Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performing arts

A theater marquee in Mount Pleasant, Michigan promotes social distancing

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the performing arts, mirroring its impacts across all arts sectors. Due to physical distancing requirements and closure of the physical venues, curtailing not only public performances but also rehearsals, many performing arts institutions attempted to adapt by offering new (or newly expanded) digital services. In particular this resulted in the free online streaming of previously recorded performances of many companies – especially orchestral performances and plays – lists of which were collated by journalists[1][2][3] as well as bespoke crowdsourcing projects.[4][5]

Cancellations and closureEdit

TheatreEdit

Many theatre performances have been cancelled or delayed. All Broadway theatres in New York have been closed until 6 September 2020,[6] while West End theatres in London are closed until 28 June 2020.[7] Several shows were already scheduled to end, but were forced to close earlier than expected.[8][9] There are also shows that cancelled their entire run.[10][11] Waitress on West End and Frozen on Broadway announced they are closed permanently, despite at the time of their announcements, they would be able to reopen after the shut down.[12][13]

Cameron Mackintosh, a theatre producer, noted it will take four to five months for actors to return to the stage after social distancing ends.[14]

Impacted theatre performances
Shows / company(ies) Location Details Source
& Juliet   Shaftesbury Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
101 Dalmatians   Regent's Park Open Air Theatre London, England World premiere postponed from 16 May 2020 to 15 May 2021. [15]
4000 Miles (revival)   Old Vic, London, England Postponed [16]
9 to 5: The Musical   Savoy Theatre, London, England Closed permanently after final performance in March 2020 [9]
Ain't Too Proud   Imperial Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Aladdin   New Amsterdam Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
American Buffalo (revival)   Circle in the Square Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed to 7 June 2020. [6]
Beetlejuice   Winter Garden Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed permanently final performance on 10 March 2020; may move to another theatre or tour [8]
Blithe Spirit (revival)   Duke of York's Theatre, London, England Postponed to fall. [17]
Birthday Candles   American Airlines Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 7 June 2020. [6]
The Book of Mormon   Eugene O'Neill Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020 [6]
  Prince of Wales Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Caroline, or Change   Studio 54, New York City, New York, U.S. Postpone to fall. [17]
Chicago (revival)   Ambassador Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Cinderella   Gillian Lynne Theatre, London, England Postponed to October 2020. [18]
City of Angels (revival)   Garrick Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Come from Away   Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Phoenix Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Company (revival)   Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Postponed. [6]
Dear Evan Hansen   Music Box Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 7 June 2020. [6]
  Noël Coward Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Diana   Longacre Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [6]
Endgame and Rough for Theatre II double bill   Old Vic, London, England Closed two weeks ahead of its scheduled end date in March 2020 [19]
Everybody's Talking About Jamie   Apollo Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Flying Over Sunset   Vivian Beaumont Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [20]
Frozen   St. James Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed permanently after final performance on 11 March 2020. [13]
Girl from the North Country (revival)   Belasco Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Hadestown   Walter Kerr Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Hairspray (revival)   London Coliseum, London, England Postponed to 1 September to 8 November. [21]
Hamilton   Richard Rodgers Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Victoria Palace Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Hangmen   John Golden Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Cancelled after 13 previews. [22]
Harry Potter and the Cursed Child   Lyric Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Palace Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
How I Learned to Drive (revival)   Samuel J. Friedman Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Premiere postponed indefinitely. [23]
Identical   Nottingham Playhouse, Nottingham, England World premiere postponed to 2021 [24]
The Inheritance   Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Final four performances cancelled. [6]
Jagged Little Pill   Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 7 June 2020. [6]
The Lehman Trilogy   Nederlander Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Premiere postponed. [6]
Leopoldstadt   Wyndham's Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Les Misérables   Sondheim Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Lion King   Minskoff Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Lyceum Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Local Hero   Old Vic, London, England Postponed. [16]
Magic Goes Wrong   Vaudeville Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Mamma Mia!   Novello Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Mary Poppins (revival)   Prince Edward Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Matilda the Musical   Cambridge Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Mean Girls   August Wilson Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020.
Sabrina Carpenter expected to return following her limited run being cut short.
[6][25]
The Minutes   Cort Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Moulin Rouge!   Al Hirschfeld Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
The Mousetrap   St Martin's Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Mrs. Doubtfire   Stephen Sondheim Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [6]
