Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the arts and cultural heritage

Announcement posted in the door of a public library in Island Bay, New Zealand that it is closed due to the pandemic, and will waive all late return fees.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a sudden and substantial impact on the arts and cultural heritage (GLAM) sectors. The global health crisis and the uncertainly resulting from it profoundly affected organisations' operations as well as individuals – both employed and independent – across the sector. Arts and culture sector organisations attempted to uphold their (often publicly funded) mission to provide access to cultural heritage to the community; maintain the safety of their employees, collections, and the public; while reacting to the unexpected change in their business model with an unknown end.

By March 2020, across the world most cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed (or at least with their services radically curtailed) with exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed. In response there were intensive efforts to provide alternative or additional services through digital platforms, to maintain essential activities with minimal resources, to document the events themselves through new acquisitions, and simultaneously an awareness that there would be many new creative works which had been inspired by the event.

Many individuals across the sector would temporarily or permanently lose contracts or employment with varying degrees of warning and financial assistance available. Equally, financial stimulus from governments and charities for artists, would provide greatly differing levels of support depending on the sector and the country. The public demand for cultural activities was expected to return, but at an unknown time and with the assumption that different kinds of experiences would be popular.

Closures and cancellationsEdit

Through the first quarter of 2020, arts and culture sector organisations around the world progressively restricted their public activities and closed completely due to the coronavirus pandemic. Starting with China, East Asia, and then worldwide, by late March most cultural heritage organisations had closed, and arts events postponed or cancelled, either voluntarily or by government mandate. This included libraries,[1] archives,[2] museums,[3][4][5] film[6] and television productions,[7] theatre[8] and orchestra performances,[9] concert tours,[10] zoos,[11] as well as music-[12] and arts-festivals.[8][13]

Following the rapidly evolving news of closures and cancellations across the world throughout February and March,[14] as of April 2020 dates for re-opening and expectations for when cultural organisation can fully "return to normal" remained undetermined for most of the world. Equally, the long-term financial impacts upon them will vary greatly, with existing disparities especially for institutions without an endowment fund being exacerbated.[15] Survey data from March indicated that, when museums were permitted to allow public entry again, the "intent to visit" metric for cultural activities should be unchanged overall from prior to the pandemic – but with a shifted preference for the kind of activity. Data indicated there would be a decreased willingness for attendance of activities in confined spaces, large immobile groups (such as cinemas), or tactile activities; with an increase in interest for activities outdoors or with large spaces (such as zoos and botanic gardens).[16][17] The most commonly cited reasons for the public to "feel safe" in returning would be: the availability of a vaccine, governments lifting travel restrictions, knowing that other people had visited, whether the activity/institution was outdoors, and the provision of hand sanitiser.[18]

The following is a list of notable closures, announcements and policies affecting the cultural sector.
For comprehensive lists:

AfricaEdit

  Egypt. From 23 March until 31 March 2020, all museums and archaeological sites in Egypt were closed to the public for sterilisation and disinfection. During this period a programme to raise the awareness of the sites and museums’ employees on ways of prevention and protection against the virus took place.[19]

  Morocco. On 15 March the National Museums Foundation announced the closure of all museums from the following day "until further notice".[20] The 2020 edition of Mawazine – the world's second largest music festival – scheduled for mid-June, was cancelled on the same day.[21]

AmericasEdit

  Argentina. All the museums, cultural activities and gatherings were cancelled in the city of Buenos Aires on 12 March.[22] National libraries continue to offer means of contact through the main educational website of the Ministry of Education.[23]

  Brazil. Museums which have closed[when?] in Brazil include the Museum of Art of São Paulo Assis Chateaubriand, the Pinacoteca, the Itaú Cultural, the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo, the Institute Tomie Ohtake, the Institute Moreira Salles, and the Museum of Tomorrow in Rio de Janeiro and the Instituto Inhotim contemporary art centre in Brumadinho.[13]

  United States. A "flurry" of museums in New York, Boston and Washington all announced their closure on 12 March, led by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and coinciding with the New York Mayor Bill de Blasio declaring a citywide emergency.[24] The Broadway League announced on the same day that all Broadway theatres would cease performances for at least a month, even though New York State governor Andrew Cuomo had at the time allowed them to continue at 50% capacity.[25] On March 17, two days before the first State to declare a "stay at home" order, the American Library Association "strongly recommended" that all academic, public, and school libraries close.[26] Major cinema chains, notably AMC Theatres, declared they would remain closed even after various states lifted their "shelter in place" order, until the expected summer blockbustersTenet and Mulan were released in late July.[27]

Despite being permitted by state government "decree" to reopen on 1 May, many institutions in Texas chose to remain closed to the public citing health concerns.[28]

Asia and OceaniaEdit

 
The area of each segment represents the number of businesses per sector of the Australian economy; the figure represents the percentage still operating. By April, the Arts and Recreation sector (shown in red) was the worst hit.[29]

  Australia. Beginning from the second week of March Australian institutions began announcing reduced services, and then complete closures.[30] On the 13th, organisers of the Melbourne International Comedy Festival announced that the 2020 festival had been cancelled entirely.[31] Opera Australia announced it would close on March 15.[32] On March 24 the national closure of all cultural institutions was mandated, with subsequent restrictions on public gatherings. Consequently, many cultural events were also cancelled, including the Sydney Writers' Festival.[33] According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by the beginning of April, "Arts and Recreation services" was the sector of the national economy with the smallest proportion of its business still in operation – at 47%.[34] Notably, the tattoo-display endurance art Tim continued, even though the gallery itself (MONA, in Tasmania) was closed to the public.[35]

  China. On 23 January 2020 all museums were closed throughout mainland China. As the first country for the virus to spread, China was also the first to close its GLAMs.[8] By mid-March Chinese institutions had slowly and cautiously begun to allow various public activities to be restored with the Shanghai Museum and the Power Station of Art (also in Shanghai) reopening to the public on 13 March. Both had restricted visitor numbers and the latter noted that, "We have also prepared a temporary quarantine area on every floor in case of any emergencies. All visitors must have their temperature taken, as well as present their ID card and registered health code, before entering."[36] Some other private galleries in China had begun to open, as had some institutions in South Korea and Japan with limited service (such as by private tour only). By the end of the month 40% of mainland China's tourism attractions had reopened yet most art venues remained closed.[37]

  Hong Kong. Following the mainland, Hong Kong closed its museums five days later.[8]
  Macau. On 2 March, many branches of the Macao Public Library reopened to the public (with certain areas such as the multimedia rooms and children’s reading areas remaining closed), and with the buildings receiving twice-daily "Cleaning and Disinfection Periods".[38]

  India. The Kiran Nadar Museum of Art in Delhi closed on 14 March, two days before Shripad Naik, minister for culture and tourism, ordered the closure of all "monuments and museums protected by the Archaeological Survey of India across the country, including the Taj Mahal mausoleum in Agra."[13]

  Japan. On 28 February Japan announced all museums would be closed "until 17 March".[8] Consequently, the opening of the exhibition "Masterpieces from the National Gallery, London" due to open at the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo was delayed; many works (notably including Van Gogh's Sunflowers [F454]) remained in the museum's own quarantine.[39]

  New Zealand. New Zealand implemented a policy on March 23 that all institutions would be closed.[40] Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa closed from 6pm March 20.[41] Auckland War Memorial Museum announced that it would close from March 21.[42]

  Qatar. Qatar museums run by the state closed on 12 March. A forthcoming collaborative show on Picasso's Studio's due to be held by the Fire Station and Musée Picasso has been indefinitely postponed.[43]

  South Korea. On 23 February, one month after mainland China, South Korea closed all museums "until further notice".[8] Commercial galleries began to reopen in late-April, with contact-tracing infrastructure in place for any guests.[44]

  United Arab Emirates. Annual art fair Art Dubai, originally scheduled for late March, was cancelled a few weeks before the event.[45] The UAE government purchased many of the locally-produced works with the intention of their being displayed in its embassies.[46]

EuropeEdit

Notwithstanding significant national and sector-specific variations in regulations, most cultural activities across the continent were closed throughout March and April. In the museum sector for example, whe tentative re-opening dates did begin to be published in late-April they ranged from April 22 (Germany) to July 20 (Ireland); with several countries still having no formal plans (from Latvia to Malta, and Greece to the UK); and with Sweden having remained open the entire time.[47]

  Austria. All federal public museums were closed by directors in response to government precautionary measures banning large events and arrivals from Italy. The Albertina Modern museum was supposed to open on 13 March but this opening was indefinitely postponed.[43]

  Belgium. All cultural activities regardless of size were banned by the government from 14 March, which involved the closure of the Jan van Eyck exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent.[43]

  France. Weeks earlier than French government regulations required it, staff of The Louvre "almost unanimously" voted to force the closure of the museum on 1 March, due to concerns for their own health.[48] It closed for three days, reopened,[49] accepted only visitors with pre-booked tickets from the 9th,[8] then closed definitively on 13 March by government mandate.[50] Reconstruction of the Notre-Dame cathedral following the 2019 fire was also halted because of worker security.[43] Christo and Jeanne-Claude's L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped, was to have "wrapped" Paris' Arc de Triomphe in silvery blue polypropylene fabric and red rope in late 2020,[51] but was postponed a year to September 2021.[52]

  Germany. On 16 March 2020, the German chancellor Angela Merkel announced in a press conference that the government and minister-presidents had together agreed upon guidelines to limit social contacts in public spaces, noting that theatres, opera houses, concert halls, museums, exhibition spaces, cinemas, amusement parks and zoos needed to close.[53] After six weeks, in early-May, cultural institutions cautiously reopened their buildings with various measures in place to reduce the likelihood of virus transmission (such as restricting the number of simultaneous visitors and mandatory face-masks).[54][55] The director of the Museum Barberini noted that the one-way system implemented in the exhibition space was a positive because, "We will be able to ensure that people see it in the way we intended".[56]

  Ireland. On 12 March 2020, the Government of Ireland shut all schools, colleges, childcare facilities and cultural institutions, and advised the cancellation of all large gatherings. St Patrick's Day festivities were consequently cancelled.[57]

