Zero-COVID, also known as COVID-Zero and "Find, Test, Trace, Isolate and Support" (FTTIS), is a public health policy that has been implemented by some countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.[1] This "control and maximum suppression" strategy involves using public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software in order to stop community transmission of COVID-19 as soon as it is detected, with the goal of getting the area back to zero detected infections and resuming normal economic and social activities.[1][2]

A barrier on the state border of Queensland and New South Wales preventing interstate travel in April 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia.

A zero-COVID strategy consists of two phases: an initial suppression phase in which the virus is eliminated locally using aggressive public health measures, and a sustained containment phase, in which normal economic and social activities resume and public health measures are used to contain new outbreaks before they spread widely.[2] This strategy has been utilized to varying degrees by Australia, Canada,[3] mainland China, Hong Kong,[4] New Zealand, Singapore, Scotland,[5] South Korea,[6] Taiwan,[7] Tonga,[8] and Vietnam.[9][10] As of late 2021, due to challenges with the increased transmissibility of the Delta variant and Omicron variant, and also the arrival of COVID-19 vaccines, some countries are no longer pursuing zero-COVID. Currently, Mainland China,[11] Hong Kong,[12] Taiwan,[13] and Western Australia[14] are still pursuing a zero-COVID strategy.

Experts differentiate between zero-COVID, which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community.[15][2] These initial strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.[16]

Advocates of zero-COVID have pointed to the far lower death rates and higher economic growth in countries that have pursued elimination, compared with countries that have pursued mitigation,[15] and argue that swift, strict measures to eliminate the virus allow a faster return to normal life.[15] Opponents of zero-COVID argue that "it's not realistic to eliminate a respiratory virus such as SARS-CoV-2, any more than it is to eliminate the flu or the common cold".[17] To achieve zero-COVID in an area with high infection rates, one review estimated that it would take three months of strict lockdown.[18]

Elimination vs. mitigationEdit

 
Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact. In contrast, zero-COVID strategies aim to completely eliminate the virus and return to normal social and economic activities.

Epidemiologists differentiate between two broad strategies for responding to COVID-19 pandemic: mitigation and elimination.[2][19][20] Mitigation strategies (also commonly known as "flattening the curve") aim to reduce the growth of an epidemic and to prevent the healthcare system from becoming overburdened, yet still accept a level of ongoing viral transmission within the community.[2] By contrast, elimination strategies (commonly known as "zero-COVID") aim to completely stop the spread of the virus within the community in order to allow the resumption of normal social and economic activity.[2] In comparison with mitigation strategies, elimination involves stricter short-term measures to completely eliminate the virus, followed by milder long-term measures to prevent a return of the virus.[2][19]

After elimination of COVID-19 from a region, zero-COVID strategies require stricter border controls in order to prevent reintroduction of the virus, more rapid identification of new outbreaks and better contact tracing to end new outbreaks.[19] Advocates of zero-COVID argue that the costs of these measures are lower than the economic and social costs of long-term social distancing measures and increased mortality incurred by mitigation strategies.[19][2]

The long-term "exit path" for both elimination and mitigation strategies depends on the development of effective vaccines and treatments for COVID-19.[19][2]

Containment measuresEdit

The zero-COVID approach aims to prevent viral transmission, using a number of different measures, including vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions such as contact-tracing and quarantine. Successful containment or suppression reduces the basic reproduction number of the virus below the critical threshold.[20] Different combinations of measures are used during the initial containment phase, when the virus is first eliminated from a region, and the sustained containment phase, when the goal is to prevent reestablishment of viral transmission within the community.[21]

LockdownsEdit

Lockdowns encompass measures such as closure of non-essential businesses, stay-at-home orders and movement restrictions.[21] During lockdowns, governments must often supply basic necessities to households.[21][2] Lockdown measures are commonly used to achieve initial containment of the virus.[21] In China, lockdowns of specific high-risk communities are also sometimes used to suppress new outbreaks.[2]

Quarantine for travelersEdit

In order to prevent reintroduction of the virus into zero-COVID regions after initial containment has been achieved, quarantine for incoming travelers is commonly used. As each infected traveler could seed a new outbreak, the goal of travel quarantine is to intercept as large a percentage of infected travelers as possible.[21][22]

International flights to China are heavily restricted, and incoming travelers are required to undergo PCR testing and quarantine in designated hotels and facilities.[23] In order to facilitate quarantine for travelers, China has constructed specialized facilities at its busiest ports of entry, including Guangzhou and Xiamen.[21] New Zealand and Australia have also established managed isolation and quarantine facilities for incoming travelers.[22]

Through November 2020, border quarantine measures prevented nearly 4,000 infected international travelers from entering the wider community within China.[24] Each month, hundreds of travelers who test negative before flying to China subsequently test positive while undergoing quarantine after arrival.[21]

Contact tracing, quarantine and isolationEdit

 
Transmission chains

Contact-tracing involves identifying people who have been exposed to an infected person. When an infected person is identified, public health workers attempt to locate the people with whom they have come into close contact, and to quarantine and test them. Various studies have argued that early detection and isolation of infected people is the single most effective measure for preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2.[21][2]

In China, when an infected person is identified, all close contacts are required to undergo a 14-day quarantine, with multiple rounds of PCR testing.[24] In order to minimize the risk that infected people will transmit the virus to family members, China has implemented quarantine in centralized facilities for those close contacts deemed to be at the highest-risk of infection.[21] Secondary close contacts (contacts of close contacts) are sometimes required to quarantine at home.[21]

The widespread use of smartphones has enabled more rapid "digital" contact tracing. In China, "health code" applications are used to facilitate the identification of close contacts.[2] Taiwan has made use of digital contact tracing, notably to locate close contacts of passengers who disembarked from the Diamond Princess cruise ship, the site of an early outbreak in February 2020.[25]

Routine testing of key populationsEdit

In China, routine PCR testing is carried out on all patients who present with fever or respiratory symptoms.[24] In addition, various categories of workers, such as medical staff and workers who handle imported goods, are regularly tested.[24]

In China, routine testing of key populations has identified index patients in a number of outbreaks, including outbreaks in Beijing, Shanghai, Dalian, Qingdao, and Manchuria.[21] In some cases, index patients have been discovered while asymptomatic, limiting the amount of onward transmission into the community.[21]

