negligence on the part of the company.[63]
  • In 2015, it was reported that Lidl had violated labour legislation in Poland such as forcing employees to work for over 13 hours a day, according to reports from the state labour inspectorate. A chairman in the Solidarity trade union in Poland said that Lidl managers harass and intimidate employees who want to organize.[64]
  • In 2014, Lidl UK staff were instructed not to speak any language other than English, not even Welsh (an official language used in Wales), with Lidl's customers. The Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith) said the policy was "appalling". Cymdeithas yr Iaith's chairman, Jamie Bevan, said that "since the Welsh language bill was passed four years ago, it is illegal to stop staff from speaking to customers in Welsh".[65]
  • In 2009, it was reported that approximately 300 sheets of paper containing Lidl employees' personal information had been found in the trash bin of a car wash in Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Among the sheets were forms filled with details of the employees' sick days and illnesses. This included reproductive health; for example, a female employee had the annotation: "Wishes to become pregnant, fertilisation has been unsuccessful".[66]
  • In 2008, The Times[67] noted that Lidl managers worked overtime hours and were directed to sign out of the Working Time Directive when starting with the company.
  • In 2008, German newspaper Stern uncovered Lidl spying on its staff, including registration of employees' toilet visits as well as personal details regarding employees' love lives, personal finances and menstrual cycles.[68] In September of the same year it was fined €1.5 million for the unauthorised surveillance of its employees in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.[69]
  • In 2008, it was reported that Lidl's Czech branches had allowed female employees who were menstruating to use lavatories on condition that they wore conspicuous headbands during their periods.[70]
  • In 2006, the German United Services Trade Union published an updated edition of The Black Book on Lidl in Europe. The book is based on accounts from past and present employees. It contains many wide-ranging criticisms against the grocery chain. For instance, an anti-pregnancy policy in Portuguese branches is mentioned.[71]
  • In 2004, Lidl was awarded the Big Brother Award in Germany for acting almost like a slave master towards its employees.[72]
  • In 2003, a judge in Savona, Liguria, Italy, sentenced Lidl for opposition to union policies, a crime in Italy.[73]

SuppliersEdit

  • In 2018, striking workers were assaulted and injured by a "mob of 'hired thugs'" at one of Lidl's suppliers, Fu Yuen Garment Co Ltd in Myanmar. 28 workers were wounded, six of them seriously. The workers had been picketing the factory because of poor conditions and mistreatment.[74]
  • In 2017, it was reported that some of Lidl's prominent vegetable suppliers in Germany had been paying workers significantly less than the minimum wage.[75]
  • In 2016, Oxfam in Germany revealed the following about the working conditions on certain fruit plantations that supply Lidl: Workers have to work there simultaneously when pesticides are dropped on the plantation. Workers have said that they suffer from frequent illnesses and miscarriages. Work contracts are oral and for three months only. Many workers do not want to form labour unions in fear of retaliation.[76]
  • In 2010, the Consumer Protection Agency in Hamburg, Germany, filed an unfair competition complaint against Lidl. The company had deceived customers by giving the false impression that the working conditions at Lidl suppliers were good. In reality, the conditions were reported "inhumane" and in breach of conventions and standards.[77]
  • In 2008, a company named Weinzheimer was exclusively baking all in-store bakery products being sold by Lidl in Europe. A Die Zeit journalist worked at the bakery and reported bad working conditions. Overwork and inadequate equipment had led to workers suffering concussions, wounds, and burns. "You [workers] are cheaper than new [baking] sheets", a manager told the undercover reporter.[78]