  Italy. As the worst hit country in Europe during February and March, national closures were announced on 23 February with an initial physical reopening date of 1 March.[58] Museums outside the "red zone" of highly infected areas in the North were then permitted to re-open as long as visitors stayed 1 meter apart,[59] this was later rescinded and all institution were closed nationally until at least 3 April,[60] then until 18 May.[61] The closure forced the indefinite postponement of the forthcoming "mega-exhibition" of Raphael to be held at the Scuderie del Quirinale in Rome. Originally timed to coincide with the 500th anniversary of the Renaissance painter's death, it was to be the largest number of the artist's works ever displayed together.[43] On the same week in May that many cultural venues began to reopen, the 2020 editions of the Palio di Siena, held twice annually in July and August, were announced as cancelled for the first time since World War II.[62]

  Vatican City. The Vatican Museums closed in accordance with the policies of Italy.[43]

  Netherlands. On 12 March, Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum and Van Gogh Museum announced they would close until at least the end of that month[8] and the Dutch National Opera was to have staged the world premiere of Ritratto by Willem Jeths. It was cancelled and the official premiere occurred via the Opera's YouTube channel the following day.[63] Also on the 13th, having previously announced the reading room and exhibition would remain open, the National Archives announced their complete closure until 6 April.[64] On 30 March, the painting The Parsonage Garden at Nuenen (1884) by Vincent van Gogh was stolen from the Singer Laren museum while the museum was closed.[65] In April it was announced that allo "cultural activities" (such as theatres and cinemas) would remain closed until 19 May, but that events like festivals would be banned until 1 September.[66]

  Poland. On 11 March, a regional government "recommendation" was made that all cultural venues in the tricity area be closed for two weeks.[67] Museums, including the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, and other cultural venues such as theatres and cinemas were then closed by the national government with an initial re-opening date of 25 March.[43]

  Portugal. On 13 March, in light of recommendations from the national Directorate-General of Health, the Ministry of Culture closed the national monuments of Belém Tower, The Jerónimos Monastery and the National Archaeology Museum. It recommended that regional administrations do the same.[68] On March 22 the government mandated the closure of all arts and cultural activities as part of a national declaration of emergency powers.[69]

  Russia. The Garage Museum of Contemporary Art was one of the first to announce its closure starting 14 March. Many Moscow museums announced closures in response to the mayor's ban on gatherings of 50 people or more on 17 March, and late that day the Russian culture ministry ordered the suspension of all public activities by federal and regional institutions, which resulted in many more closures from 18 March.[43]

  Spain. On 11 March, publicly owned museums in Madrid, including The Prado, were closed indefinitely.[8] The Sagrada Família indefinitely suspended construction works and closed the monument to visitors on 13 March and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao closed on 14 March.[43]

  Sweden. On 18 March, the Swedish network and cooperation organisation for public museums of national interest, Centralmuseernas samarbetsråd, recommended all their 13 members to close their public venues if the risk for transmission of the virus was assessed as high in their respective regions. Only two of them stayed open.[70]

  United Kingdom. The earliest closures of cultural institutions in the UK were announced from 13 March by Wellcome Collection, South London Gallery, the Institute of Contemporary Arts, The Photographers' Gallery and Amgueddfa Cymru.[43] Many other organisations announced closures on the 17 and 18 March.[71][72] The National Trust closed all ticketed properties by 20 March but aimed to keep gardens and parklands open, free of charge so that people could access the open space whilst social distancing.[43] Also on Friday 20 March, staff of the libraries in the London Borough of Lambeth staged a walkout as they had not been provided with gloves or hand-sanitiser, citing provisions in the Employment Rights Act giving them the "right to withdraw from unsafe workplaces". By the weekend many local libraries formally closed with local leaders criticising a lack of nationally consistent policy.[73]

The planned major exhibition at the National Gallery in London of Artemisia Gentileschi, set to open on 4 April, was postponed for an indeterminate time due not only to the gallery's closure but also the inability of artworks on loan from Italy and America being unable to fly during the global shutdown in air traffic.[74]

In literature events, the London Book Fair,[75] AyeWrite Festival in Glasgow,[76] and the Harrogate International Festivals, were also cancelled[77] while the Edinburgh International Book Festival scheduled for August, was postponed.[78] The Glasgow International 2020 arts festival was also postponed until 2021.[43]

Permanent closureEdit

Many arts organisations, cultural institutions, publishers, and production companies, closed permanently because of the pandemic due to lost revenue. For example, by April the art dealer sector expected that one third of commercial galleries worldwide would close – rising to 60% for those with fewer than 5 employees.[79] Notable permanent closures included:

  • UK-based classical music artist management agency Hazard Chase announced in March that it was entering voluntary liquidation "in the wake of the Covid-19-induced collapse of worldwide music-making".[80]
  • Bauer Media New Zealand announced to staff via Zoom its immediate and permanent closure on 2 April. Management cited the financial strain due to lockdowns given that "non-daily print media were not permitted to publish through the level four lockdown". The NZ government contested that the company was closing of its own accord, as it had not sought access to financial assistance available to businesses during the crisis. Bauer was the publisher of magazines including New Zealand Listener, North & South, New Zealand Woman’s Weekly, and Air New Zealand's inflight magazine Kia Ora.[81]
  • The first cultural institution to announced its permanent closure as a result of the pandemic was Indianapolis Contemporary, a contemporary art museum founded in 2001.[82] An announcement from its board on 3 April, stated that "We have concluded our operations are not sustainable. We are not alone as other arts institutions struggle in this crisis."[83]
  • On West End, Waitress was scheduled to end on 4 July, but it closed on 16 March, as West End theatres shut down; the producers later announced the show will not re-open.[84]
  • On 4 May, the administration of Carriageworks – a major arts venue in Sydney, Australia – declared it would be entering voluntary administration and closing, citing an “irreparable loss of income” due to government bans on events during the pandemic.[85]
  • On Broadway, Frozen announced it would not reopen when Broadway theatres resume their performances.[86]

ChangesEdit

 
A facemask placed on "Wee Annie" in Gourock, Scotland

Facing at least several weeks of closure of their buildings and publicly-accessible spaces, directors of GLAMs noted several immediate trends emerging: A "concern for staff wellbeing" (ranging from ergonomics to suicide), the expectation from many stakeholders to "move fast, but with drastically reduced resources and not a lot of strategy", "plunging revenue", probable layoffs "starting with casual and part-time staff", and a "rush to get online".[87]

The simultaneous closure of the cultural sector, and home-isolation of much of the public, led to a heightened desire for people to obtain access to, and take comfort from, culture – right at the moment when it was least accessible to them.[88] Many cultural sector organisations and individual artists turned to providing online activities – from social media to virtual reality[89] – as a way to continue fulfilling their organisational mission and obtain or retain an audience.[90][91] Individual artists of all kinds offered impromptu performances via their personal accounts from their homes – singing covers, performing live book or poetry readings, sharing their artistic process and drafts, or creatively live-streaming themselves doing both creative and everyday activities.[92][93][94] Equally many publishers relaxed restrictions on the digital distribution of their in-copyright works.[95][96] Major commercial art fairs such as Hong Kong Arts Festival and Art Basel were cancelled, furthering a shift towards online purchases and the creation of VIP "online viewing rooms" rather than physical displaying at art auctions.[97] The fact that the vast of newly digitally-accessible arts and culture content was provided for free, and without geo-blocking, resulted in increased the public and artists' awareness of the global demand for online access to culture, the limits of copyright law; and the expectations of access to publicly-funded creative works.[92]

Large scale examples of newly-digital of the BBC launched a "virtual festival of the arts" called Culture in quarantine;[98] The Sydney Biennale became the first international arts festival to go entirely digital[99] shortly followed by the National Arts Festival – the largest arts festival in Africa;[100] and an entirely new event, the Social Distancing Festival, was created as "...an online space for artists to showcase their work when a performance or exhibition has been impacted by COVID-19."[101] Various internet journalism publications and Industry associations published lists content for their country, including: Argentina,[102] Australia,[103] Ireland,[104] Italy,[105][106][107][108] and the UK.[109][110]

With the explicit encouragement of UNESCO and the international governing bodies of archives, libraries, museums and documentary heritage – the CCAAA, ICOM, ICCROM, IFLA and Memory of the World regional committees[111] – many collecting institutions also began campaigns to obtain and preserve the physical and digital record of the period.[112]

"Several countries have already issued orders for meticulous preservation of official records related to the pandemic. This not only underlines the gravity of the current situation, but also highlights the importance of memory institutions in providing the records or information management resources necessary for understanding, contextualizing and overcoming such crises in the future. At the same time, records of humanity’s artistic and creative expressions, which form a vital part of our documentary heritage, are a source of social connectivity and resilience for communities worldwide...
...it is essential that we ensure that a complete record of the COVID-19 pandemic exists, so that we can prevent another outbreak of this nature or better manage the impact of such global events on society in the future."

Moez Chakchouk et al.[111]

Aquaria and zoosEdit

 
Sign announcing new social distancing regulations – notably a one-way only walking path – at Hanover Zoo, Germany upon its reopening to the public in May.