Community-wide screeningEdit

An additional tool for identifying cases outside of known transmission chains is community-wide screening, in which populations of specific neighborhoods or cities are PCR tested. In China, community-wide PCR testing is carried out during outbreaks in order to identify infected people, including those without symptoms or known contact with infected people.[24] Community-wide screening is intended to rapidly isolate infected people from the general population, and to allow a quicker return to normal economic activity.[24] China first carried out community-wide screening from 14 May to 1 June 2020 in Wuhan, and has used this technique in subsequent outbreaks.[24] In outbreaks in June 2020 in Beijing and July 2020 in Dalian, community screening identified 26% and 22% of infections, respectively.[21] In order to test large populations quickly, China commonly uses pooled testing, combining 5 to 10 samples before testing, and retesting all individuals in each batch that tests positive.[21]

Zero-COVID implementation by countryEdit

AustraliaEdit

 
COVID-19 travel restrictions for Australians and permanent residents

The first confirmed case in Australia was identified on 25 January 2020, in Victoria, when a man who had returned from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, tested positive for the virus.[26] A human biosecurity emergency was declared on 18 March 2020. Australian borders were closed to all non-residents on 20 March,[27] and returning residents were required to spend two weeks in supervised quarantine hotels from 27 March.[28] Many individual states and territories also closed their borders to varying degrees, with some remaining closed until late 2020,[29] and continuing to periodically close during localised outbreaks.[30]

Social distancing rules were introduced on 21 March, and state governments started to close "non-essential" services.[31][32] "Non-essential services" included social gathering venues such as pubs and clubs but unlike many other countries did not include most business operations such as construction, manufacturing and many retail categories.[33]

During the second wave of May and June 2020, Victoria underwent a second strict lockdown which lasted around four months.[34] The wave ended with zero new cases being recorded on 26 October 2020.[35][36][37] Distinctive aspects of that response included early interventions to reduce reflected transmission from countries other than China during late January and February 2020; early recruitment of a large contact tracing workforce;[38] comparatively high public trust in government responses to the pandemic, at least compared to the US;[39] and later on, the use of short, intense lockdowns to facilitate exhaustive contact tracing of new outbreaks.[40][41] Australia's international borders also remained largely closed, with limited numbers of strictly controlled arrivals, for the duration of the pandemic.[42] Australia sought to develop a Bluetooth-based contact tracing app that does not use the privacy-preserving Exposure Notification framework supported natively by Android and Apple smartphones, and while these efforts were not particularly effective,[43][44][45] QR code-based contact tracing apps became ubiquitous in Australia's businesses.[46][47][48]

Due to the transmissibility of the Delta variant, which led to a major outbreak in New South Wales, the federal government and certain states of Australia outlined plans to phase out the zero-COVID strategy in August 2021, once the country reached a threshold of vaccination in the population.[49] However, the state of Western Australia continued to pursue a zero-COVID strategy.[50]

CanadaEdit

 
Canadian federal vaccination certificate "Vaccine Passport" issued in Yukon territory

The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5.[51] In March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada's provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses and restrictions on entry. Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, introduced following the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak.[52] For the first time in its legislative history, the act has been used, legally requiring all travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country to self-isolate for 14 days, until rules were changed to accommodate the fully vaccinated.

On September 23, 2020, Prime Minister Trudeau declared that Canada was experiencing a "second wave" of the virus.[53] New restrictions from provincial governments were put in place once again as cases increased, including variations of regional lockdowns. In late November, there was the disbandment of the Atlantic Bubble, a travel-restricted area of the country (formed of the four Atlantic provinces: New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador) which had been established in July 2020.[54]

Nation-wide cases, hospitalizations and deaths spiked again preceding the Christmas and holiday season in December 2020 and January 2021. Alarmed by hospital capacity issues, fatalities and new cases, heavy restrictions (such as lockdowns and curfews) were put in place again in affected areas (primarily Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta) and across the country. These lockdowns resulted in active cases to steadily decline, reaching a plateau in active cases in mid-February 2021.[55] After the Christmas and holiday season in December 2021 and January 2022, cases began to surge again across Canada, notably in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario. During this fourth wave of the virus, return to pandemic restrictions such as business closures and capacity limits were reinstated in provinces like Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta.[56] Vaccine passports were adopted in all provinces and two of the territories.[57][58]

ChinaEdit

 
Since 25 January 2020, all passengers entering or exiting mainland China in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong must write a health declaration where the individual must answer whether they have been to Hubei Province. This declaration form can also be filled by using WeChat.[59]

China was the first country to experience the COVID-19 pandemic. The first cluster of pneumonia patients was discovered in late December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and a public notice on the outbreak was distributed on 31 December 2019.[60]

On 23 January 2020, the Chinese government banned travel to and from Wuhan, and began implementing strict lockdowns in Wuhan and other cities throughout China.[60] These measures suppressed onward suppressed transmission of the virus below the critical threshold, bringing the basic reproduction number of the virus to near zero.[60] On 4 February 2020, around two weeks after the beginning of the lockdowns in Hubei province, case counts peaked in the province and began to decline thereafter.[60] The outbreak remained largely concentrated within Hubei province, with over 80% of cases nationwide through 22 March 2020 occurring there.[23]

As the epidemic receded, the focus shifted towards restarting economic activity and preventing a resurgence of the virus.[61] Low- and medium-risk areas of the country began to ease social distancing measures on 17 February 2020.[61] Reopening was accompanied by an increase in testing and the development of electronic "health codes" (using smartphone applications) to facilitate contact tracing.[61] Health code applications contain personalized risk information, based on recent contacts and test results.[61] Wuhan, the last major city to reopen, ended its lockdown on 8 April 2020.[62]

The death toll in China during the initial outbreak was approximately 4,600 according to official figures, and has been estimated at under 5,000 by a scientific study of excess pneumonia mortality published in The BMJ.[63]

China reported its first imported COVID-19 case from an incoming traveler on 30 January 2020.[61] As the number of imported cases rose and the number of domestic cases fell, China began imposing restrictions on entry into the country.[61] Inbound flights were restricted, and all incoming passengers were required to undergo quarantine.[61]