On Blueberry Hill   Trafalgar Studios, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Only Fools and Horses The Musical   Theatre Royal Haymarket, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Phantom of the Opera   Majestic Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Her Majesty's Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Play That Goes Wrong   Duchess Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Plaza Suite   Hudson Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Previews and opening postponed. [6]
Pretty Woman: The Musical   Piccadilly Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Prince of Egypt   Dominion Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Seagull (revival)   Playhouse Theatre, London, England Cancelled. [10]
Sing Street   Lyceum Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [6]
Six   Brooks Atkinson Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [26]
  Arts Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Sunday in the Park with George (revival)   Savoy Theatre, London, UK Postponed to 2021. [7]
Take Me Out (revival)   Hayes Theater, New York City, New York, U.S. Opening postponed. [6]
Thriller – Live   Lyric Theatre, London, England Closed permanently after final performance on 15 March 2020. [7]
Tina: The Tina Turner Musical   Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Aldwych Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
To Kill a Mockingbird   Shubert Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
Uncle Vanya (revival)   Harold Pinter Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Upstart Crow   Gielgud Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Waitress   Adelphi Theatre, London, England Closed permanently after final performance on 16 March 2020
Sara Bareilles and Gavin Creel's limited run ended on 14 March 2020.
[12]
West Side Story (revival)   Broadway Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
What's New Pussycat?   Leeds Playhouse Opening postponed from 23 September 2020 until 2021 [27]
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (revival)   Booth Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Cancelled after 9 previews [11]
Wicked   Gershwin Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S. Closed until 6 September 2020. [6]
  Apollo Victoria Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
The Woman in Black   Fortune Theatre, London, England Closed until 28 June 2020. [7]
Impacted theatre companies / theatres
Company(ies) Location Details Source
Royal National Theatre   London, England Closed until 30 June 2020. [28]
Royal Shakespeare Company   Stratford-upon-Avon, England Closed until 30 June 2020 [29]
Shakespeare's Globe   London, England Closed until further notice. [30]
Impacted tours
Shows / company(ies) Details Source
Aladdin Remaining engagements in San Antonio, Texas and Kansas City, Missouri postponed. [31]
Anastasia Performances in Tulsa, Oklahoma rescheduled to August 11–16. Engagements in New Orleans and Jacksonville, Florida postponed. [31]
The Bachelor Live on Stage Tours from Kansas City, Missouri to Austin, Texas have been cancelled or postponed until October 2020. [32][33]
Bandstand Engagements in Schenectady, Morristown, Worcester, Reno, Modesto, Boise, Sacramento, and Lexington postponed or cancelled. [31]
The Band's Visit Engagements until 26 July, including stops in Richmond, Des Moines, San Francisco, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles, on hiatus. [31]
Beautiful: The Carole King Musical Various one and two-night engagements canceled until Fall 2020. [31]
The Book of Mormon All remaining engagements cancelled, from the San Francisco leg to the Hershey, Pennsylvania leg. [31]
Cats Performances in St. Louis, Rochester, Schenectady, Fort Wayne, New Brunswick, Midland, and Kalamazoo cancelled or postponed. [31]
Come from Away Engagements in West Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Fort Myers halted. [31]
Dear Evan Hansen Performances in Detroit and Philadelphia cancelled. Tour is slated to resume on 5 May in Baltimore. [31]
Frozen Engagements in Portland, San Diego, and Salt Lake City postponed. Tour is scheduled to resume 6 May in Minneapolis.
Hamilton Performances in Pantages Theatre in Los Angeles on hiatus until 21 April. The musical's Philip Tour is cancelled, including performances in Toronto and Ottawa. Its Angelica Tour in Atlanta rescheduled to 4 August – 6 September. [31]
Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Performances at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco canceled through 30 April. [31]
Hello, Dolly! All remaining performances cancelled. [31]
Jersey Boys Performances in Yakima, Spokane, Seattle, Reno, Thousand Oaks, Las Cruces, Tucson, and Honolulu cancelled through May 2020. [31]
Jesus Christ Superstar Engagements in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. cancelled. Select performances in Dallas are affected. [31]
The Last Ship Engagement in Washington, D.C. postponed until further notice. [31]
Les Misérables Engagements in Philadelphia, El Paso, and Fresno to be rescheduled to a later date. [31]
The Lion King Engagement at the Stranahan Theater in Toledo postponed. Performances in Omaha cancelled. Tour is scheduled to resume on 13 May in Denver. [31]
Mean Girls Performances in New Orleans, Denver, and Las Vegas cancelled. The tour intends to resume on 28 April in Los Angeles. [31]
Miss Saigon All remaining stops cancelled. [31]
My Fair Lady Performances in Milwaukee and Madison cancelled. Run in Cleveland postponed. Engagement in Chicago rescheduled to 10–23 May 2021. [31]
Once on This Island All remaining stops cancelled. [31]
The Play That Goes Wrong All remaining engagements have been canceled through May. [31]
SpongeBob SquarePants All remaining engagements cancelled. [31]
Summer: The Donna Summer Musical Remaining performances in Schenectady, Pittsburgh, and West Palm Beach cancelled. Performances are slated to resume 5 May in Tampa. [31]
What the Constitution Means to Me Remaining performances at the Broadway Playhouse in Chicago cancelled. [31]
Wicked Performances in Madison and East Lansing cancelled, with shows in Columbus preparing to follow suit. Tour is currently slated to return on 20 May in Norfolk. [31]
Impacted award ceremonies
Event Details Source
2020 Laurence Olivier Awards Cancelled, with the awards being issued in an alternate manner. [34]
74th Tony Awards Postponed. [35]
Pulitzer Prize for Drama 2020 announcement postponed to May 4 via live stream on the prize's official website. [36]