The impact of the pandemic has been a uniquely serious crisis for some zoos – with reduced revenues for the operators but also reduced opportunities for stimulation for "...the most intelligent and social animals – including gorillas, kea, otters and meerkats".[113] In order to maintain physical distancing but also still care for the animals, some zookeepers (classed as "essential workers") began living on-site at certain zoos.[114] Animals who would normally have a regular scheduled public feeding, petting, or performance for zoo visitors were reported to be still "keeping their appointments" and noticing that "something odd is upI".[113] In response to the absence of visitors, some institutions launched new webcams of their animal habitats as well as feeding sessions,[115][116] or took some animals (such as penguins,[117] sloths,[118] camels, sea lions, and flamongos[119]) to visit other animal enclosures. Sumida aquarium in Tokyo encouraged people to make video-calls to the garden eels so they would not "forget that humans exist".[120] Many zoos and aquaria, due to their on-site veterinary facilities, were also able to donate personal protective equipment and medical supplies to hospitals (due to global shortages of during the pandemic).[121]

Due to the sudden collapse in international travel, the wildlife tourism sector risks the potential starvation of the animals. For example, as a consequence of the lack of tourists paying for food more than 1,000 elephants in Thailand risk starvation.[122][123] A "brawl" of hundreds of Long-tailed macaque broke out in the streets of Lopburi, Thailand (known as "monkey city"), as the animals – normally sustained by scraps by tourists – fought for food.[124] In countries wildlife tourism represents a significant portion of employment (such as Tanzania and Namibia), there is concern that a loss of jobs related to conservation will see a rise in poaching[125] while animals in wildlife reserves began roaming into areas recently vacated by tourists.[126]

A pair of giant pandas at Hong Kong amusement park Ocean Park mated for the first time in 10 years, after the "privacy" of having two months without tourists[127] However, another pair at the Calgary Zoo Canada, on "loan" from China as part of the Panda diplomacy program, were returned due to the zoo's inability to ensure a sufficient supply of bamboo food (which cannot be grown in Calgary's climate) due to airline shutdowns.[128] Nadia, a tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York, tested positive for COVID-19 in the first week of April after developing a "dry cough" after having been infected via an asymptomatic zookeeper.[129] This was the first known case of a wild animal having been infected via a human (two domestic dogs and a cat had previously been diagnosed).[130]

Cinema, television and radioEdit

 
A closed cinema in Germany with the announcement: "We will serve you again soon! Stay healthy!"

The production and release schedule of many films was suspended or delayed, with some awards ceremonies and festivals being cancelled entirely. March 2020 estimates were of approximately $5b losses for the industry,[131] while April estimates were global losses of 40% (compared to 2019) of $20b.[132] Examples of adaptations included the early home media release (Frozen II), theatrical releases being cancelled entirely (Lost in Russia), and online premieres (Enter the Fat Dragon). The director of Thor: Ragnarok also hosted a screening-party via his own Instagram account.[133] Many film productions were suspended, including Avatar 2, The Matrix 4, and a film adaptation of The Heptameron in production in Florence, Italy, based on the 14th century Decameron by Giovanni Boccacio, set during the Black Death in Florence.[134][135] The traditional cinema release schedule – whereby movie theatres enjoy a two-to-three-month period of exclusivity before a home video release – was also interrupted by the closure of theatres. Innovations because of this included "high-priced rentals", with The Invisible Man, The Hunt, and Emma were almost immediately released on to digital streaming services, where viewers could rent — not buy — the film for $20.[136] The financial success for Universal Studios for Trolls World Tour through this distribution method (where the total digital rental revenue was lower than a traditional theatrical release, but the proportion of the profit retained by the studio was higher as the theatres were not receiving a percentage of box office revenue) led to speculation this would permanently change the business model for film distribution.[137]

In film festivals, The 2020 Cannes Film Festival, originally scheduled to occur in mid-May, was postponed and later cancelled from "its original form",[138] and its venue converted to an emergency homeless shelter for the period of the national lockdown in France.[139] By contrast the 77th Venice International Film Festival, scheduled for early September, declared in April that it would still take place as originally planned and would not be collaborating with Cannes.[140] Eligibility rules for the 93rd Academy Awards were changed due to the pandemic, with films that debuted on streaming services being eligible for the first time.[141][142] At the 2020 Sundance Film Festival, held as originally schedules in January in Utah, USA many attendees fell ill with flu-like symptoms. It was dubbed the "Sundance Plague" and later was presumed to be one of the first mass transmission events of COVID-19 in the United States, more than a month before the global pandemic was declared.[143][144]

In the television industry, similarly to that of cinema, production halted on many scripted and unscripted shows[145] while some television and radio programs continued production but without their normal live studio audience[146][147] or produced from the homes of the presenters themselves.[148][149] Complete cancellations included series which had been running uninterrupted for the proceeding several decades, including: The Bold and the Beautiful (season 34), Casualty (season 34), Days of Our Lives (season 55), Home and Away (season 33), Saturday Night Live (season 45), and The Young and the Restless (season 47). It also forced the cancellation of the 2020 seasons of the reality TV franchise Big Brother in Brazilian, Canadian, and German which had been underway since before the pandemic began – with contestants being "some of the last people in the world to find out about the rapid spread of Covid-19".[150] This led to the "ethical nightmare" of how and whether to: inform participants; publicly broadcast their reactions; and continue production.[151][152]

In parallel to the suspension of entertainment content production, there was a marked increase in the use of video streaming services due to the massive increase of people staying at home. As a result, many video on demand services, film archives, and cinema clubs provided many films for online streaming.[153] However, the increased use of video streaming for entertainment (as well as videoconferencing services such as Zoom for work and education) caused unprecedented strain on global internet infrastructure.[154] In response, Netflix and YouTube both decreased the default video quality to standard definition, Disney+ delayed its launch in France, and Xbox requested developers to schedule software updates at times of lower network congestion.[155] Various paid services also offered some of their content for free, including HBO,[156] Netflix,[157] and satellite radio SiriusXM.[158]

Due to the global cancellation of professional sports, the loss of advertising revenue and broadcast rights derived from the broadcasting of sports events is expected to threaten the financial viability of many competitions.[159]

Libraries and archivesEdit

Libraries and archives faced different situations, from maintaining a full service with some restrictions, through providing minimal services, to complete closure.[1][2] The Institute of Museum and Library Services noted that the risk of coronavirus transmission from paper was low, according to medical journal publications. Therefore, the International Federation of Library Associations noted that some libraries had imposed a wait period before handling returned books, while others have made it clear that no-one is expected to return borrowed books until things return to normal.[1] Librarians for whom providing continued services became even more important during the pandemic included those managing medical libraries,[160] in prisons, and in aged care facilities.[161] Many public libraries cancelled programmes which would see people spend longer periods together. Others closed public reading rooms or only allowed people to collect requested books on appointment, with a drive-through, or providing delivery service to especially vulnerable community groups.[1] Such "book taxi" delivery services were begun by municipal library services in such diverse places as in Svalbard, Norway,[162] Godoy Cruz, Argentina,[163] and all across Portugal.[164] The Library of Al-Abbas Holy Shrine in Iraq launched a remote lending service for researchers giving access to electronic resources.[165] Recognising the demand from people who had previously not registered for a library card in person, many libraries – including the national libraries of Morocco and of Estonia – removed the requirement or created an eMembership system.[1] In a repurposing of technical equipment, public libraries across Lithuania with 3D printers created face shields for medical personnel and "hands-free door handles" for local shops, while the national library donated 3,000 new laptops (originally intended for local libraries) to schoolchildren without a computer at home.[166] Meanwhile, the Kenya National Library Service's computer lab has been converted to become the Taita Taveta County data-entry and analysis centre for COVID-19 tests.[166]

Libraries of different sizes and purposes around the world worked to provide access to collections and services remotely. For example, the Bibliothèque nationale de France organised virtual exhibitions,[167] the Granby library in Quebec highlighted content focused on learning new skills,[168] the Ghana Library Authority provided childhood literacy classes via Facebook,[166] the National library of Israel announced it would provide free audiobooks,[169] the library of the National Congress of Argentina announced it would record and share readings by prominent local authors,[170] and the Namibia Library and Archives Service (NLAS) reported that all 65 local libraries left their public wifi running overnight in order to provide ongoing access.[166] Corresponding to a marked increase in demand for digital resources (as demonstrated by a "flash survey" conducted by the French ministry of culture[171]) there were been major efforts to boost access to eBooks: by increasing the number of eBooks in the catalogue (the Digital Public Library of America announced its intention to double the collection to 12,000 titles),[172] increasing the number that people can borrow at any given time, or by reassigning budgets to pay for electronic content.[173][1] On March 24 the Internet Archive announced the creation of a "National Emergency Library" whereby it suspended the waitlists on 1.4m ebooks from their lending library – books that are not in the Public domain in the USA – in order to ensure uninterrupted access to works books for educators and students.[174][175] The announcement strongly criticised by the publishing industry.[176]

Many archives (national, university, and local) initiated collection programs specifically attempting to document the pandemic[177] and various training packages, resource kits, document templates, and best-practice guides were produced[178] – notably from the Society of American Archivists.[179] In China, the Shanghai Archives began a specific collection in early April, with some of its first objects being examples of the colourful entry certificates "issued by local subdistrictsi of the cnty to permit travel.[180] In the Netherlands, the national digital heritage sector organisation Netwerk Digitaal Erfgoed launched a campaign to ensure born-digital collections related to the pandemic, notably by web archiving but also including social media, and video, were archived.[181] Many campaigns were also mounted. These included: ephemera [physical, digitised, and born-digital] collections by various libraries and archives around the world,[182][183][184] a "sound map" of recordings of empty cities,[185] an online oral history recording platform[186] as well as an oral history project of the GLAM sector itself – which regularly interviewed directors of cultural sector organisations throughout the closure period.[87]

Once physical library services began to recommence – in May for many countries – it was with a "phased approach" to progressively resume services. The industry as a whole was "warned against any rush to re-open physical buildings" and that "it is possible that stricter rules will need to be implemented subsequently, and so the possibility of returning to lock-down".[1] Methods employed to mitigate risks upon the restart of in-person services included: limiting the number of simultaneous patrons (which itself caused rapid over-subscription in some places, including Japan[187]); distancing the services provided (for example in South Korea by providing book pickup via lockers[188]); Limiting the concentration of patrons within buildings (for example, through the removal and re-arranging of some seating in Taiwan[189]); instituting new hygiene protocols for staff and patrons (such as wearing gloves when collecting returned books in Australia[190]). Many national library associations produced procedures and checklists to advise how – or even whether – to re-start.[1]

Literature and publishingEdit

"I believe that books are essential. They make us kinder, more empathetic human beings. And they have the power to take us away – even momentarily – from feeling overwhelmed, anxious and scared."
Author, James Patterson[191]
"It is only now, physically separated from friends and colleagues, that I realise how much sustenance and inspiration I receive from their insights, their conversation and their argument. A room of one’s own is a necessity. It is not enough."
Author, Christos Tsiolkas[192]