After the containment of the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) argued, "The successful containment effort builds confidence in China, based on experience and knowledge gained, that future waves of COVID-19 can be stopped, if not prevented. Case identification and management, coupled with identification and quarantine of close contacts, is a strategy that works."[2] The China CDC rejected a mitigation strategy, and instead explained that "[t]he current strategic goal is to maintain no or minimal indigenous transmission of SARS-CoV-2 until the population is protected through immunisation with safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, at which time the risk of COVID-19 from any source should be at a minimum. This strategy buys time for urgent development of vaccines and treatments in an environment with little ongoing morbidity and mortality."[2]

Since the end of the initial outbreak in Wuhan, there have been additional, smaller outbreaks caused by imported cases, which have been controlled through short-term, localized intense public health measures.[62] From July through August 2021, China experienced and contained 11 outbreaks of the Delta variant, with a total of 1,390 detected cases.[64] The largest of these outbreaks, in both geographic extent and in the number of people infected, began in Nanjing.[64] The index case of the outbreak, an airport worker, tested positive on 20 July 2021, and the outbreak was traced back to an infected passenger on a flight from Moscow that had arrived on 10 July.[64] The outbreak spread to multiple provinces before it was contained. Through 26 August, 1,162 infections related to the Nanjing outbreak were reported.[64]

New ZealandEdit

 
An Emergency Mobile Alert sent at 18:30 on 25 March 2020, informing of the imminent move to Alert Level 4.

New Zealand reported its first case of COVID-19 on 28 February 2020.[65] From 19 March, entry into New Zealand was limited to citizens and residents,[66] and the country began quarantining new arrivals in converted hotels on 10 April.[67]

On 21 March, a four-tier alert level system was introduced, and most of the country was placed under lockdown from 25 March.[68] Due to the success of the elimination strategy, restrictions were progressively lifted between 28 April and 8 June, when the country moved to the lowest alert level, and the last restrictions (other than quarantine for travelers) were removed.[69][70][71][72][73] A total of 22 people died of COVID-19 in New Zealand during the initial wave.[67]

After the lifting of restrictions, New Zealand went for 102 days without any community transmission.[74] On 11 August 2020, four members of a single family in Auckland tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, prompting a city-wide lockdown, and lesser restrictions throughout New Zealand.[74] Additional cases related to this cluster of infections were identified over the following weeks. On 21 September, after a week without any new cases of community transmission, restrictions were dropped to the lowest level outside of Auckland. Restrictions in Auckland were eased somewhat two days later,[75] and moved to the lowest level on 7 October.[76]

Additional small outbreaks led to temporary restrictions in parts of New Zealand in February 2021, March 2021 and June 2021.[77]

On 17 August 2021, after the detection of one new local case outside of quarantine in Auckland, the country moved to a nationwide lockdown.[78] Over the following weeks, Auckland remained under lockdown as cases rose, while the most of the rest of the country progressively eased restrictions.[77] On 4 October 2021, the government of New Zealand announced that it was transitioning away from its zero-COVID strategy, arguing that the Delta variant made elimination infeasible.[79]

Scotland and Northern IrelandEdit

Scotland, led by its devolved government, pursued an "elimination" COVID-19 strategy starting from April 2020.[80] The Scottish government's approach diverged with that of the central British government in April 2020, after a UK-wide lockdown began being lifted. Scotland pursued a slower approach to lifting the lockdown than other nations of the UK, and expanded a "test and trace" system.[80] Although Northern Ireland also pursued the strategy[5][81] and Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon advocated for the approach to be adopted by the whole of the UK,[81] the central British government pursued a different mitigation strategy that applied to England, with commentators noting that this combined with an open Anglo-Scottish border could undermine Scotland's attempts at elimination.[82][5][83]

SingaporeEdit

 
An automatic self-check-in station at Paya Lebar "Square" implemented to facilitate contact tracing.

Singapore recorded its first COVID-19 case on 23 January 2020.[84] With that, many Singaporeans had purchased and worn masks when not at home; practiced social distancing and on 7 February 2020, Singapore raised the Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) level from Yellow to Orange in response to additional local cases of uncertain origin.[85] On 3 April 2020 a stringent set of preventive measures collectively called the "circuit breaker lockdown" was announced.[86] Stay-at-home order and cordon sanitaire were implemented as a preventive measure by the Government of Singapore in response on 7 April 2020. The measures were brought into legal effect by the Minister for Health with the COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations 2020, published on 7 April 2020.[87]

The country introduced what was considered one of the world's largest and best-organised epidemic control programmes.[88][89] The "Control Order" implemented various measures such as; mass testing the population for the virus, isolating any infected people as well as introducing contact tracing apps and strictly quarantining those they had close contact with those infected All non-essential workplaces closed, with essential workplaces remaining open. All schools transitioned to home-based learning. All food establishments were only allowed to offer take-away, drive-thru and delivery of food. Non-essential advertising at shopping centres are not allowed to be shown or advertised and only advertising from essential service offers and safe management measures such as mask wearing and social distancing are allowed.[90]

Such measures have helped avoid further lockdowns after the end of the circuit breaker lockdown measures in June 2020. With its relative success in curbing the early spread of the virus in Singapore, the term "circuit breaker" and its measures was subsequently adopted by other countries, particularly in Canada and the United Kingdom.[91][92] In October 2021, Singapore began phasing out its zero-COVID strategy after vaccinating the majority of its population.[93]

South KoreaEdit

 
A drive-through testing site in South Korea

The first case in South Korea was announced on 20 January 2020.[94] On 4 February 2020, in order to help prevent spread of the disease, South Korea began denying entry to foreigners traveling from China.[95][96] Various other measures have been taken: mass testing the population, isolating infected people, and trace and quarantine of those they had contact with.[97][98] The rapid and extensive testing undertaken by South Korea has been judged successful in limiting the spread of the outbreak, without using drastic measures.[97][99][100] There was no general lockdown of businesses in South Korea, with supermarkets and other retailers remaining open. However, schools, universities, cinemas, and gyms were closed soon after the outbreaks, with schools and universities having online classes.[101]

The government is providing citizens with information in Korean, English, Chinese, and Japanese on how to not become infected and how to prevent spreading the disease as part of its "K-Quarantine" measures. This includes information on cough etiquette, when and how to wear a face mask, and the importance of physical distancing and staying at home.[101] The South Korean government has also been sending daily emergency notifications, detailing information on locations with reported infections and other status updates related to the pandemic.[102] Infected South Koreans are required to go into isolation in government shelters. Their phones and credit card data are used to trace their prior movements and find their contacts. People who are determined to have been near the infected individual receive phone alerts with information about their prior movements.[103]