DanceEdit

Most dance productions have been cancelled or postponed. Some companies had to cancel their entire season.

Impacted dance productions
Companies Location Details Source
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater   Dallas, Los Angeles, Palm Desert, Las Vegas, Berkeley, Seattle, San Antonio, Houston, Amherst and New York City, U.S. Tour engagements cancelled, with hopes to reschedule; 2020 Lincoln Center season cancelled. [37]
Alonzo King LINES Ballet   Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, California, U.S. 2020 Spring season cancelled, along with its gala. [37]
American Ballet Theatre   Chicago, Illinois, Durham, North Carolina, Detroit, Michigan and New York City, United States
  Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Tour engagements in U.S. and Abu Dhabi cancelled; 80th Anniversary Season at the Metropolitan Opera House cancelled, along with New York Premiere Of Love and Rage and anniversaries of several productions; 80th Anniversary Spring Gala postponed to 21 October 2020. [37]
Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo   Monte-Carlo, Monaco Performances April and 2020 edition of F(ê)ates de la Danse cancelled. [37]
Birmingham Royal Ballet   Birmingham Hippodrome, Birmingham, England Performances through July cancelled. [38]
Bolshoi Ballet   Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, Russia
  Kennedy Center, Washington D.C., U.S.
All performances through April 10 and appearance in Washington D.C. cancelled. [37]
Boston Ballet   Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Remainder of 2020–21 season suspended; Stephen Galloway's new work premiere postponed to February 2021 [37]
Dutch National Ballet   Stopera, Amsterdam, The Netherlands All performances through 12 July 2020 cancelled. [39]
English National Ballet   London, High Wycombe and Bromley, United Kingdom
  Barcelona, Spain
  Mexico City, Mexico
UK and international engagements through 28 June cancelled. [40]
Joffrey Ballet   Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Postpones all remaining performances in the 2019–20 season, including Don Quixote [37]
Hong Kong Ballet   United States Part of U.S. tour cancelled. [41]
Madison Ballet   Overture Center for the Arts, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S. 2020 Spring season cancelled, including A Midsummer Night’s Dream [37]
Martha Graham Dance Company   New York City, New York, U.S. Postpone all performances through 20 June. [37]
National Ballet of Canada   Toronto and Ottawa, Canada
 London, England
2020/21 season revised; World premieres of MADDADDAM and Karen Kain's Swan Lake postponed to November 2020 and June 2021 respectively; North American premiere of Victoria postponed to June 2022; Karen Kain 50th Anniversary Celebration Gala postponed to 24 November 2020; tour engagements in Ottawa and UK cancelled. [37]
New York City Ballet   Lincoln Center, New York City, New York, U.S.
  Sadler's Wells Theatre, London, England
2020 Spring Season, including premieres of new works, and tour engagements at London cancelled. [37]
Northern Ballet   London, Leeds, Sheffield, Cardiff, Leicester, Newcastle and Milton Keynes, England
Edinburgh, Scotland
All tour engagements through 30 May 2020 cancelled. [42]
Pacific Northwest Ballet   McCaw Hall, Seattle, Washington, U.S. All performances through 12 June 2020 cancelled, including Giselle. [37]
Paris Opera Ballet   Paris, France All performances through 14 July 2020 cancelled; Eleonora Abbagnato's farewell performance delay to autumn [43]
The Royal Ballet   Royal Opera House, London, England All performances through 22 July 2020 cancelled. [37]
Royal Ballet of Flanders   Antwerp, Belgium Performances cancelled through 7 July 2020. [37]
San Francisco Ballet   War Memorial Opera House, San Francisco, California, U.S.
  Four Seasons Centre, Toronto, Canada
A Midsummer Night's Dream closed after opening night, will return in the next season; Remainder of 2020 season cancelled, along with company premiere of The Seasons; Appearance in Toronto cancelled. [37]
Scottish Ballet   New York City and Washington D.C., U.S. Remainder of U.S. performances cancelled, along with U.S. premiere of The Crucible [37]
The Washington Ballet   Kennedy Center, Washington D.C., U.S. Performance through June 2020 cancelled; world premiere of Julie Kent and Victor Barbee's Swan Lake postpone to May 2021. [44]