As a result of restrictions on gatherings of people, many literary festivals,[193] commercial book fairs[75] and book launches were cancelled or postponed. In the UK,The Big Book Weekend was curated – a "three-day virtual book festival collating the efforts of literary festivals that have been cancelled in light of the pandemic".[194] Such cancellations (as well as the closure of schools) had a significant impact on the ability of publishers to bring new works to the public as well as on opportunities for writers to perform at paid speaking events. Many bookshops were forced to close their doors; others including independent bookshops, closed their business.[195] Booksellers adapted by providing free shipping and "curbside pickup" from closed shopfronts, giving book recommendations by video, and setting up partnerships with other businesses such as florists. While some bookshops continued to operate full phone, email, web order, mail order services and offered free delivery,[196] others, such as Amazon.com, de-prioritised book shipments.[197]

Literature on the subject of epidemics and classics such as those published by Penguin Classics experienced a boom in sales, some becoming bestsellers.[198] Titles that sold strongly include Decamerone by Giovanni Boccaccio, written about 1453;[199][200] A Journal of the Plague Year, written by Daniel Defoe about 1722; La Peste (The Plague) by Albert Camus, published in 1947; The Stand by Stephen King, published in 1978; and The Eyes of Darkness by Dean Koontz, released in 1981.[201][198]

Periodical publishers of news and magazines saw coronavirus related content published in late March represented just 1% of articles published, but accounted for about 13% of all article views.[202] Many paywalled news services removed that restriction in order to generate brand loyalty and greater public access to relevant information. Condé Nast Italy made digital editions of all its magazines (such as Vogue Italia) free for three months, similarly Hearst Spain (publisher of Cosmopolitan).[202] Meanwhile, academic publishers made available "more than 32,000 articles, chapters and other resources" related to COVID-19 under various degrees of open access, in order to provide "immediate access to accurate and validated articles and monographs that the public can trust."[203] Many academic electronic publishers (including EBSCO, ProQuest, Pearson, and JSTOR among others) made temporary changes to their content licensing models to allow wider and/or cheaper access to their digital content.[95] For example, Hathi Trust temporarily allowed libraries to lend out digitised copies of books that they own in hard copy.[204] Equally, in a surprise announcement, Macmillan Publishers removed the embargo that it had recently placed upon public libraries in the USA – allowing only one eBook copy per library system for the first eight weeks after a title's release – in acknowledgement that the commercial publishing and public library sectors needed to collaborate during the pandemic.[205]

For professional authors, many revenue streams were curtailed.[206] The American Booksellers Association lobbied publishers to provide discounts to independent retailers.[193] The Republic of Consciousness Prize for small publishers of fiction split its £10,000 award of among the five shortlisted nominees.[207] Audible (owned by Amazon) announced it would make 300 audiobooks free with login, for the duration of school closures.[208][209]

MuseumsEdit

 
Visitors to the National Gallery of Art, USA wearing facemasks, in March, the day before the museum was closed.

In parallel to logistical challenges of when to close (and how to safely reopen) buildings to the public,[210] and drastically decreased revenues and layoffs across the sector,[211][212] many museum websites were rapidly updated to focus on their "virtual museum resources, e-learning, and online collections".[213][214] Institutions' efforts to engage with the public during the lockdown took many forms – including the provision of: humour; escapism; opportunities to express artistic creativity; education opportunities; social connection and collaboration; and "a sense of calm".[215] Online training workshops were organised for the museum sector – in digital strategy,[216][217] in copyright,[218] planning for "post-crisis",[219] and for the public.[220] Furthermore, and in parallel to the work of archives, many museums began "rapid response collecting" programs in an effort to document and acquire artefacts and ephemera associated with the period of time, and the many ways that society changed through of it.[112][221]

Having been the first country to enforce quarantine upon its population, museums in China were also the first to provide new digital services (primarily for a domestic audience, but to a lesser extent also internationally). In January the National Cultural Heritage Administration (NCHA) said they would "encourage cultural heritage museums and institutions around the country to utilise existing digital resources and launch online exhibitions as appropriate, providing the public with safe and convenient online services."[222][223]

"This year, the paint has more time to dry."
Director of the Art Gallery of New South Wales announcing a delay to the Archibald Prize portraiture exhibition until after the health crisis, "when art will be needed more than ever".[224]

Many museums turned to their existing social media presences to engage their audience online. Quickly, the Twitter hashtag #MuseumFromHome became particularly popular for museums sharing their content in innovative ways.[225][226] Various institutions were singled out for particular praise by industry analysts for their successful social media content strategy during the shutdown. These included: The Getty Museum both for "challenging" the public to share their recreated version of its artworks[227][228] and incorporating its works into the popular video game Animal Crossing;[229] the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago for filming their penguins visiting other animals;[230] the Royal Academy in London for asking its followers to draw their own artworks;[231] and the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma for providing an authentic and unusual 'voice' to their social media - from their security guard.[232]

Various institutions used the closure period to re-prioritise projects and highlight different aspects of their collections. For example: The Partition Museum of Amritsar, India undertook the "scripting, recording, editing and translation work" of new audioguides remotely;[233] the Philbrook Museum of Art in Oklahoma, USA rapidly relaunched their website in late-March and was described as a model example of how an institution could "Reorganise, Reuse and Rethink" its activities.[234]

MusicEdit

"It is very hard financially and if you have lost the momentum you have built up over time," ... But this is also an ideal time for artists to do what it is they are supposed to be doing: create art."
Musician and performer, Tim Minchin[235]

Many musicians delayed the releases of albums due to the pandemic (including Lady Gaga and Willie Nelson),[236] some moved up the release dates of their upcoming albums (including Dua Lipa and Sufjan Stevens),[237] some (including Nine Inch Nails and Phish) released new albums with little or no notice,[238][239] and some published videos of archival footage and of past concerts (including Pink Floyd, Radiohead, and Metallica).[240] In the middle of March, Bob Dylan released a single 17 minute new song called "Murder Most Foul", his first piece of published original material in eight years.[241] The 2020 Eurovision Song Contest, set to take place in May in the Netherlands, was canceled – marking the first time the annual contest would not take place since its inauguration in 1956[242] – and the intended venue Rotterdam Ahoy was instead converted into a temporary COVID-19 hospital.[243]

Several special remote-participation concerts were organised to provide entertainment to the public, raise funds, and to raise awareness of methods to combat the virus, notably physical distancing. The iHeart Living Room Concert for America concert (hosted by Elton John) was broadcast on American TV and radio on March 29, while Together at Home was a "virtual concert series". It was then followed by the One World: Together at Home concert on April 18, organised by Lady Gaga as a benefit concert for the World Health Organization's COVID-19 solidarity response fund, which was broadcast on radio, TV, and many digital platforms simultaneously.[244] The quickly organised "Instagram Live Music Festival" Isol Aid (a reference to Live Aid) a weekly series of concerts by Australian bands was broadcast from late-March. Each artist performed from wherever the were self isolating and "... play a 20-minute set streamed live on their Instagram accounts, and then tag-team the next artist to play".[245][246] On Easter Sunday 2020, which fell during the peak of the infection curve in many countries, Italian opera singer Andrea Bocelli performed in the empty cathedral of Milan – capital of the worst-hit region of Italy – accompanied only by the Cathedral organist and streamed live via YouTube.[247] By way of thanks, acts including Liam Gallagher and Rick Astley announced they would perform free concerts exclusively for healthcare workers later in the year.[248]

Individually and collectively, musicians organised online performances, dubbed "virtual concerts", both of contemporary[249] and of classical music.[250] Often these included musical sections referencing the fact of social isolation or home-quarantine, via their own social media platforms. Some were especially planned and prepared; some were impromptu.[251] For example: Brazilian guitarist Cainã Cavalcante broadcast “Quarentena Sessions” duets with other home-isolated musicians;[252] cellist YoYo Ma performed "Going Home" by Antonín Dvořák; the West Australian Symphony Orchestra renamed themselves the "West Australian Social Distancing Orchestra" and played a re-arranged version of Boléro by Maurice Ravel; and an amateur choir gathered the contributions of more than 1,000 people from 18 countries to create a video performance of "Close To You" by The Carpenters.[253] Many musicians, singers and songwriters adapted to the crisis by turning to teaching online as there was both a sudden increase in people wanting to learn instruments, and a drop in paid public performance opportunities.[254] However, due to the proliferation of free musical content – through concerts for charity fundraisers, streaming on social media, and corporate events for low fees – some artists and industry bodies warned of diminished incomes both in the short and asking artists to perform for free becomes increasingly the norm.[255]

Performing artsEdit

Due to physical distancing requirements many performing arts venues were closed, curtailing not only public performances but also rehearsals. In some cases, such as for the Edinburgh Festival, launched after World War II as an effort to reconcile people through the performing arts, it was the first cancellation in more than sixty years.[256] Many performing arts institutions attempted to adapt by offering new (or newly expanded) digital services. In particular this resulted in the free online streaming of previously recorded performances of many companies – especially orchestral performances and plays – lists of which were collated by crowdsourcing[257] and by journalists.[258][259][9][260] For example: the Metropolitan Opera of New York broadcast a new opera each evening, including an entire Ring Cycle performed during the 2010–12 seasons;[261] the Bolshoi Ballet company of Moscow made available six of their performances;[262][263] Shakespeare's Globe published 40 of its filmed stage productions;[264] producer Andrew Lloyd Webber published a filmed production of one of his stage musicals each week.[265] The filmed version of the stage musical Hamilton, though originally scheduled for an October 15, 2021 theatrical release, but was later moved up to July 3, 2020 exclusively on Disney+, as announced by the show's creator Lin-Manuel Miranda on May 12, 2020.[266]

Meanwhile, due to the closure of productions and the simultaneous shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) several theatre costume departments – notably that of the Berlin State Opera – converted to creating facemaks.[267]

Individual actors, such as Patrick Stewart and Sam Neill, entertained from isolation in order to "...be in this together and that this has to take the form of being apart", as Neill described his contribution of comedic relief.[268] Stewart, a trained Shakespearian actor, broadcast himself reading one sonnet each day via social media,[269] readings described as "more than light entertainment, they’re moments of connection".[270] The Sydney Theatre Company commissioned actors to film themselves at home discussing, then performing, a monologue from one of the characters they had previously played on stage.[271]