TaiwanEdit

Due to its extensive cultural and economic exchanges with mainland China, Taiwan was initially expected to be at high risk of developing a large-scale outbreak of COVID-19.[104][105]

Immediately after China notified the WHO of a pneumonia cluster in Wuhan on 31 December 2019, Taiwanese officials began screening passengers arriving from Wuhan for fever and pneumonia.[105] This screening was subsequently broadened to all passengers with respiratory symptoms who had recently visited Wuhan.[105] Beginning in early February 2020, all passengers arriving from mainland China, Hong Kong or Macau were required to quarantine at home for 14 days after arrival in Taiwan.[25] Mobile phone data was used to monitor compliance with quarantine requirements.[105]

Public places such as schools, restaurants and offices in Taiwan were required to monitor body temperature of visitors and provide hand sanitizer.[106] Mask-wearing was encouraged, and on 24 January, an export ban and price controls were placed on surgical masks and other types of personal protective equipment.[106]

On 20 March 2020, Taiwan initiated 14-day quarantine for all international arrivals, and began converting commercial hotels into quarantine facilities.[107] In early April, Taiwanese public health officials announced social distancing measures, and mandated mask use in public transport.[25]

The first known case of COVID-19 in Taiwan was identified on 21 January 2020.[106] On 31 January, approximately 3,000 passengers from the Diamond Princess cruise ship went ashore in Taiwan. Five days later, it was recognized that there was an outbreak on the ship.[108] Taiwanese public health authorities used mobile phone data and other contact tracing measures to identify these passengers and their close contacts for testing and quarantine.[108] No cases related to these passengers were identified in Taiwan.[108]

Taiwan maintained near-zero viral prevalence throughout 2020, totaling just 56 known locally transmitted cases through 31 December 2020.[104]

Taiwan experienced its largest outbreak from April to August 2021, initially caused by violations of COVID-19 quarantine rules by international flight crews.[109][110] On 15 May 2021, Taiwan identified more than 100 daily cases for the first time since the start of the pandemic.[111] The outbreak was brought to an end on 25 August 2021, when Taiwan recorded no new locally transmitted cases for the first time since May 2021.[112]

From late August 2021 through December 2021, only single-digit numbers of infections were detected on most days.[111] From the beginning of the pandemic through the end of 2021, Taiwan has recorded a total of 17,029 cases.[111]

TongaEdit

Tonga has followed a "Covid-free" policy, and there has been only one confirmed case in the country (a traveller in quarantine in October 2021). The country's zero-COVID policy has caused complications with international aid following the Hunga Tonga volcano eruption in 2022.[113]

VietnamEdit

 
A Vietnamese COVID shopping coupon, it is used to manage the number of people entering market or supermarket.

The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Vietnam on 23 January 2020, when two Chinese people in Ho Chi Minh City tested positive for the virus.[114][115] In response the government issued a diagnostic and management guidelines for COVID-19, providing instructions on contact tracing and 14-day isolation.[10] Health authorities began monitoring body temperatures at border gates and started detection and contact tracing, with orders for the mandatory isolation of infected people and anyone they had come into contact with.[116]

In 2020, Vietnam was cited by global media as having one of the best-organized epidemic control programs in the world,[117][118][119] along the lines of other highlights such as Taiwan and South Korea.[120] This success has been attributed to several factors, including a well-developed public health system, a decisive central government, and a proactive containment strategy based on comprehensive testing, tracing, and quarantining.[9] Howerver, instead of relying on medicine and technology, the Vietnamese state security apparatus has adopted an widespread of public surveillance system along with a public well-respected military force.[121][122]

Starting in April 2021, Vietnam experienced its largest outbreak to date, with over 1.2 million infections recorded by November.[123] This led to two of its largest cities (Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi) and around a third of the country's population coming under some form of lockdown by late July.[124] A degree of complacency after successes in previous outbreaks, and infections originating from foreign workers were all considered to have contributed to the outbreak. In response, government-mandated quarantine for foreign arrivals and close contacts to confirmed cases was extended to 21 days, and accompanying safety measures also tightened up.[125]

In September 2021, Vietnam abandoned its zero-COVID strategy, after a three-month lockdown of Ho Chi Minh city caused major economic disruption in the city and failed to contain the outbreak. The country shifted to a phased reopening and more flexible approach while expanding its vaccination programme.[126][127]

Views on the zero-COVID strategyEdit

Proponents of the zero-COVID strategy argue that successful execution reduces the number of nationwide lockdowns needed,[128] that healthcare and economic costs are lower,[129][130] that it is less costly to society,[131] that it reduces dependence on pharmaceutical interventions such as vaccines,[132] and that it increases quality of life and life expectancy due to fewer citizens contracting COVID-19.[133]

Opponents of the zero-COVID strategy argue that a vaccine would be required to end the pandemic,[134] that zero-COVID causes the economy to suffer,[135][136] that before vaccinations were common, elimination strategies lowered herd immunity,[137] that zero-COVID is not sustainable,[138] and that newer variants such as the omicron variant are so transmissible that the zero-COVID strategy is no longer feasible.[139]

