Portal:COVID-19

The COVID-19 portal

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimise the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The pandemic has triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights. (Full article)

About the virus

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus—which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families. Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 14 August 2022, 589,868,207 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 6,434,710 reported deaths.[1]


Updated August 14, 2022.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 589,868,207 6,434,710
European Union European Union[b] 161,945,633 1,128,320
United States United States 92,919,750 1,037,017
India India 44,253,464 527,037
France France 34,253,699 153,133
Brazil Brazil 34,148,131 681,253
Germany Germany 31,535,343 145,698
United Kingdom United Kingdom 23,509,727 186,284
Italy Italy 21,480,076 173,982
South Korea South Korea 21,355,958 25,623
Russia Russia 18,578,731 375,306
Turkey Turkey 16,295,817 99,678
Japan Japan 15,478,389 35,045
Spain Spain 13,294,139 111,667
Vietnam Vietnam 11,364,355 43,097
Australia Australia 9,794,953 12,862
Argentina Argentina 9,602,534 129,440
Netherlands Netherlands 8,373,241 22,629
Iran Iran 7,468,894 142,861
Mexico Mexico 6,925,668 328,724
Colombia Colombia 6,286,392 141,287
Indonesia Indonesia 6,278,332 157,208
Poland Poland 6,118,482 116,773
Portugal Portugal 5,376,433 24,722
Ukraine Ukraine 5,304,634 116,508
Taiwan Taiwan 4,867,766 9,413
Austria Austria 4,861,952 20,485
Malaysia Malaysia 4,732,502 36,080
Thailand Thailand 4,620,425 31,828
Israel Israel 4,613,292 11,483
Greece Greece 4,577,675 31,722
Belgium Belgium 4,453,483 32,364
Chile Chile 4,369,706 59,961
Canada Canada 4,141,368 43,440
Peru Peru 4,013,831 214,890
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,011,962 40,641
South Africa South Africa 4,004,555 101,982
Switzerland Switzerland 3,994,397 13,939
Philippines Philippines 3,827,758 60,992
Denmark Denmark 3,252,087 6,792
Romania Romania 3,154,721 66,336
Slovakia Slovakia 2,580,748 20,236
Sweden Sweden 2,551,996 19,528
Iraq Iraq 2,451,178 25,326
Serbia Serbia 2,203,039 16,438
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,008,644 29,312
Hungary Hungary 2,005,399 46,966
Singapore Singapore 1,791,046 1,556
Jordan Jordan 1,720,778 14,090
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,710,749 16,877
New Zealand New Zealand 1,687,705 1,750
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,650,791 7,743
Pakistan Pakistan 1,562,307 30,523
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,465,506 19,030
Norway Norway 1,458,057 3,834
Hong Kong Hong Kong 1,412,043 9,562
Morocco Morocco 1,263,373 16,268
Finland Finland 1,238,998 5,350
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,226,064 37,486
Lithuania Lithuania 1,200,279 9,230
Croatia Croatia 1,200,113 16,484
Lebanon Lebanon 1,195,784 10,572
Tunisia Tunisia 1,139,241 29,153
Cuba Cuba 1,109,360 8,529
Slovenia Slovenia 1,102,935 6,745
Bolivia Bolivia 1,079,371 22,126
Guatemala Guatemala 1,072,241 19,223
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,057,695 8,780
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,003,929 2,339
Belarus Belarus 994,037 7,118
Nepal Nepal 992,727 11,986
Ecuador Ecuador 975,234 35,811
Uruguay Uruguay 973,420 7,423
Mongolia Mongolia 966,423 2,123
Panama Panama 960,300 8,434
China China[c] 917,625 5,226
Latvia Latvia 881,020 5,909
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 811,853 9,269
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 804,585 9,773
Paraguay Paraguay 712,907 19,357
State of Palestine Palestine 697,447 5,691
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 667,916 16,619
Bahrain Bahrain 666,373 1,512
Kuwait Kuwait 655,854 2,562
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 633,689 4,384
Myanmar Myanmar 614,360 19,435
Estonia Estonia 593,571 2,634
Cyprus Cyprus 571,994 1,149
Moldova Moldova 551,862 11,662
Venezuela Venezuela 540,102 5,775
Egypt Egypt 515,645 24,781
Libya Libya 505,956 6,434
Ethiopia Ethiopia 492,738 7,569
Honduras Honduras 447,365 10,954
Armenia Armenia 428,648 8,637
Qatar Qatar 418,622 681
Oman Oman 397,231 4,628
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 390,650 15,942
Kenya Kenya 337,938 5,673
North Macedonia North Macedonia 334,562 9,414
Zambia Zambia 331,925 4,016
Botswana Botswana 325,824 2,774
Albania Albania 321,345 3,570
Luxembourg Luxembourg 284,931 1,119
Montenegro Montenegro 269,213 2,758
Algeria Algeria 269,008 6,878
Kosovo Kosovo 266,293 3,184
Nigeria Nigeria 262,520 3,147
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 256,522 5,587
Mauritius Mauritius 248,720 1,019
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 243,509 1,637
Mozambique Mozambique 229,859 2,219
Brunei Brunei 215,283 225
Laos Laos 212,323 757
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 204,671 2,991
Iceland Iceland 203,518 179
El Salvador El Salvador 190,818 4,217
Afghanistan Afghanistan 188,820 7,758
Maldives Maldives 184,591 307
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 174,896 4,075
Uganda Uganda 169,396 3,628
Namibia Namibia 169,253 4,073
Ghana Ghana 168,350 1,458
Jamaica Jamaica 147,908 3,221
Cambodia Cambodia 137,207 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 132,354 1,466