Many ballet companies ran classes via Zoom to their dancers which were also broadcast.[272] Ballet dancers, including principal dancer with the American Ballet Theatre, James B. Whiteside and Isabella Boylston, as well as the artistic director and a lead principal dancer of the English National Ballet Tamara Rojo, offered live classes on social media.[273]

ImpactsEdit

Budgets and employmentEdit

Due to the closures, revenues for cultural organisations reliant on ticket sales were expected to cause devastating effects upon revenues, For example, during closure, the average reported weekly revenue loss in the European museum sector was 80%.[212] This consequently directly affected organisational staffing, and on independent artists and professionals, due to the fact that the arts and culture is a sector of national economies characterised by particularly a high proportion of temporary contracts and self-employment.[274] For example, by the 20th of March the Cirque du Soleil had laid off 95% of its workforce and closed traveling circus performances operating in seven countries.[275] The world commercial art market declined 5% in 2019 compared to the previous year, and is expected to decline further in 2020 – with six of the world's 10 largest auction houses operating exclusively in China.[97] Art dealers worldwide expected annual decreased revenues of more than 70% and, in countries where a government emergency wage-subsidy system was in place, two-thirds of gallery employees had been furloughed.[79]

Various celebrities from different industries attempted to demonstrate empathy backfired for being tone-deaf to their privileged position. These included actor Gal Gadot, musicians Madonna and Pharrell Williams,[276] and French writers Leïla Slimani and Marie Darrieussecq – who were ridiculed for their insensitivity as they described their "bucolic isolation" in countryside villas.[206]

Arts and culture sector budgetary and employment reports from individual countries included:
  Australia. According to government figures, "cultural and creative activity contributed to A$112 billion (6.4% of GDP) to Australia's economy in 2016-17".[277] By late March 2020, 255,000 cultural events had been cancelled with an estimated revenue loss of $A280 million, self reported through the crowdsourced website ILostMyGig.net.au.[278] Opera Australia – the nation's largest performing arts company – temporarily stood down nearly all its staff[279] amid speculation it would also need to sell major assets in order to avoid bankruptcy.[280] In mid-April, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra fired all of its musicians "rather than honouring an agreement that would have kept them on the books on half pay".[281]

  Italy. In March, when many institutions closed for the first time since WWII, the state-funded museum sector had been valued at €27 billion or 1.6% of national GDP – slightly smaller than the agriculture sector.[282]

  Netherlands. Beyond the general financial stimulus measures announced for the country – for which the cultural sector would be eligible – on 15 April the Cabinet announced an extra package of €300 million for the cultural sector.[66] National arts funding body the Fonds Podiumkunsten announced it would accept "postponement, relocation or changes" to plans for which arts organisations had received grants, without needing to seek specific approval; and encouraged institutions to continue paying any freelance contractors.[283]

  United Kingdom. In April the parliamentary Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee convened an inquiry into the impact of the pandemic. It would "...consider both the immediate and long-term impact that Covid-19 and the related social and financial measures are having on the wide range of industries and organisations under the Committee’s remit."[284] The treasury department also informed the DCMS that heritage organisations which receive some government funding (such as the British Museum, Imperial War Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum) could not use any extra funding they receive to "top up" salaries of any furloughed staff – staff who would be being paid 80% of their salaries directly by Treasury under the national "job retention scheme". The announcement was criticised by the union and contrasted with the approach taken towards other similar bodies such as Transport for London and the National Museums of Scotland.[285]

The Artists’ Union England (AUE) noted that its members, as well as most self-employed workers of the cultural sector, saw many of their projects and fees cancelled.[286] Yet, the government's "Self-Employment Income Support Scheme" should only reach the accounts of those able to claim it in June.[287] Consequently Arts Council England requested all its funded organisations to honour their contracts despite projects being cancelled.[288] The support provided by the government was criticised by AUE as insufficient as it exempted freelancers who also had a separate job.[289]

  United States. As the pandemic spread and closures became the standard not the exception, institutions started publishing expected revenue shortfall calculations.[290] For example, by the end of March: the Metropolitan opera expects to lose $60m in revenue;[291] the Metropolitan Museum expects to lose $100m[292] and SFMOMA predicted a 40% decrease in revenue.[293] Matching this prediction, the American movie industry predicted a "best case" decreased of 40% (compared to 2019 figures) if cinemas were shut for only three months, the lowest figure since 2000.[132]

By the end of March, many museums were announcing the dismissal of large portions of their staff with short short notice.[294] Examples included: the Cleveland Museum of Art put all part-time staff on unpaid leave, "temporarily" laid off unionised workers, and reduced the salaries of remaining staff;[295] SFMOMA put 300 employees on unpaid leave;[293] the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art fired 73% of its staff;[296] the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh furloughed 550 of its 1003 staff (75% of which were part-time);[297] the Science Museum of Minnesota "temporarily" laid off most of its staff in an announcement via a Google Hangouts;[298] the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art – which had recently received a gift of $10m from board president Carolyn Powers – fired all part-time staff;[299][300] and MOMA – an institution with a billion dollar endowment – cancelled all educator contracts. Noting as it did so that when it reopens the building to the public, "...it will be months, if not years, before we anticipate returning to budget and operations levels to require educator services".[301]

In parallel to museum sector layoffs, staff began to unionise, even though "Social distancing orders prevent the in-person meetings required to sign the cards required to file for union elections.[302] In Seattle, employees of the Frye Art Museum organised a “socially distant picket” in protest of layoffs that they argued used the pandemic to unfairly targeted union leaders during contract negotiations.[303]

Meanwhile, on 18 March and in response to the rapid rise of online performances during the closures of performance spaces, the Actors' Equity Association – the union announced a new "streaming media agreement" available to productions in areas with physical distancing regulations in force, for "select producers to capture and make a performance available online for one-time viewing to ticket buyers.[304] A planned performance of 'Tis Pity She's a Whore via videoconferencing software was cancelled at the last minute due to a dispute between the theatre producers and the union. The AEA argued that during a time when almost everyone in the arts is going without a regular pay cheque and is worried about their health care, "it's deeply sad to see that some employers will still ask Equity actors to work without the protections of a contract."[305] The theatre producers argued that "cyberspace" is not within the AEA's jurisdiction nor "...should free online-only experience, in which actors participate from the safety and comfort of their own home on teleconference, without rehearsal or admission price," be subject to the Off-Broadway agreement.[306]

Financial aidEdit

With the extensive financial disruption across all areas of the economy, many governments announced fiscal stimulus and economic bailout packages which included specific resources for the arts and cultural sectors.[307] Equally, various charities and industry bodies raised funds to support their sector while companies in the creative industry announced their own donations. For example, author James Patterson donated $500,000 to independent bookstores[308] and Sony announced a fund which would help support creative professionals "impacted by the cancellation or postponement of concerts and live events, or the shutting down of film and television productions".[309] Music streaming services SoundCloud, Spotify, and Bandcamp all made financial pledges or waived fees in order to support artists.[307] Via the Instagram campaign "#ArtistSupportPledge", visual artists also created a microeconomy to support each other – offering works for sale and pledging to purchase others' works if their own raised enough.[310]

Arts and culture sector financial stimulus packages from individual countries included:

  Algeria. in April, Minister of Culture Malika Bendouda announced on her Facebook page that ONDA, the national copyright collective, had been placed in charge with administering a financial aid package for artists whose work had been interrupted by the pandemic.[311]

  Australia. In March, a petition of over 50 arts and culture organisations (including peak bodies from the music, dance, visual arts, museums, writers' and Indigenous arts groups) requested a financial aid package "...to a value of 2% of the A$111.7 billion [cultural and creative] industry". Furthermore, it requested that the Prime Minister "...issue a public statement recognising the value of our industry to all Australians" and noting that the industry had not yet recovered from the impact of the 2019–20 Australian bushfire season.[312] Separately, Live Performance Australia had requested A$850 million for its sector, while the think tank The Australia Institute requested a package of A$750 million for the performing arts in general.[313]

Instead of the A$2.2 billion requested in the petition, in early April the federal government announced a package of A$27 million in specific arts funding – A$7 million for the Indigenous Visual Arts Industry Support program, A$10 million for Regional Arts Australia's regional arts fund, and A$10 million for Support Act, a charity providing financial support and counselling to people in the music industry in Australia.[314] It also expanded unemployment assistance in response to the pandemic – dubbed JobKeeper. However, the program specifically excluded "freelancers and casuals on short-term contracts, or who have worked for a series of employers in the last year" and, given arts sector's high reliance on short-term contracts, a large proportion of arts and cultural sector professionals were ineligible for the scheme – even though the arts sector had been demonstrated as the most adversely affected sector of the economy.[315][34][316][317] The federal government removed the spectrum tax paid by broadcasters for 12 months, and also removed the local content quotas requiring commercial TV networks to make Australian drama, documentary and children's television for all of 2020 on the basis that the content production was not possible during the pandemic anyway.[318] The latter, however, further concerned arts organisations who feared the local production industry would never recover.[315][318]

In April, the State government of Victoria announced a A$16.8 million package for the arts, including a "Strategic Investment Fund" shared among approximately 100 non-government arts and cultural organisations (notably including the Melbourne Fringe Festival);[319] the City of Sydney announced A$1 million for artists;[320] and the library professional association ALIA announced a "relief fund" of payments up to A$500 to cover the cost of essential expenses for its members experiencing loss in income.[321]

  Burkina Faso. The national copyright collective, the Bureau Burkinabè du Droit d'Auteur (BBDA) created a "solidarity fund" for artists.[322]

  Canada. The Canada Council announced it would be providing $60 million in "advance funding" to its 1,100 “core funded organizations” by May 4th, in order to support outstanding payments to artists and workers.[323]

  Ireland. Aside from the various government support programs associated with the pandemic, the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht reported various programs to aid the cultural sector specifically, including those operated by the Arts Council and Screen Ireland.[324]