Some countries such as Japan started with a mitigation strategy, decided it was not working well, then switched to zero-COVID.[140] Other countries such as Vietnam, Singapore, and Australia pursued zero-COVID, evaluated its effectiveness, then decided to discontinue it.[141]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Anna Llupià, Rodríguez-Giralt, Anna Fité, Lola Álamo, Laura de la Torre, Ana Redondo, Mar Callau and Caterina Guinovart (2020) What Is a Zero-COVID Strategy Archived 2022-01-03 at the Wayback Machine, Barcelona Institute for Global Health - COVID-19 & response strategy. "The strategy of control and maximum suppression (zero-COVID) has been implemented successfully in a number of countries. The objective of this strategy is to keep transmission of the virus as close to zero as possible and ultimately to eliminate it entirely from particular geographical areas. The strategy aims to increase the capacity to identify and trace chains of transmission and to identify and manage outbreaks, while also integrating economic, psychological, social and healthcare support to guarantee the isolation of cases and contacts. This approach is also known as “Find, Test, Trace, Isolate and Support” (FTTIS)"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Li, Zhongjie; Chen, Qiulan; Feng, Luzhao; Rodewald, Lance; Xia, Yinyin; Yu, Hailiang; Zhang, Ruochen; An, Zhijie; Yin, Wenwu; Chen, Wei; Qin, Ying; Peng, Zhibin; Zhang, Ting; Ni, Daxin; Cui, Jinzhao; Wang, Qing; Yang, Xiaokun; Zhang, Muli; Ren, Xiang; Wu, Dan; Sun, Xiaojin; Li, Yuanqiu; Zhou, Lei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Song, Tie; Gao, George F; Feng, Zijian (4 June 2020). "Active case finding with case management: the key to tackling the COVID-19 pandemic". The Lancet. 396 (10243): 63–70. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31278-2. PMC 7272157. PMID 32505220.
  3. ^ MacDonald, Michael (1 May 2021). "The COVID-Zero approach: Why Atlantic Canada excels at slowing the spread of COVID-19". CTV News. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Hong Kong is clinging to 'zero covid' and extreme quarantine. Talent is leaving in droves". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2022-01-05.
  5. ^ a b c "Scotland is aiming to eliminate coronavirus. Why isn't England?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
  6. ^ McLaughlin, Timothy (2021-06-21). "The Countries Stuck in Coronavirus Purgatory". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  7. ^ Hale, Erin. "After early success, Taiwan struggles to exit 'zero COVID' policy". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2022-01-01. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
  8. ^ Fildes, Nic (2022-01-18). "Tonga volcano relief effort complicated by 'Covid-free' policy". Financial Times. Retrieved 2022-01-18.
  9. ^ a b "Emerging COVID-19 success story: Vietnam's commitment to containment". Our World in Data. 5 March 2021.
  10. ^ a b Le, Van Tan (24 February 2021). "COVID-19 control in Vietnam". Nature Immunology. 22 (261): 261. doi:10.1038/s41590-021-00882-9. PMID 33627879.
  11. ^ Normile, Dennis (19 November 2021). "'Zero COVID' is getting harder—but China is sticking with it". Science. 374 (6570): 924. doi:10.1126/science.acx9657. eISSN 1095-9203. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 34793217. S2CID 244403712.
  12. ^ Chan, Cathy (26 October 2021). "Hong Kong Rejects Plea From Global Banks to Scrap Zero-Covid". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  13. ^ I-chia, Lee (8 December 2021). "Taiwan has achieved 'COVID zero' status, Chen says". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  14. ^ "How Western Australia has managed to avoid large Covid-19 outbreaks". NPR.org. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  15. ^ a b c Oliu-Barton, Miquel; Pradelski, Bary S R; Aghion, Philippe; Artus, Patrick; Kickbusch, Ilona; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sridhar, Devi; Vanderslott, Samantha (28 April 2021). "SARS-CoV-2 elimination, not mitigation, creates best outcomes for health, the economy, and civil liberties". The Lancet. 397 (10291): 2234–2236. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00978-8. PMC 8081398. PMID 33932328.
  16. ^ Bhopal, Raj S (9 September 2020). "To achieve "zero covid" we need to include the controlled, careful acquisition of population (herd) immunity". BMJ. 370: m3487. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3487. eISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32907816. S2CID 221538577.
  17. ^ David Livermore (March 28, 2021). "'Zero Covid' - an impossible dream". HART – Health Advisory & Recovery Team. Archived from the original on January 2, 2022. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  18. ^ Mégarbane, Bruno; Bourasset, Fanchon; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel (2021-09-20). "Epidemiokinetic Tools to Monitor Lockdown Efficacy and Estimate the Duration Adequate to Control SARS-CoV-2 Spread". Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 11 (4): 321–325. doi:10.1007/s44197-021-00007-3. ISSN 2210-6006. PMC 8451385. PMID 34734383.
  19. ^ a b c d e Baker, Michael G; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Verrall, Ayesha J (13 August 2020). "New Zealand's COVID‐19 elimination strategy". The Medical Journal of Australia. 213 (5): 198–200.e1. doi:10.5694/mja2.50735. PMC 7436486. PMID 32789868.
  20. ^ a b "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team. 16 March 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chen, Qiulan (2 December 2021). "Rapid and sustained containment of covid-19 is achievable and worthwhile: implications for pandemic response". The BMJ. 375: e066169. doi:10.1136/BMJ-2021-066169. PMC 8634366. PMID 34852997.
  22. ^ a b Steyn, Nicholas; Plank, Michael J; James, Alex; Binny, Rachelle N; Hendy, Shaun C; Lustig, Audrey (April 2021). "Managing the risk of a COVID-19 outbreak from border arrivals". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 18 (177). doi:10.1098/rsif.2021.0063. PMC 8086931. PMID 33878278.
  23. ^ a b Zanin, Mark; Xiao, Cheng; Liang, Tingting; Ling, Shiman; Zhao, Fengming; Huang, Zhenting; Lin, Fangmei; Lin, Xia; Jiang, Zhanpeng; Wong, Sook-San (August 2020). "The public health response to the COVID-19 outbreak in mainland China: a narrative review". Journal of Thoracic Disease. 12 (8): 4434–4449. doi:10.21037/jtd-20-2363. PMC 7475588. PMID 32944357.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Fengfeng; Cui, Jinzhao; Peng, Zhibin; Chang, Zhaorui; Lai, Shengjie; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Liping; Gao, George F.; Feng, Zijian (15 April 2021). "Comprehensive large-scale nucleic acid–testing strategies support China's sustained containment of COVID-19". Nature Medicine. 27 (5): 740–742. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01308-7. PMID 33859409. S2CID 233258711.
  25. ^ a b c Lai, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Lee, Ping-Ing; Hsueh, Po-Ren (March 2021). "How to Keep COVID-19 at Bay: A Taiwanese Perspective". Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 11 (1): 1–5. doi:10.2991/jegh.k.201028.001. PMC 7958278. PMID 33605120.