OtherEdit

  • In 2020, Lidl lost an intellectual property lawsuit. Lidl had copied a maker of plant milk without permission. The discount chain is required to indemnify Chufamix's Valencian inventor.[79]
  • In 2017, Lidl was involved in controversy related to removing crosses on pictures of churches. Its branch in Camporosso, Italy, was using a picture of the church of Dolceacqua, Italy, for promotional purposes with the cross removed from the picture of the church.[80] Lidl had removed crosses from pictures of churches on the Greek island Santorini used on packaging for its Eridanous line of products. Lidl acknowledged it made a mistake and promised to deal with the issue.[81][82][83]
  • In 2017, all of Lithuania's major newspapers reported that Lidl Lithuania, compared to other Lidl markets, sets higher prices on identical products despite lower expenses including rent, salaries, etc.[84][85][86][87]
  • In 2017, Italian police arrested 15 people from four of Lidl's offices during investigation into ties with Laudani crime family.[88]
  • In 2013, it was reported that in Germany Lidl had failed to notify health officials of numerous rat infestations. Instead, Lidl spread powdered rat poison on the product shelves, without informing customers of the rodenticide. One of Berlin's chief health inspectors warned that children who come in contact with rat poison may bleed to death.[89][90]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In construction, 9 stores planned to open by 2020.
  2. ^ In construction, 10 stores planned to open by 2020.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Impressum Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine." Lidl. Retrieved 28 September 2012. "Adresse: Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG Stiftsbergstraße 1 74167 Neckarsulm "
  2. ^ "German discounter Lidl slows U.S. expansion: paper". Reuters. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b "The Germans Are Escalating America's Grocery Price War". Bloomberg.com. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Secrets of the German supermarkets conquering America (24 slides)". LoveMoney. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  5. ^ "Aldis Erzfeind" (in German). Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Der Geheimnis-Krämer" (in German). Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Record turnover for Lidl owner: over 100 billion euros". RetailDetail. 13 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Half of UK shoppers visited Lidl, Aldi over Xmas". FT.com. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  9. ^ Ricadela, Aaron (21 March 2014). "German Grocer Lidl Names Replacement CEO After Holland Departure". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  10. ^ Thomasson, Emma (7 February 2017). "Lidl replaces CEO after less than three years". Retail Analysis. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  11. ^ Vozzella, Laura. "McAuliffe bags German grocer Lidl, bringing hundreds of jobs to Virginia". The Washington Post.
  12. ^ Thomasson, Emma. "German discounter Lidl starts hiring for U.S. stores launch". Reuters. Yahoo! News. 13 December 2016.
  13. ^ Staff, WYTV (18 April 2017). "German-based grocery store wants to build at site of Austintown bar". Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Lidl's US stores break European mold, says Bernstein: 'This is not a copy and paste approach'". foodnavigator-usa.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Lidl opens first U.S. stores as new era in food retail begins". Supermarket News. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  16. ^ "German grocer Lidl to acquire 27 grocery stores". daytondailynews. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  17. ^ https://www.abettertomorrow-lidl.ie/environment/#recycling-waste-management
  18. ^ "How Lidl keeps its prices low". Business Insider. 2 July 2017.
  19. ^ Butler, Sarah (24 November 2016). "Lidl to give lowest-paid staff pay rise to £8.45 an hour". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  20. ^ Sarah Butler (10 September 2016). "Lidl UK boss unexpectedly leaves German supermarket". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Lidl treibt die Expansion in Österreich voran « WirtschaftsBlatt.at". 27 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  22. ^ "LIDL Заслужава си! Нашите магазини". Lidl.bg. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  23. ^ "Lidl nastavlja sa širenjem (Lidl continues to expand)". Poslovni dnevnik (in Croatian). 29 May 2017. Archived from the original on 8 November 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  24. ^ ERR (27 June 2019). "Lidl valmistub Tallinnas mitme kaupluse ehituseks". ERR (in Estonian). Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  25. ^ "Lidl Corporate Info" (in Finnish). Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Lidl opens 600th Supermarket in Italy". European Supermarket Magazine. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Lidl opens its 200th store on the island of Ireland". lidl.ie. 25 July 2019.
  28. ^ ""Lidl" turpina rosīties Latvijā. Par 21 miljonu eiro palielināts pamatkapitāls". LA.LV (in Latvian). 18 March 2019.
  29. ^ "LIDL parduotuvių Lietuvoje sąrašas". Lidl Lietuva.
  30. ^ "Kim jesteśmy?". kimjestesmy.lidl.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  31. ^ "Lidl inaugurează un magazin în Reşiţa". Retail FMGC. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  32. ^ "Lidlove ljubljanske trgovine del UNICEF-ove mreže Varnih točk". Instore.si. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  33. ^ "The secret to German retailer Lidl's Spanish boom". Deutsche Welle. 13 August 2019.
  34. ^ "Medarbetare - Lidl Sverige" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  35. ^ "Pressmeddelande - Lidl Sverige tecknar fastighetsskötselavtal" (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  36. ^ "Lidl gör stort ännu större - Dagens Handel" (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  37. ^ "A propos de Lidl Suisse". lidl.ch. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014.