  Ivory Coast. On the first of April, the national copyright collective Bureau ivoirien du droit d’auteur (Burida) announced a fund to support its members who fall ill with the coronavirus. Applicants must apply, with a medical certificate proving their illness, by the 10th of that month.[325]

  France. The minister for culture Franck Riester announced that employees of cultural institutions currently receiving unemployment benefits calculated over 12 months will see the confinement period withdrawn from the calculation.[326] The national copyright collectives for authors and for visual arts (respectively: The Société française des intérêts des auteurs de l’écrit [Sofia] and Société des auteurs dans les arts graphiques et plastiques [ADAGP]) announced they would not ask for grants they given for subsequently cancelled cultural festivals and events to be reimbursed, and requested that those grant recipients pay their originally contracted artists in full.[327][328]

  Germany. The minister for culture Monika Grütters declared that "artists are not only indispensable, but also vital, especially now." The statement was made while announcing a €50 billion stimulus package for small business and freelancers – explicitly including the creative sectors.[329]

  Italy. In late March, the national copyright collective SIAE announced three measures: a €60 million "extraordinary support fund" for its members through 2020–21, a €50 million fund to offer loans to members at zero-interest, and 2500 food packages for members in especial immediate need.[330]

  New Zealand. On March 24, Creative New Zealand announced a NZD$16 million "Emergency Response Package" for the first half of the year, noting the probability of a second tranche of funding for the latter half of 2020.[331]

  Morocco. In May, the government announced it had allocated MAD6 million for an independent committee to purchase local art "from the artists most affected by COVID-19 and display them in museums across the country".[332]

  Sweden. The Swedish Minister of Culture Amanda Lind presented a 1 billion SEK support package for sports and culture, where 500 million SEK was earmarked for culture (not including government agencies like the Royal Dramatic Theatre and Kungliga Operan).[333] The national copyright collective for visual arts Bildupphovsrätt i Sverige (BUS) proposed a 25 million SEK "crisis package" of funds distributed to artists in their database whose works are already publicly displayed.[334]

  United Kingdom. A telethon called The Big Night In was broadcast on the BBC on 23 April, with the government pledging to match all public donations[335] and various action houses, notably Bonhams,[336] also ran charity auctions.[337] The Museums Association called upon the UK government to divert £120m that was intended for the Festival of Britain 2022 to bail out museums in financial distress.[338][72] The Film and TV Charity created an emergency relief fund in order to "provide emergency short-term relief to active workers and freelancers who have been directly affected by the closure of productions across the UK", with an initial donation of £1m from Netflix and by £500,000 from the BBC.[339][340] Arts Council England announced £160 million would be made available for arts organisations, including £50 million for organisations it does not usually fund and £20 million for individual and freelance artists.[274] The Paul Hamlyn Foundation announced that the usual competitive selection process for their "Award for Artists" program would be removed, and that instead of ten awards of £60,000, each of the more than 100 previously nominated eligible applicants would automatically receive £10,000.[341] The Society of Authors created an "emergency fund" for professional authors resident in the UK or British subjects, granting amounts up to £2,000, "designed to meet urgent need". Started initially with £330,000 from the SoA,[342] Arts Council England later added £400,000 and other donors included the Authors' Licensing and Collecting Society, Royal Literary Fund, TS Eliot Foundation, English PEN, and Amazon UK.[343] To the surprise of the many in the industry (due to their longstanding "strained" relationship) Amazon also made a "low key" donation of £250,000 to a fund supporting bookshops which had been forced to close during the pandemic.[344]

  United States. A petition was begun by the American Alliance of Museums (AAM) to request that the museum sector was included in any future economic stimulus from the United States government,[345] while the Metropolitan museum was more specific – requesting $4 billion for at-risk museums.[346] This request was met with resistance: A common argument raised the USA against the cultural sector receiving parts of the stimulus funding was that "Arts groups may be 'nice,' but they’re far from 'necessary.'"[347]

In late March the United States federal government announced a $2 trillion economic stimulus package in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act. It included: "$75 million for the National Endowment for the Arts and $75 million for the National Endowment for the Humanities, which can pass on the money to institutions that need it. Another $50 million was designated to the Institute of Museum and Library Services, which distributes funds to museums and libraries.[347] Initial analysis of the bill by the AAM indicated several ways that aid could be applicable to the arts and culture sectors. These included: Emergency Small Business Loans, Economic Injury Disaster Loans, a Charitable Giving Incentive, and an Employee Retention Payroll Tax Credit. It was "expected, but unclear" whether charitable nonprofits qualified for the Industry Stabilisation Fund.[348]

By April, various philanthropic trusts announced large donations to relief funds – notably including multi-million dollar seed funding announcements from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Getty Trust, the Helen Frankenthaler Foundation, the Andy Warhol Foundation [349] The National Press Photographers Association announced it was seeking donations to create a relief fund to support photojournalists who had lost work due to the economic impact of the crisis.[350] Equally, the Society of American Archivists launched their own "Archival Workers Emergency Fund" which would provide grants of up to $1,000 and one year's complimentary membership to the association.[351]

CopyrightEdit

LIBER (the Association of European Research Libraries) called on the European Commission and national governments to allow libraries to provide remote access for the duration of their enforced closure and to ensure they can provide this service without fear of litigation; and called on publishers and authors to pledge to allow online delivery of normally 'onsite only' content (e.g. eBooks) and the use of copyrighted works in online educational activities (e.g. livestreamed reading of children's stories).[352] Both the Association of University Library Directors of France (ADBU), and the libraries of universities and of the National Research Council in Italy, petitioned academic publishers to provide temporary open access to publications in order to allow access for medical staff, scientific researchers, and the general public.[353][354] In early April letter signed by Communia, Creative Commons, the American Library Association, the International Council on Archives, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), several Wikimedia affiliate organisations among many others – sent a letter to Francis Gurry – Director General of the World Intellectual Property Organization – encouraging "WIPO member states to take advantage of flexibilities in the international system...", calling on "rights holders to remove licensing restrictions that inhibit remote education, research...", supporting a call by Costa Rica for a "global pool of rights in COVID-19 related technology and data" to be created by the World Health Organization, and supporting the right of nations to use exceptions to intellectual property laws "to achieve universal and equitable access to COVID-19 medicines and medical technologies as soon as reasonably possible."[355]

The International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organsisations (IFRRO) pointed to the various ways in which national rights management organisations had loosened licensing restrictions for online access due to the pandemic.[322] These included: in Canada, the Association of Canadian Publishers permitting "online story time" reading of children's books by certain publishers for free;[356] in the Czech Republic, university staff and students can obtain free online access to the digital collections of the National Library;[357] in Germany, churches were allowed to perform songs and lyrics to be displayed during the live streaming of church services;[358] and in Norway, students can access for free digitised books in the National Library's online catalogue.[359] Broadway Licensing, an agency which controls the performance rights to many theatre productions and musicals in the US, announced in March that it would provide a livestreaming license to over 400 plays in its catalogue.[96][360]

In the education sector, with most teaching taking place online, resources on how libraries can legally provide students and faculty with equivalent services were compiled – with an emphasis on digitisation, open education resources (OER), and a "risk management approach" to the utilisation of copyright exceptions (notably fair use or fair dealing) – depending on the legal jurisdiction.[361][362] Many "Licensed Content Vendors" (notably academic journal digital libraries including EBSCO, ProQuest, and JSTOR among others) temporarily relaxed license conditions to their databases, to facilitate online learning.[95]

Academic librarians in the United States made public statements on the applicability and importance of the role of the fair use copyright exception for "Emergency Remote Teaching & Research".[363] Cornell University Library made the advice explicit, noting in a new official library policy recommending, "...that faculty may scan course material in amounts that may exceed customary fair use limits under normal circumstances. Fair use provides flexibility to permit faculty scan broader amounts of course material than normal during these exigent circumstances." and noted that library staff were no longer allowed to work on-site and therefore not able to scan materials on behalf of teaching staff.[364]

The National Emergency Library of the Internet Archive – which suspended waitlists for access to digitised in-copyright books citing the justification of Fair Use during the pandemic – was criticised as "piracy masquerading as public service" and copyright infringement, especially by the Association of American Publishers and Authors Guild[176] as well as drawing public critique from several noted authors.[365] The Internet Archive defended its program by emphasising that: the collection consisted primarily of older in-copyright works without digital surrogates; it is a temporary program; authors can choose to opt-out; and the works are chosen for the educational not commercial value.[366][367]

LeVar Burton, host of Reading Rainbow, announced his desire to perform live-streamed readings of books for his podcast LeVar Reads but that copyright law was unclear as to whether this was allowed. Neil Gaiman replied to Burton via Twitter, giving him permission to read any of his works.[368]

Online training workshops were organised for cultural heritage professionals to learn about relevant risks and exceptions to copyright when providing online services.[218][369][370] Other organizations organized fact sheets to provide libraries and archives with basic guidance on how to deal with copyright challenges.[371]

New creative worksEdit

Pandemic graffiti in Belgium and Scotland

Even during the crisis, there was the expectation of many and diverse cultural works would be created in the future which would reference, or were inspired by, the pandemic and its effects.[372] Several art competitions were launched with Coronavirus as the theme (including by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations,[373] Historic England,[374] and the University of York, which called for collaborations between artists and archivists).[375]

Many memes[376] (notably in the form of art-recreations[377]), songs,[378] and videos[379] were created by, and shared among, the large numbers of amateur content creators isolated in their homes during the isolation period itself.