  26. ^ "First confirmed case of novel coronavirus in Australia". Australian Government Department of Health. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  27. ^ Burke, Kelly (19 March 2020). "Australia closes borders to stop coronavirus". 7 News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  28. ^ Schneiders, Ben (3 July 2020). "How hotel quarantine let COVID-19 out of the bag in Victoria". The Age. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  29. ^ Marshall, Candice (1 December 2020). "Updates: A state by state guide to border closures and travel restrictions". Escape.com.au. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  30. ^ "Borders across Australia close in the face of the Victorian COVID-19 outbreak. This is where you can travel". ABC News. 12 February 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Australia's social distancing rules have been enhanced to slow coronavirus – here's how they work". ABC. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  32. ^ Knaus, Christopher; Wahlquist, Calla; Remeikis, Amy (22 March 2020). "Australia coronavirus updates live: NSW and Victoria to shut down non-essential services". The Guardian Australia. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Restrictions on non-essential services". business.gov.au. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  34. ^ Mercer, Phil (26 October 2020). "Covid: Melbourne's hard-won success after a marathon lockdown". BBC News. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  35. ^ "How Victoria's coronavirus response became a public health 'bushfire' with a second-wave lockdown". ABC News (Australia). 11 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  36. ^ Towell, Noel; Mills, Tammy (18 August 2020). "Family of four staying at Rydges seeded 90% of second-wave COVID cases". The Age. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  37. ^ Daniel Andrews–Premier (26 October 2020). "Statement From The Premier". www.premier.vic.gov.au (Press release). Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  38. ^ "Coronavirus Australia: How contact tracing is closing in on COVID-19". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 April 2020.
  39. ^ Otterman, Sharon (21 June 2020). "N.Y.C. Hired 3,000 Workers for Contact Tracing. It's Off to a Slow Start". The New York Times.
  40. ^ Cave, Damien (February 2021). "One Coronavirus Case, Total Lockdown: Australia's Lessons for the World". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2021-12-28.
  41. ^ Falconer, Rebecca. "South Australia to enter strict "circuit breaker" lockdown for 6 days". Axios.
  42. ^ "Fortress Australia's COVID-19 breaches expose economic shortcomings". Reuters. 2 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  43. ^ "COVIDSafe app detected just 17 contacts after millions spent". www.9news.com.au.
  44. ^ Bogle, Ariel; Borys, Stephanie (21 May 2020). "Google and Apple release technology to help with coronavirus contact tracing". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  45. ^ Grubb, Ben (29 June 2020). "'There's no way we're shifting': Australia rules out Apple-Google coronavirus tracing method". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  46. ^ "Victorian Government QR Code Service". Coronavirus Victoria.
  47. ^ "Electronic check-in guidance and QR codes". NSW Government. 27 May 2021.
  48. ^ "COVID SAfe Check-In". SA.GOV.AU: COVID-19. 8 June 2021.
  49. ^ "Why has Australia switched tack on Covid zero?". BBC News. 2021-09-03. Retrieved 2022-01-05.
  50. ^ "Australia's Covid-Zero Holdout Will Finally Reopen to the World". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2022-01-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  51. ^ Slaughter, Graham (March 5, 2020). "Canada confirms first 'community case' of COVID-19: Here's what that means". CTVNews. Archived from the original on March 8, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  52. ^ McQuigge, Michelle (March 25, 2020). "The Quarantine Act explained, as isolation becomes mandatory for some". CTV News. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  53. ^ "Justin Trudeau's address to the nation: 'The second wave is underway' [Full transcript] - Macleans.ca". Maclean's.
  54. ^ Grimes, Jolene. "COVID Cases in Atlantic Bubble Remain Low as Cases Grow Across Canada".
  55. ^ "From first cases to first vaccines: A timeline of COVID-19 in Canada - National | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
  56. ^ "Omicron surge puts Canada past 2 million COVID-19 cases recorded to date - National | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
  57. ^ "Vaccine passports coming, Furey says, as N.L. reports 5 new cases". CBC News. September 7, 2021.
  58. ^ Austen, Ian (September 3, 2021). "Vaccine Passports Roll Out, and So Do Unruly Anti-Vaccine Protests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2021-09-03.
  59. ^ "出入境健康申报指引". 中央广播电视总台国际在线. 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  60. ^ a b c d TIAN, HUAIYU; LIU, YONGHONG; LI, YIDAN; WU, CHIEH-HSI; CHEN, BIN; KRAEMER, MORITZ U. G.; LI, BINGYING; CAI, JUN; XU, BO; YANG, QIQI; WANG, BEN; YANG, PENG; CUI, YUJUN; SONG, YIMENG; ZHENG, PAI; WANG, QUANYI; BJORNSTAD, OTTAR N.; YANG, RUIFU; GRENFELL, BRYAN T.; PYBUS, OLIVER G.; DYE, CHRISTOPHER (31 March 2020). "An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China". Science. 368 (6491): 638–642. Bibcode:2020Sci...368..638T. doi:10.1126/science.abb6105. PMC 7164389. PMID 32234804.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g Zhou, Lei; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Yanping; McGoogan, Jennifer M; Li, Qun; Dong, Xiaoping; Ren, Ruiqi; Feng, Luzhao; Qi, Xiaopeng; Xi, Jingjing; Cui, Ying; Tan, Wenjie; Shi, Guoqing; Wu, Guizhen; Xu, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaoqi; Ma, Jiaqi; Su, Xuemei; Feng, Zijian; Gao, George F (5 June 2020). "One Hundred Days of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Prevention and Control in China". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 72 (2): 332–339. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa725. PMC 7314211. PMID 33501949.
  62. ^ a b Lu, Guangyu; Razum, Oliver; Jahn, Albrecht; Zhang, Yuying; Sutton, Brett; Sridhar, Devi; Ariyoshi, Koya; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Müllerc, Olaf (20 January 2021). "COVID-19 in Germany and China: mitigation versus elimination strategy". Global Health Action. 14 (1). doi:10.1080/16549716.2021.1875601. PMC 7833051. PMID 33472568. S2CID 231663818.
  63. ^ Liu, Jiangmei; Zhang, Lan; Yan, Yaqiong; Zhou, Yuchang; Yin, Peng; Qi, Jinlei; Wang, Lijun (24 February 2021). "Excess mortality in Wuhan city and other parts of China during the three months of the covid-19 outbreak: findings from nationwide mortality registries". The BMJ. 372: n415. doi:10.1136/bmj.n415. PMC 7900645. PMID 33627311.
  64. ^ a b c d Zhou, Lei; Nie, Kai; Zhao, Hongting; Zhao, Xiang; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Ji; Chen, Cao; Wang, Hong; Di, Jiangli; Li, Jinsong (8 October 2021). "Eleven COVID-19 Outbreaks with Local Transmissions Caused by the Imported SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC — China, July–August, 2021". China CDC Weekly. 3 (41): 863–868. doi:10.46234/ccdcw2021.213. PMC 8521157. PMID 34703643.