OrchestraEdit

Most orchestra performances have been cancelled or postponed.

Impacted orchestra performances
Companies Location Details Source
Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra   Lighthouse, Poole; Great Hall, University of Exeter, Exeter; Portsmouth Guildhall, Portsmouth; and Symphony Hall, Birmingham, England Productions including Elektra, and Arabian Nights cancelled. [45]
Boston Symphony Orchestra   Seoul, South Korea
  Taipei, Taiwan
  Hong Kong
  Shanghai, China
Asian tour cancelled. [45]
Carnegie Hall   New York City, New York, U.S. All rehearsals and performances cancelled until 31 March. [46]
City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra   Symphony Hall, Birmingham, England All concerts cancelled until mid-April 2020. [45]
Cleveland Orchestra   Linz and Vienna, Austria
  Paris, France
  Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Europe and Middle East tour cancelled. [45]
Dragonball Symphonic Orchestra United States Tour All North American performances cancelled
Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra   Osaka and Tokyo, Japan
  Daejeon, Seoul, Chuncheon and Gwangju, South Korea
Japan and South Korea shows cancelled. [45]
Johann Strauss Orchestra   United States Remainder of U.S. tour cancelled. [45]
Los Angeles Philharmonic   Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California, U.S. All performances until 31 March cancelled. [45]
National Children's Orchestra of Great Britain   Lighthouse, Poole, Dorset, England and The Anvil, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England Spring residency concerts cancelled [45]
New York Philharmonic   David Geffen Hall, New York City, New York, U.S. All performances until 31 March cancelled. [45]
Philadelphia Orchestra   Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. All events and rehearsals until 23 March cancelled. [45]
Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra   Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool, England All events in the Philharmonic Hall and Music Room cancelled. [45]
Royal Scottish National Orchestra   Glasgow, Scotland All concerts cancelled until 29 April 2020. [45]
London Philharmonic Orchestra   Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
  Essen, Düsseldorf, Munich, Frankfurt, and Hanover, Germany
  Vienna, Austria
European tour cancelled. [45]
National Symphony Orchestra   Japan Japan shows cancelled. [45]
Orchestre de Paris   Philharmonie de Paris, Paris, France All concerts cancelled. [45]
Orchestre de Chambre de Lausanne   Salle Métropole, Lausanne, Switzerland March concerts cancelled. [45]

OperaEdit

Most opera productions have been cancelled or postponed.

Impacted opera productions
Companies Location Details Source
Bavarian State Opera   Munich, Germany All performances cancelled until 19 April. [45]
Dutch National Opera   Stopera, Amsterdam, Netherlands All performances cancelled before 1 June 2020, including world premiere of Ritratto [47]
English National Opera   London Coliseum, London, England All performances up to 23 May 2020 cancelled. [48]
Los Angeles Opera   Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Performance of Roberto Devereux cancelled. [45]
Metropolitan Opera   Metropolitan Opera House, New York City, New York All rehearsals and performances cancelled until 31 March. [46]
Opera Holland Park   Holland Park, London, England June–August 2020 season postponed. [45]
Opera North   Grand Theatre, Leeds, England All public activities cancelled or postponed until 30 April. [45]
The Royal Opera   Royal Opera House, London, England Productions including La bohème cancelled. [49]
San Diego Opera   San Diego Civic Theatre, San Diego, California, U.S. All performances cancelled. [45]
Seattle Opera   McCaw Hall, Seattle, Washington, U.S. All events until 31 March cancelled. [45]

FestivalsEdit

Impacted festivals
Shows / company(ies) Location Details Source
Edinburgh Fringe Festival   Edinburgh, Scotland 2020 edition cancelled [50]
Holland Festival   Amsterdam Netherlands Attempting to convert to online event [51]
Hong Kong Arts Festival   Hong Kong 2020 edition cancelled [52]
Oerol Festival   Terschelling, Netherlands 2020 edition cancelled [53]