Aside from the vast amounts of scientific research was published about the coronavirus (notably about COVID-19 drug development including researching a vaccine and drug repurposing), professionally-produced creative works which were created, adapted, inspired by, or published as a direct result of the pandemic, and/or feature it explicitly. These included:

MusicEdit

  • Markus J Buehler at Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced a musical score from a sonification algorithm and the structure of the virus' S (spike) protein. Beyond the aesthetic appeal of the outcome of the analysis, it may offer another method of finding potential binding sites for therapeutic targets and thereby assist with treatment.[380][381]
  • Australian musicians Tim Minchin and Briggs produced the song HouseFyre – satirising Prime Minister's Scott Morrison's leadership during the preceding months – whilst under isolation in their respective homes. The video clip was filmed from their mobile phones, with proceeds from the song's sale going towards a fundraiser for indigenous artists.[382]
  • Musician iMarkkeyz remixed an instagram video by rapper Cardi B to release the song Coronavirus in mid-March. It reached No. 1 on the Brazilian iTunes chart[383] and #9 the US,[384] and was called "the first stirring of what a future historian may call pandemic pop".[378]
  • British Army veteran Captain Tom Moore raised more than $55 million for Britain's National Health Service (NHS) in the middle of the pandemic on the week of his 100th birthday with a version of You'll Never Walk Alone with singer Michael Ball and the NHS Voices of Care Choir, becoming the oldest artist to top the music charts and claim a UK number one single.[385]
  • The New York Public Library published an album of "audio landscapes" – recordings of ambient sounds evocative of the city – Missing Sounds of New York (including of the sound of peak hour traffic, a baseball game, a busy restaurant, and of the library's own reading room). Released on May 1, it had been streamed on Spotify in the first week over 200,000 times and publicly praised by the city's mayor.[386]

LiteratureEdit

"For writers, as the tentacles of the coronavirus unfurl each day, everything is copy. But what happens when every writer on the planet starts taking notes on the same subject? Will we all hand in our book reports simultaneously, a year from now? The nature of tragedy is that it takes more than it gives, but it’s also produced some of our most iconic literature."
Author, Sloane Crosley[387]
"Books about the epidemic are needed now. They provide people with the cultural means to understand something that is uprooting their existence."
Author and virologist, Roberto Burioni[388]
  • The novel Lockdown by Peter May, written in 2005 and describing a global pandemic, was originally rejected for publication for being unrealistic. When a fan requested he write something relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, the author said he thought about it for a minute before he "realised that I've kind of already done it." It will be published in April 2020.[389]
  • Horror and supernatural fiction author Stephen King backdated the setting of a forthcoming novel from 2020 to 2019, so that the characters could plausibly congregate and go on a cruise ship.[390]
  • Paolo Giordano, Italian physicist and award-winning author of the Premio Strega, published his thoughts about the virus outbreak in an essay entitled How Contagion Works in March 2020. It was quickly translated into more than 20 languages.[388]
  • Italian virologist and author Roberto Burioni published Virus. La grande sfida. [Virus. The Great Challenge], an examination of how epidemics shape civilisations in March 2020. The proceeds went toward research on the virus.[391]
  • Italian publisher Garzanti published Andrà tutto bene [Everything will be fine], an anthology of twenty-six short stories and essays about quarantine from a range of writers including children's author Elisabetta Gnone. Profits from the sale of the e-book went to the Pope John XXIII Hospital in Bergamo.[392]

Visual artEdit

  • Street artist Banksy published a new piece of his trademark wall art - this time located in his own bathroom, referencing the required self-isolation - with coronavirus as the theme and "stir-crazy rats" as its subject. He published photographs of it online.[393]
  • Artists in the United Kingdom painted portraits of National Health Service workers for free, as a way of recognising their contributions, and with a view to holding an exhibition once the pandemic subsides.[394] The project, named Portraits for NHS Heroes, was initiated via Instagram and was emulated in other countries.[395]
  • The official music video for the song Phenom by Thao & the Get Down Stay Down was recorded entirely via the "rigid grid format of the teleconferencing app Zoom", while the band members were in home isolation. Described as "the finest music video to emerge from our age of isolation", it took eight days to complete.[396]
  • Damien Hirst produced two versions of a new poster artwork entitled Butterfly Rainbow – one as a free download "to raise the spirits", and another to be sold in limited edition as a fundraiser for the UK's National Health Service.[397]
  • Sculptor Antony Gormley created Hold while in lockdown – a small human figure made of dark clay, "resting its head between tightly wound arms, clasping bent knees and shoulders. Toes curled inwards" which he described as "trying to make an objective equivalent for the state that we're all in". It was "exhibited online" at White Cube gallery.[94]
  • Artist Sara Shakeel created a series of digital images to encourage proper hand washing and to thank health care workers. These images show the water coming from the spout collaged with crystals and glitter as well as health care workers surrounded by glitter and crystals. Shakeel's glittery hand washing images have been used in several blogs and news outlets, including Elle Canada, detailing the best practices for hand washing to prevent the spread of the virus. [398][399][400][401]
  •   Media related to COVID-19 pandemic in art at Wikimedia Commons