  65. ^ Cooke, Henry; Chumko, Andre. "Coronavirus: First case of virus in New Zealand". Stuff. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  66. ^ Walls, Jason. "Coronavirus: NZ shutting borders to everyone except citizens, residents – PM Jacinda Ardern". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  67. ^ a b Jefferies, Sarah; French, Nigel; Gilkison, Charlotte; Graham, Giles; Hope, Virginia; Marshall, Jonathan; McElnay, Caroline; McNeill, Andrea; Muellner, Petra; Paine, Shevaun; Prasad, Namrata; Scott, Julia; Sherwood, Jillian; Yang, Liang; Priest, Patricia (13 October 2020). "COVID-19 in New Zealand and the impact of the national response: a descriptive epidemiological study". The Lancet Public Health. 5 (11): E612–E623. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30225-5. PMC 7553903. PMID 33065023.
  68. ^ Cheng, Derek (20 March 2020). "Coronavirus: PM Jacinda Ardern outlines NZ's new alert system, over-70s should stay at home". The New Zealand Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  69. ^ Beattie, Alex; Priestley, Rebecca (20 September 2021). "Fighting COVID-19 with the team of 5 million: Aotearoa New Zealand government communication during the 2020 lockdown". Social Sciences & Humanities Open. 4 (1): 100209. doi:10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100209. PMC 8460577. PMID 34585139.
  70. ^ Sachdeva, Sam (20 April 2020). "Ardern: NZ to leave lockdown in a week". Newsroom. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  71. ^ Cooke, Henry (11 May 2020). "Coronavirus: New Zealand will start to move to level 2 on Thursday". Stuff. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  72. ^ Cheng, Derek (25 May 2020). "Live: Mass gatherings to increase to 100 max from noon Friday". Newstalk ZB. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  73. ^ "Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern reveals move to level 1 from midnight". Radio New Zealand. 8 June 2020. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  74. ^ a b Graham-McLay, Charlotte (11 August 2020). "New Zealand records first new local Covid-19 cases in 102 days". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  75. ^ Graham-McLay, Charlotte (21 September 2020). "Relief as much of New Zealand eases out of coronavirus restrictions". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  76. ^ Albeck-Ripka, Livia (7 October 2020). "New Zealand Stamps Out the Virus. For a Second Time". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  77. ^ a b "History of the COVID-19 Alert System". New Zealand Government. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  78. ^ "Covid-19 community case: Nationwide level 4 lockdown". Radio New Zealand. 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  79. ^ Frost, Natasha (4 October 2021). "Battling Delta, New Zealand Abandons Its Zero-Covid Ambitions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  80. ^ a b Sridhar, Devi; Chen, Adriel (2020-07-06). "Why Scotland's slow and steady approach to covid-19 is working". BMJ. 370: m2669. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2669. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32631899.
  81. ^ a b Torjesen, Ingrid (3 August 2020). "Covid-19: Should the UK be aiming for elimination?". The BMJ. 370: m3071. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3071. PMID 32747404. S2CID 220922348.
  82. ^ Landler, Mark (2020-07-10). "In Tackling Coronavirus, Scotland Asserts Its Separateness From England". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
  83. ^ #author.fullName}. "Scotland could eliminate the coronavirus – if it weren't for England". New Scientist. Retrieved 2022-01-11. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  84. ^ "Singapore confirms first case of Wuhan virus". CNA.
  85. ^ "Coronavirus: Singapore ups outbreak alert to orange as more cases surface with no known links; more measures in force". The Straits Times. 7 February 2020.
  86. ^ "Ending circuit breaker: phased approach to resuming activities safely". gov.sg. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  87. ^ "COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations 2020". Singapore Statutes Online. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  88. ^ Barron, Laignee (13 March 2020). "What We Can Learn From Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong About Handling Coronavirus". Time. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  89. ^ Geddie, John; Aravindan, Aradhana (17 September 2020). "Why is Singapore's COVID-19 death rate the world's lowest". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  90. ^ "PM Lee Hsien Loong on the COVID-19 situation in Singapore on 3 April 2020". PMO. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  91. ^ Stewart, Heather; Marsh, Sarah (18 September 2020). "PM considers imposing Covid 'circuit break' across England". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2021. The notion of a “circuit breaker” – or partial lockdown – was introduced in April in Singapore by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong. It saw schools and all but essential workplaces closed, as well as restrictions on restaurants and other public places.
  92. ^ "'Circuit breaker' measures needed to prevent Omicron from overwhelming ICUs, science table says". cbc.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  93. ^ Aravindan, Aradhana (2021-10-22). "Analysis: Vaccinated Singapore shows zero-COVID countries cost of reopening". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  94. ^ 신종 코로나바이러스 한국인 첫환자 확인. MK (in Korean). 서진우. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  95. ^ Park, Rosyn (4 February 2020). "S. Korea Bars Foreigners Traveling from Hubei Province". TBS. Seoul. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  96. ^ "As Virus Spreads, Koreans Blame Refusal to Stop Chinese Visitors". Bloomberg. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  97. ^ a b Normile, Dennis (17 March 2020). "Coronavirus cases have dropped sharply in South Korea. What's the secret to its success?". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb7566. S2CID 216427938. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  98. ^ Bicker, Laura (12 March 2020). "Coronavirus in South Korea: How 'trace, test and treat' may be saving lives". BBC. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  99. ^ Kasulis, Kelly (19 March 2020). "South Korea's coronavirus lessons: Quick, easy tests; monitoring". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  100. ^ Dudden, Alexis; Marks, Andrew (20 March 2020). "South Korea took rapid, intrusive measures against Covid-19 – and they worked". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  101. ^ a b "How Korea fought COVID-19 Covid and when will there be a treatment for coronavirus". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  102. ^ Zastrow, Mark (2020-03-18). "South Korea is reporting intimate details of COVID-19 cases: has it helped?". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00740-y. PMID 32203363. S2CID 214630521.