  38. ^ "Lidl Opens 100th U.S. Store". www.winsightgrocerybusiness.com. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  39. ^ "Latest News – Which? News". Which.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  40. ^ Kukiewicz, Julia (28 February 2013). "OutNow: A Look Back". choose.net. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  41. ^ Writer, Staff (12 October 2012). "Lidl launches home baking range in time for National Baking Week". Talking Retail. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Our Offers". Lidl Photos. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  43. ^ "Boxed Partners With Grocery Chain Lidl: Exclusive". 15 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  44. ^ La Pira, Roberto (29 January 2020). "Pasta Lidl: multa da 1 milione dell'Antitrust. L'etichetta enfatizza l'origine italiana, anche se contiene grano importato". Il Fatto Alimentare (in Italian). Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  45. ^ Angelopoulou, Alexia (18 February 2018). "Schweinepest: Lidl bringt Bauern mit "Polnischer Rohwurst" in Rage". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Jetzt auch belastete Eier im Saarland". Saarländischer Rundfunk (in German). 24 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  47. ^ "Alert as poisonous paint thinner found in Lidl gravy". The Daily Telegraph. 17 December 2016. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  48. ^ "Lidl alerted to paint thinner in gravy 'two weeks before public recall'". The Independent. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  49. ^ "Whistle blower Matthew O'Donnell wins case against Bristol Lidl after he was bullied from job". SouthWest Business. 6 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  50. ^ "CEO Statement to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Agriculture, Food and the Marine". 5 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  51. ^ "Lidl gère la crise des steaks contaminés". Commerce & Consommation. Libre Service Actualités (in French). Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  52. ^ "Dans le Nord, le procès des fournisseurs de steaks hachés contaminés par la bactérie " E. coli "". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  53. ^ "Bactérie E. coli. Un steak haché a brisé la vie de Nolan, 8 ans". Ouest-France (in French).
  54. ^ "Boy, 10, dies eight years after eating contaminated burger bought at Lidl". Sky News. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  55. ^ "Vier Deutsche an Bakterien-Käse erkrankt". Die Presse (in German). 18 February 2010. Archived from the original on 10 November 2018.
  56. ^ "Lidl muss wegen verseuchtem Käse Millionenstrafe zahlen". derwesten.de (in German). 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  57. ^ "German supermarket Lidl apologises for poisoning homeless". The Daily Telegraph. 14 November 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  58. ^ "Matbutiken Lidls köttfärs granskas". Sveriges Radio (in Swedish). Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  59. ^ "La semaine où Lidl s'est retrouvé au cœur du scandale". Europe 1 (in French). 23 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  60. ^ "GMB hails court ruling over union recognition for Lidl staff". South Wales Argus. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  61. ^ "After 'shocking lack of respect for their staff' Lidl loses appeal to prevent workers trade union representation". Wimbledon Times. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  62. ^ "Rousset : le management de Lidl aurait poussé au suicide". LaProvence.com (in French). 26 September 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  63. ^ AFP, Le Figaro avec (17 January 2020). "Lidl condamné en appel pour «faute inexcusable» après le suicide d'un salarié". Le Figaro.fr (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  64. ^ "Lidl has received almost $1bn in public development funding". The Guardian. 6 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  65. ^ "'English only' rule at Lidl shops sparks Welsh row". BBC News. 7 November 2014.
  66. ^ "Lidl-Datenskandal: Brisante Papiere in der Mülltonne". Spiegel Online (in German). 13 April 2016. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  67. ^ Boyes, R. (27 March 2008). "Lidl the Big Brother Supermarket Is Watching You". The Times.
  68. ^ "German supermarket chain Lidl accused of snooping on staff". The Guardian. 27 March 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  69. ^ "Lidl soll 1,5 Millionen Euro Bußgeld zahlen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 11 September 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  70. ^ "'Lidl-Protokolle': Systematische Überwachung und Toilettenverbot". Die Presse (in German). 26 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  71. ^ Pidd, Helen (14 March 2007). "Cheap But Not So Cheerful". The Guardian.
  72. ^ "Mitarbeiter bespitzelt". Zeit Online (in German). 20 March 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  73. ^ "Il tribunale di Savona condanna Lidl Italia per comportamento antisindacale" (in Italian). Federazione Italiana Lavoratori Comercio Turismo e Servici (Italian Federation of Workers in Commerce, Tourism, and Services). 9 July 2003. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  74. ^ "Clashes at Myanmar garment factory leave dozens injured". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 15 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  75. ^ Deter, Alfons (30 June 2017). "ARD: Gemüsebauern sollen Mindestlohn systematisch umgehen". top agrar (in German). Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  76. ^ "Sweet Fruit, Bitter Truth" (PDF). Oxfam Germany. 27 September 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  77. ^ "Working Conditions in Bangladesh / Lidl". European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR). 9 September 2015. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  78. ^ Wallraff, Günter (1 May 2008). "Arbeitswelt: Unser täglich Brötchen". Zeit Online (in German). Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  79. ^ "El horchatero e inventor valenciano Andoni Monforte ha ganado un juicio a LIDL en Alemania". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 23 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  80. ^ Squires, Nick (11 October 2017). "Lidl accused of airbrushing crosses from historic Italian church in publicity image". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  81. ^ Rudgard, Olivia (4 September 2017). "Lidl airbrushes crosses from church on Greek food packaging to be 'religiously neutral'". Retrieved 7 January 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  82. ^ "Retuschierte Kirchen: Griechen fordern von Lidl "Respekt" für ihre Kultur". 5 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018 – via www.welt.de.
  83. ^ "Streit mit Griechenland: Lidl will wieder Kirchenkreuze auf Verpackungen zeigen". 6 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018 – via www.welt.de.
  84. ^ ""Lidl" mįslė: prekė ta pati, tik lietuviui brangesnė nei vokiečiui ar prancūzui - Verslas - 15min.lt". 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  85. ^ "Piktinasi "Lidl" kainų pasiutpolke: ar dar ilgai kvailinsite lietuvius? - KaunoDiena.lt". 9 November 2017. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  86. ^ "Pasipiktino: ta pati "Lidl" prekė Lietuvoje – brangiau nei užsienyje - DELFI Pilietis". 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  87. ^ ""Lidlas" prisipažino: taip, Lietuvoje drabužiai brangesni - DELFI Verslas". 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  88. ^ "Italy police take over four Lidl offices in mafia swoop". Reuters. 15 May 2017. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  89. ^ "Rat poison found at Lidl supermarkets". The Local. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  90. ^ "Discounter: Lidl legt Rattengift in Verkaufsräumen aus". Die Welt (in German). 13 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2018.

External linksEdit