AdaptationsEdit

Individual actors, such as Patrick Stewart and Sam Neill, entertained from isolation in order to "...be in this together and that this has to take the form of being apart", as Neill described his contribution of comedic relief.[54] Stewart, a trained Shakespearian actor, broadcast himself reading one sonnet each day via Instagram,[55] readings described as "more than light entertainment, they’re moments of connection".[56] The Sydney Theatre Company commissioned actors to film themselves at home discussing, then performing, a monologue from one of the characters they had previously played on stage.[57] The filmed version of the stage musical Hamilton, though originally scheduled for an October 15, 2021 theatrical release, but was later moved up to July 3, 2020 exclusively on Disney+, as announced by the show's creator Lin-Manuel Miranda on May 12, 2020.[58]

The original West End of Mamma Mia!, reunited via a group video call, sang "Thank You for the Music" in tribute to NHS and a cast member with coronavirus.[59] Miranda, and the cast of the musical Hamilton (including original performers Leslie Odom Jr., Anthony Ramos and Renée Elise Goldsberry) reunited on John Krasinski's Some Good News to surprise a nine-year-old girl named Aubrey who was a "superfan" of Hamilton but was unable to see the show due to the coronavirus. They also sang "Alexander Hamilton" for Aubrey.[60]

Many ballet companies ran classes via Zoom to their dancers which were also broadcast.[61] Ballet dancers, including principal dancer with the American Ballet Theatre, James B. Whiteside and Isabella Boylston, as well as the artistic director and a lead principal dancer of the English National Ballet Tamara Rojo, offered live classes on social media.[62]

Musicians had performed at-home concerts during quarantine.[63]

Meanwhile, due to the closure of productions and the simultaneous shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) several theatre costume departments – notably that of the Berlin State Opera – converted to creating face masks.[64]

Some professional performing arts companies have released previously recorded productions,[1][2][3] including:

Company Type(s) Work(s) Medium Ref.
Andrew Lloyd Webber Theatre Weekly broadcast YouTube [65]
London Palladium Theatre The Wind in the Willows Own website [66]
Phoebe Waller-Bridge Theatre Fleabag Soho Theatre and Amazon Prime Video, donation required [67]
National Theatre Theatre Weekly broadcast YouTube [68]
Royal Shakespeare Company Theatre 6 productions BBC iPlayer [69]
Shakespeare's Globe Theatre 40 productions Own website [70]
The Australian Ballet Ballet Biweekly broadcast Own website [71]
Bolshoi Ballet Ballet Six ballets, one a week YouTube [72]
Dutch National Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast Own website [72]
English National Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast YouTube [72]
Hamburg Ballet Ballet Five ballets Own website [72]
New York City Ballet Ballet Twice a week broadcast Facebook and YouTube [72]
Northern Ballet Ballet 1984 YouTube [72]
Paris Opera Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast Own website [73]
The Royal Ballet Ballet Biweekly broadcast YouTube and Facebook [74]
Romeo and Juliet: Beyond Words BBC iPlayer [75]
Royal Danish Ballet Ballet 6 ballets Own website [72]
Royal New Zealand Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast Facebook [76]
San Francisco Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast Own website, YouTube, Facebook and Instagram [72]
Romeo and Juliet Lincoln Center's YouTube and Facebook [72]
Stuttgart Ballet Ballet Weekly broadcast Own website and YouTube [72]
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Dance Weekly broadcast Own website [77]
Martha Graham Dance Company Dance Weekly broadcast YouTube [77]
Sadler's Wells Theatre Dance Weekly broadcast Facebook and YouTube [77]
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 600 orchestral concerts performed over 15 years Own website [78]
Orchestre de l'Opéra national de Paris Orchestra Weekly broadcast Own website [73]
Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra Symphony No. 3, Eroica by Beethoven YouTube [79]
Berlin State Opera Opera Daily broadcast Own website [80]
Dutch National Opera Opera World premiere of Ritratto Own website [81]
Metropolitan Opera Opera Daily broadcast Own app [82][83]
Paris Opera Opera Weekly broadcast Own website [73]
The Royal Opera Opera Biweekly broadcast YouTube and Facebook [74]
Cirque du Soleil Circus Weekly broadcast YouTube [84]