Cameroon Cameroon 120,967 1,933
Malta Malta 113,501 797
Angola Angola 102,636 1,917
Barbados Barbados 97,411 516
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 92,456 1,391
Senegal Senegal 87,752 1,968
Malawi Malawi 87,710 2,673
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 86,092 815
Suriname Suriname 80,988 1,380
French Polynesia French Polynesia 76,139 649
Eswatini Eswatini 73,326 1,419
New Caledonia New Caledonia 72,362 314
Guyana Guyana 70,439 1,275
Fiji Fiji 67,925 875
Belize Belize 67,630 680
Madagascar Madagascar 66,557 1,409
Sudan Sudan 63,128 4,960
Mauritania Mauritania 62,705 992
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 62,253 410
Bhutan Bhutan 60,663 21
Syria Syria 56,700 3,157
Gabon Gabon 48,592 306
Burundi Burundi 48,002 38
Andorra Andorra 45,899 154
Seychelles Seychelles 45,692 168
Curaçao Curaçao 45,209 283
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 44,820 663
Aruba Aruba 42,478 226
Togo Togo 38,273 281
Tanzania Tanzania 38,205 841
Isle of Man Isle of Man 37,794 114
Guinea Guinea 37,470 447
The Bahamas Bahamas 36,905 823
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Lesotho Lesotho 34,206 704
Haiti Haiti 32,703 838
Mali Mali 31,244 739
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 29,653 29
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 28,341 388
Benin Benin 27,316 163
Somalia Somalia 27,020 1,361
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 24,837 386
East Timor Timor-Leste 23,074 135
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 21,544 153
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 21,128 387
San Marino San Marino 20,130 118
Gibraltar Gibraltar 20,034 106
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 18,907 86
Grenada Grenada 18,895 234
South Sudan South Sudan 17,823 138
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
Bermuda Bermuda 17,556 148
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 16,892 183
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Samoa Samoa 15,405 29
Nicaragua Nicaragua 14,872 244
Dominica Dominica 14,852 68
Central African Republic Central African Republic 14,803 113
Monaco Monaco 14,277 61
Tonga Tonga 13,405 12
The Gambia Gambia 12,238 368
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,903 2,152
Vanuatu Vanuatu 11,746 14
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 10,999 37
Eritrea Eritrea 10,134 103
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,404 115
Niger Niger 9,132 311
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 8,820 144
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 8,452 174
Comoros Comoros 8,351 161
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,740 126
Liberia Liberia 7,578 294
Chad Chad 7,444 193
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 7,139 19
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 7,131 63
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6,485 46
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,338 36
Cook Islands Cook Islands 6,209 1
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,120 76
Palau Palau 5,308 6
Anguilla Anguilla 3,620 10
Kiribati Kiribati 3,430 13
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,131 1
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,867
Montserrat Montserrat 1,097 8
Macau Macau 791 6
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 761 7
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 681 2
Vatican City Vatican City 29 0
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 4
North Korea North Korea 1 6
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

About the symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to critical and possibly fatal illness. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the more physically close people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

The number of people generally infected by one infected person varies, but it is estimated that the R0 ("R nought" or "R zero") number is around 2.5. The disease often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location. Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one person. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash, which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the impact of the COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2022 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2022 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. It led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus. The pandemic was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022 food crises.

Many fashion, sport, and technology events have been canceled or have changed to be online. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main types of tests detect either the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID-19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19, though some people have still managed to get the virus even after being vaccinated. According to a June 2022 study, COVID-19 vaccines prevented an additional 14.4 to 19.8 million deaths in 185 countries and territories from 8 December 2020 to 8 December 2021. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 15 August 2022, there are 2,340 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-08-14.

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