  103. ^ "The Virus Can Be Stopped, but Only With Harsh Steps, Experts Say". The New York Times. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  104. ^ a b Yen, Muh-Yong; Yen, Yung-Feng; Chen, Shey-Ying; Lee, Ting-I; Huang, Kuan-Han; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tung, Tsung-Hua; Hsu, Le-Yin; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Kinge, Chwan-Chuen (5 June 2021). "Learning from the past: Taiwan's responses to COVID-19 versus SARS". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 110: 469–478. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.06.002. PMC 8178059. PMID 34098099.
  105. ^ a b c d Wang, C. Jason; Ng, Chun Y.; Brook, Robert H. (3 March 2020). "Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing". Journal of the American Medical Association. 323 (14): 1341–1342. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3151. PMID 32125371. S2CID 211831388.
  106. ^ a b c Chiu, Wen-Ta; Laporte, Ronald P.; Wu, Jonathan (10 June 2020). "Determinants of Taiwan's Early Containment of COVID-19 Incidence". American Journal of Public Health. 110 (7): 943–944. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305720. PMC 7287555.
  107. ^ Aspinwall, Nick (20 March 2020). "Taiwan Closes Borders in Preparation for Possible 'Second Wave' of the Coronavirus". The Diplomat. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  108. ^ a b c Chen, Chi-Mai; Jyan, Hong-Wei; Chien, Shih-Chieh; Jen, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Po-Chang; Lee, Chun-Fu; Yang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Meng-Yu; Chen, Li-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chan, Chang-Chuan (22 May 2020). "Containing COVID-19 Among 627,386 Persons in Contact With the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship Passengers Who Disembarked in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 22 (5): e19540. doi:10.2196/19540. PMC 7202311. PMID 32353827.
  109. ^ "Taiwan evacuates hotel to sterilise it after rare COVID outbreak". Reuters. 29 April 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  110. ^ "Taiwan to send China Airlines pilots into quarantine in bid to stop Covid-19 outbreak". Reuters. 10 May 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021 – via South China Morning Post.
  111. ^ a b c "Taiwan ends 2021 with record number of daily imported COVID-19 cases". Focus Taiwan. 31 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  112. ^ "Taiwan reports no new domestic COVID-19 cases, first time since May 9". Reuters. 25 August 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  113. ^ Fildes, Nic (18 January 2022). "Tonga volcano relief effort complicated by 'Covid-free' policy". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  114. ^ Coleman, Justine (23 January 2020). "Vietnam reports first coronavirus cases". The Hill. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  115. ^ Lê, Phương (2020-01-23). "Hai người viêm phổi Vũ Hán cách ly tại Bệnh viện Chợ Rẫy". VnExpress.
  116. ^ "With zero pandemic deaths, Vietnam sets the standard for COVID-19 fight". The Globe and Mail. 27 May 2020.
  117. ^ Reed, John; Pham, Hai Chung (2020-03-24). "Vietnam's coronavirus offensive wins praise for low-cost model". Financial Times.
  118. ^ Walden, Max (13 May 2020). "How has Vietnam, a developing nation in South-East Asia, done so well to combat coronavirus?". ABC News. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  119. ^ "Covid Performance Index". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  120. ^ Humphrey, Chris; Pham, Bac (14 April 2020). "Vietnam's response to coronavirus crisis earns praise from WHO". Seven News. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  121. ^ "How Vietnam is winning its 'war' on coronavirus". Deutsche Welle. 2020-04-16.
  122. ^ Michael Sullivan (16 April 2020). "In Vietnam, There Have Been Fewer Than 300 COVID-19 Cases And No Deaths. Here's Why". NPR. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  123. ^ "Cập nhật số ca nhiễm Covid-19 hôm nay mới nhất trên VnExpress". VnExpress (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2021-12-05.
  124. ^ "Vietnam locks down capital Hanoi as COVID-19 infections soar". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-07-24.
  125. ^ Sen Nguyen; Jitsiree Thongnoi (13 May 2021). "Vaccination drives stutter as new Covid-19 waves hit Vietnam, Thailand". South China Morning Post.
  126. ^ Reed, John (2021-10-01). "Vietnam abandons zero-Covid strategy after record drop in GDP". Financial Times. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  127. ^ Reuters (2021-09-03). "Ho Chi Minh City could lift lockdown, end 'zero COVID-19' policy". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  128. ^ "Devi Sridhar: The UK needs a zero-Covid strategy to prevent endless lockdowns". New Statesman. 2021-01-08. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
  129. ^ Grafton, R. Quentin; Parslow, John; Kompas, Tom; Glass, Kathryn; Banks, Emily; Lokuge, Kamalini (2020-09-02). "Health and Economic Effects of COVID-19 control in Australia: Modelling and quantifying the payoffs of 'hard' versus 'soft' lockdown": 2020.08.31.20185587. doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185587. S2CID 221406941. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  130. ^ Tang, Jin-Ling; Abbasi, Kamran (2 December 2021). "What can the world learn from China's response to covid-19?". The BMJ. 375: n2806. doi:10.1136/bmj.n2806. PMID 34853017. S2CID 244775638.
  131. ^ Lau, Jack (2 November 2021). "Zero Covid still less costly than living with it, China's top expert Zhong Nanshan says". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  132. ^ Stamatov, Petar (4 January 2022). "Ще разобличи ли Омикрон лицемерието на властимащите по света?". eurochicago.com (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  133. ^ Raychev, Aleksandar (interviewer) (1 December 2021). "Георги Маринов: Няма такова нещо като самоунищожаващ се вирус". bnr.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 8 January 2022. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  134. ^ Torjesen, Ingrid (3 August 2020). "Covid-19: Should the UK be aiming for elimination?". The BMJ. 370: m3071. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3071. PMID 32747404. S2CID 220922348.
  135. ^ "Focus - A closer look at China's strict 'zero-Covid' policy". France 24. January 5, 2022.
  136. ^ "Chinese Virus Expert Launches Scathing Attack on Covid Zero Push". Bloomberg. 2021-11-10. Retrieved 2022-01-07.
  137. ^ "Asian countries are at last abandoning zero-covid strategies". October 9, 2021 – via The Economist.
  138. ^ "Why has Australia switched tack on Covid zero?". September 3, 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  139. ^ "Atlantic Canada's vaunted COVID-Zero strategy no match for Omicron variant | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
  140. ^ Shimizu, Kazuki; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Shibuya, Kenji (8 February 2021). "Japan should aim to eliminate covid -19". The BMJ. 372: n294. doi:10.1136/bmj.n294. PMID 33558342. S2CID 231841001.
  141. ^ "Asian countries are at last abandoning zero-covid strategies". October 9, 2021 – via The Economist.

Further readingEdit