ImpactsEdit

Budgets and employmentEdit

Due to the closures, revenues for cultural organisations reliant on ticket sales were expected to cause devastating effects upon revenues, with consequent impacts upon organisational staffing, and on independent artists and professionals. This is due to the fact that the arts and culture is a sector of national economies characterised by particularly a high proportion of self-employment.[85] For example, by the 20th of March the Cirque du Soleil had laid off 95% of its workforce and closed traveling circus performances operating in seven countries,[86] Performing arts fair such as Hong Kong Arts Festival were cancelled.[52]

Arts and culture sector budgetary and employment reports from individual countries included:
  Australia. Opera Australia – the nation's largest performing arts company – temporarily stood down nearly all its staff[87] amid speculation it would also need to sell major assets in order to avoid bankruptcy.[88] By the 23rd of March, 255,000 cultural events had been cancelled with an estimated revenue loss of $A280 million, self reported through the crowdsourced website ILostMyGig.net.au.[89]

  United States. As the pandemic spread and closures became the standard not the exception, institutions started publishing expected revenue shortfall calculations.[90] For example, by the end of March: the Metropolitan opera expects to lose US$60 million in revenue.[91]

In parallel to museum sector layoffs, staff began to unionise, even though "Social distancing orders prevent the in-person meetings required to sign the cards required to file for union elections.[92] Meanwhile, on 18 March and in response to the rapid rise of online performances during the closures of performance spaces, the Actors' Equity Association – the union announced a new "streaming media agreement" available to productions in areas with physical distancing regulations in force, for "select producers to capture and make a performance available online for one-time viewing to ticket buyers.[93] A planned performance of 'Tis Pity She's a Whore via videoconferencing software was cancelled at the last minute due to a dispute between the theatre producers and the union. The AEA argued that during a time when almost everyone in the arts is going without a regular pay cheque and is worried about their health care, "it's deeply sad to see that some employers will still ask Equity actors to work without the protections of a contract."[94] The theatre producers argued that "cyberspace" is not within the AEA's jurisdiction nor "...should free online-only experience, in which actors participate from the safety and comfort of their own home on teleconference, without rehearsal or admission price," be subject to the Off-Broadway agreement.[95]

Financial aidEdit

With the extensive financial disruption across all areas of the economy, many governments announced fiscal stimulus and economic bailout packages which included specific resources for the arts and cultural sectors. Equally, various charities and industry bodies raised funds to support their sector.

Arts and culture sector financial stimulus packages from individual countries included:

  Australia. In March, a petition of over 50 arts and culture organisations (including peak bodies from the music, dance, visual arts, museums, writers' and indigenous arts groups) requested a financial aid package "...to a value of 2% of the $111.7 billion [cultural and creative] industry". Furthermore, it requesting the Prime Minister "...issue a public statement recognising the value of our industry to all Australians" and noting that the industry had not yet recovered from the impact of the 2019–20 Australian bushfire season.[96] Separately, Live Performance Australia, "the advocacy body for the live performing industry" had requested $850 million for its sector.[citation needed]

Instead of the $2.2billion requested in the petition, In early April the federal government announced a package of $27million in specific Arts funding – $7 million for the Indigenous Visual Arts Industry Support program, $10 million for Regional Arts Australia's regional arts fund, and $10 million for Support Act,"the charity that provides financial support and counselling to people in the music industry".[97] It also expanded unemployment assistance in response to the pandemic – dubbed JobKeeper – however it specifically excluded "freelancers and casuals on short-term contracts, or who have worked for a series of employers in the last year". Given arts sector's high reliance on short-term contracts, a large proportion of arts and cultural sector professionals were ineligible for the scheme.[98][99]

  United Kingdom. Arts Council England announced £160 million would be made available for arts organisations, including £50 million for organisations it does not usually fund and £20 million for individual and freelance artists.[85]

  United States. In late March the United States federal government announced a $2 trillion economic stimulus package in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act. It included: "$75 million for the National Endowment for the Arts and $75 million for the National Endowment for the Humanities, which can pass on the money to institutions that need it. Another $50 million was designated to the Institute of Museum and Library Services, which distributes funds to museums and libraries.[100] Some Republicans criticized US$25 million in relief funding that was allocated for the Kennedy Center as wasteful spending.[101]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The best theatre to watch online right now". Time Out Worldwide. Archived from the original on 2020-04-06. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  2. ^ a b Convery, Stephanie; Rawson, Sharnee (2020-03-20). "Livestreaming schedule: music, art, literature and events from Australia and beyond". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
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