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "COVID-19 and the Global Library Field". IFLA. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Archives are Accessible". www.ica.org. International Council on Archives. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Here are the museums that have closed (so far) due to coronavirus". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  4. ^ Solomon, Tessa; Selvin, Claire (12 March 2020). "See a List of Coronavirus-Related Closures at Museums Around the World". ARTnews.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Museums closures". Google Docs. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  6. ^ Shoard, Catherine (20 March 2020). "'Over one hour everything was cancelled' – how coronavirus devastated the film industry". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  7. ^ Pedersen, Erik (16 March 2020). "Coronavirus: TV Shows That Have Halted Or Delayed Production Amid Outbreak". Deadline. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Coronavirus and culture – a list of major cancellations". The Guardian. 26 March 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b Kenyon, Nicholas (21 March 2020). "Classical music: let the Berlin Phil come to you". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  10. ^ "BTS, Madonna, Khalid, Billie Eilish, and more artists canceling shows over coronavirus". EW.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  11. ^ "COVID-19: Information for Zoos and Aquariums". zahp.aza.org. Zoo and Aquarium All Hazards Preparedness, Response, and Recovery (ZAHP) Fusion Center. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  12. ^ "Coronavirus: Updated List of Tours and Festivals Canceled or Postponed Due to COVID-19". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "Here are the museums that have closed (so far) due to coronavirus". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  14. ^ Di Liscia, Valentina (9 March 2020). "A Daily Report on How COVID-19 Is Impacting the Art World". Hyperallergic. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  15. ^ Voon, Claire (20 April 2020). "How Three Very Different Museums Are Dealing with the COVID-19 Crisis". Artsy. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Post-Pandemic, Which Cultural Entity Types Are People More Likely to Revisit? (DATA)". Colleen Dilenschneider. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  17. ^ "DATA UPDATE: How COVID-19 is Impacting Intentions to Visit Cultural Entities - March 23, 2020". Colleen Dilenschneider. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  18. ^ "What Will Make People Feel Safe Attending a Cultural Entity Again? (DATA)". Colleen Dilenschneider. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Egypt to close all museums and archaeological sites". Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  20. ^ "Moroccan Museums Close Doors Against Growing Threat of COVID-19". Morocco World News. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  21. ^ Kasraoui, Safaa (15 March 2020). "Morocco Cancels 2020 Mawazine Music Festival as COVID-19 Spreads". Morocco World News. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  22. ^ "Coronavirus en Argentina: disponen el cierre temporario de todos los museos de la Ciudad". www.clarin.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  23. ^ "#BibliotecasEnCasa en Seguimos Educando - Educ.ar". www.educ.ar. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  24. ^ Kenny, Nancy (12 March 2020). "Led by Metropolitan Museum of Art, a flurry of US museums say they are shutting down because of coronavirus". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  25. ^ Romine, Taylor; Levenson, Eric; Morgado, Javi. "Broadway theaters to suspend all performances because of coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  26. ^ "ALA Executive Board recommends closing libraries to public". American Library Association. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  27. ^ "AMC Theatres Won't Reopen Until There Is New Studio Product". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Dallas-Fort Worth museum fans will have to visit virtually past May 1". CultureMap Dallas. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  29. ^ "5676.0.55.003 - Business Indicators, Business Impacts of COVID-19, Week Commencing 30 March 2020". www.abs.gov.au. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  30. ^ "Australian GLAMs and COVID-19". closed-glams-covid19. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Media Release: Melbourne International Comedy Festival 2020 Has Been Cancelled". Melbourne International Comedy Festival. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Opera Australia Cancels Performances Due to Coronavirus". Opera Wire. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  33. ^ "We have cancelled the 2020 Festival". Archived from the original on 21 April 2020.
  34. ^ a b Anatolitis, Esther (8 April 2020). "Australia's arts have been hardest hit by coronavirus. So why aren't they getting support?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  35. ^ Ribeiro, Celina (21 April 2020). "Tim alone: Mona's human artwork is still sitting in an empty gallery for six hours a day". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  36. ^ Solomon, Tessa (13 March 2020). "Museums in China, South Korea, Japan Begin to Reopen After Coronavirus Lockdown". ARTnews.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  37. ^ "China, South Korea and Japan start to reopen museums after strict coronavirus lockdown". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Library Opening Notice". library.gov.mo. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  39. ^ Jonze, Tim (28 February 2020). "Van Gogh's Sunflowers under coronavirus quarantine in Tokyo". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  40. ^ "COVID-19 and NZ GLAMs". National Digital Forum. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  41. ^ Campbell, Georgina (20 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Te Papa museum to close for two weeks". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Auckland Museum is temporarily closed". Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McGivern, Hannah; Kenney, Nancy (14 March 2020). "Here are the museums that have closed (so far) due to coronavirus". The Art Newspaper. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  44. ^ Lee, Su-Hyun; Sokol, Brett (27 April 2020). "In Seoul, the Art World Gets Back to Business". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  45. ^ "Art Dubai Downsizes Its 2020 Fair Due to Growing Concern Over the Spread of Coronavirus". artnet News. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  46. ^ "After Dubai's Biggest Art Fair Was Cancelled, the UAE Government Swiftly Purchased More Than $400,000 of Work by Local Artists". artnet News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  47. ^ "NEMO - Museums in Europe during the COVID-19 Crisis". Google My Maps. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  48. ^ "Staff force Louvre closure over coronavirus fears". BBC News. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Coronavirus: Louvre museum in Paris reopens after staff walkout". www.thelocal.fr. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Louvre, Versailles and Eiffel Tower close over coronavirus crisis". France 24. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  51. ^ Lauter, Devoran (26 March 2020). ""I Use the Capitalist System to the Very End": Christo on What It's Like to Achieve His Dream of Wrapping the Arc de Triomphe". artnet News. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  52. ^ "L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped". christojeanneclaude.net.
  53. ^ "Leitlinien gegen Ausbreitung des Coronavirus". Die Bundesregierung (in German). 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  54. ^ Connolly, Kate (5 May 2020). "Germany reopens museums, galleries and gardens with social distancing rules". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  55. ^ Hickley, Catherine (4 May 2020). "We went to one of the first German museums to reopen after the lockdown—here's what it was like". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  56. ^ Urban, Mark (5 May 2020). "German museums and shops open as lockdown eased". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  57. ^ McGowran, Leigh (6 March 2020). "Coronavirus: St Patrick's parade cancelled in Stepaside Dublin for Public Health". Dublin Live. Retrieved 6 March 2020. "Letterkenny and Buncrana parades cancelled". Highland Radio. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020. "Sligo's St Patrick's Day Parade is cancelled". Ocean FM. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020. White, Dylan (6 March 2020). "Dungarvan's St Patrick's Day parade cancelled over coronavirus". Waterford Live. Retrieved 6 March 2020. Corcoran, Mary (6 March 2020). "Parades in Cork towns cancelled and postponed due to coronavirus concerns". The Echo. Retrieved 6 March 2020. "Irish St Patrick's Day parades off over coronavirus". BBC News. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  58. ^ "La cultura chiusa ai tempi del coronavirus". Il Sole 24 ORE (in Italian). Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  59. ^ "Coronavirus: Louvre closes while Italian museums reopen following government green light". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  60. ^ "Coronavirus in Italy: Ai Weiwei criticised for 'insensitive' pasta meme and Raphael blockbuster closes". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  61. ^ "Belgium and Italy Will Reopen Their Museums in May, But Keep Strict Social-Distancing Rules in Place". artnet News. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  62. ^ "Palio di Siena, ora è ufficiale: niente Carriere nel 2020. L'ultima volta era accaduto per la Guerra Mondiale". corrieredisiena.corr.it. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  63. ^ Lint, Peter van der (29 March 2020). "Een heuse www-wereldpremière met opera in de koptelefoon". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  64. ^ "Studiezaal en tentoonstelling Nationaal Archief tijdelijk gesloten". Nationaal Archief (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  65. ^ "'I'm absolutely livid': Van Gogh painting stolen from museum during pandemic". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  66. ^ a b Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap (17 March 2020). "Veelgestelde vragen over coronavirus en cultuur - Coronavirus COVID-19 - Rijksoverheid.nl". www.rijksoverheid.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  67. ^ "Teatry zamknięte przynajmniej na 2 tygodnie". trojmiasto.pl (in Polish). 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  68. ^ "Encerramento e limitação de acesso em museus e monumentos" [Closure and limitation of access to museums and monuments]. www.portugal.gov.pt (in Portuguese). Government of the Portuguese Republic. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  69. ^ "Pacote de Medidas" [Package of Measures]. EstamosON (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  70. ^ "CMS rekommenderar stängning av centralmuseer i områden med hög smittspridning". Sveriges museer (in Swedish). 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  71. ^ Paskett, Zoe (17 March 2020). "The London galleries and museums that are closed due to coronavirus". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Tate, V&A and Natural History Museum to close". BBC News. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  73. ^ Flood, Alison (23 March 2020). "Close libraries now, plead library chiefs as 'terrified' London staff walk out". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  74. ^ Jones, Jonathan (16 March 2020). "With coronavirus, the curse of Artemisia Gentileschi strikes again". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  75. ^ a b Alter, Alexandra (4 March 2020). "London Book Fair Canceled Over Coronavirus Fears". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  76. ^ "Glasgow's Book Festival - Coronovirus Latest Information". 21 January 2012. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019.
  77. ^ Canavar, Sharon. "Statement on Corfonvirus". Harrogate International Festivals. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020.
  78. ^ Barley, Nick. "A message from Nick Barley, Director of the Edinburgh International Book Festival". Archived from the original on 6 April 2020.
  79. ^ a b "Galleries worldwide face 70% income crash due to coronavirus, our survey reveals". www.theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  80. ^ Green, Andrew (23 March 2020). "Hazard Chase ceases trading due to COVID-19". Rhinegold. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  81. ^ "Publisher of NZ Listener, Woman's Weekly, North & South to shut down". The Spinoff. 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  82. ^ Bongiovanni, Domenica. "Indianapolis Contemporary art museum shuts down, citing economic damage from coronavirus". Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  83. ^ "I/C Board Announces Plans To Close". Indianapolis Contemporary. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  84. ^ Snow, Georgia (27 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Waitress confirms it will not reopen after theatre closures". The Stage. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  85. ^ Boseley, Matilda; Convery, Stephanie (5 May 2020). "Carriageworks goes into voluntary administration citing 'irreparable loss of income' due to coronavirus". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  86. ^ "Broadway's Frozen Will Not Reopen Post-Pandemic". Playbill. 14 May 2020.
  87. ^ a b Johnston, Courtney (6 April 2020). "Best of 3: Where are we at and how do we plan: museums as we look forward from the lock-down". Best of 3. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  88. ^ "In moments of crisis, people need culture". UNESCO. UNESCO. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  89. ^ Feinstein, Laura (9 April 2020). "'Beginning of a new era': how culture went virtual in the face of crisis". The Guardian.
  90. ^ Hartig, Kajsa (29 March 2020). "Museums delivering value online — some thoughts during the Covid-19 crisis". Medium. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  91. ^ Farago, Jason (25 March 2020). "The Merry-Go-Round Stopped. What Sort of Art Will Emerge?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  92. ^ a b "Erlebt freies Wissen einen Aufwind in der Corona-Krise?" [Is free knowledge experiencing an upswing in the Corona crisis?]. Deutschlandfunk Kultur (in German). 28 March 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  93. ^ Stubbins, Sinead (25 March 2020). "Coronavirus cabin fever: the best celebrities to follow, from Robbie Williams to Florence Pugh". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  94. ^ a b Wills, Ella (24 April 2020). "How artists are depicting the coronavirus lockdown". BBC News. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  95. ^ a b c "Vendor Love in the Time of COVID-19". docs.google.com. University Information Policy Officers. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  96. ^ a b "Broadway Licensing Offers Up Streaming Rights to Shows that Can't Perform Live". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  97. ^ a b "The coronavirus is shaking up the world's art market in unexpected ways". DW.com. Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  98. ^ "BBC - BBC Arts announces new programmes for Culture In Quarantine - Media Centre". www.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  99. ^ Rea, Naomi (23 March 2020). "Dawn of the Online Biennial Era? The Biennale of Sydney Becomes the First Major International Art Show to Go Virtual". Artnet. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  100. ^ "Call for applications: 2020 National Arts Festival digital ideas". Music In Africa. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  101. ^ Hillier, Bianca (30 March 2020). "Artists flock to the only 'festival' still on during COVID-19". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  102. ^ "Cultura en casa". Buenos Aires Ciudad - Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Australian GLAM updates". ozglam.info. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  104. ^ "#IrishMuseumsOnline: content and resources". Irish Museums Association. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Musei chiusi per Coronavirus: cosa offrono sul web e social mentre #iorestoacasa". Globalist (in Italian). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  106. ^ "Coronavirus, dal Louvre agli Uffizi, i musei chiusi ora si visitano online. Cinema, teatri e biblioteche: così la cultura arriva direttamente a casa". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  107. ^ Davalli, Carolina (25 March 2020). "11 archivi digitali, immensi, gratuiti e meravigliosi". i-D (in Italian). Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  108. ^ Sartori, Giada. "How Italian Film Archives are reacting to the COVID-19 crisis – ACE – Association des Cinémathèques Européennes". Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  109. ^ "How can digital platforms help museums connect to audiences during Covid-19 emergency". www.museumsassociation.org. Museums Association. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  110. ^ "10 museum activities to keep children entertained". Kids in Museums. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  111. ^ a b "Turning the threat of COVID-19 into an opportunity for greater support to documentary heritage". UNESCO.org. UNESCO. 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  112. ^ a b Abend, Lisa (31 March 2020). "Museums Scramble to Document the Pandemic, Even as It Unfolds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  113. ^ a b Roy, Eleanor Ainge (2 April 2020). "Animal tragic: New Zealand zoos strive to entertain lonely inhabitants amid lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  114. ^ Mohdin, Aamna (30 March 2020). "'The animals aren't pleased': UK zoos under coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  115. ^ "Coronavirus: Taronga Zoo streams to homes". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  116. ^ "Watching animals helps. A lot. Here are the best webcams". Los Angeles Times. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  117. ^ Padilla, Mariel; Vigdor, Neil (18 March 2020). "Stuck at Home, You Can Still Explore the Zoo or Aquarium. Some Penguins Could, Too". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  118. ^ "Chico the sloth's big day out sends dolphins into rapture". Traveller. 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  119. ^ "From the burbs to the bush, animals are reclaiming and exploring the world during coronavirus - ABC News". www.abc.net.au. 30 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  120. ^ McCurry, Justin (1 May 2020). "Japanese aquarium urges public to video-chat eels who are forgetting humans exist". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  121. ^ "Giving Back During COVID-19: Zoos, Aquariums, and Sanctuaries Support Their Communities – ZAHP". 20 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  122. ^ Hatton, Celia (31 March 2020). "Thai elephants face starvation as tourism plummets". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  123. ^ Paddock, Richard C.; Suhartono, Muktita; Dean, Adam (24 March 2020). "As Tourism Plummets in Thailand, Elephants Are Out of Work, Too". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  124. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (13 March 2020). "Mass monkey brawl highlights coronavirus effect on Thailand tourism". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  125. ^ "The Coronavirus Lockdown Is a Threat for Many Animals, Not a Blessing". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  126. ^ "Kruger visitors that tourists do not normally see. #SALockdown". Twitter. @sanparksknp. 15 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  127. ^ "Hong Kong's pandas mate for first time in decade in privacy of coronavirus lockdown". the Guardian. 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  128. ^ "Canada's Calgary zoo to return two giant pandas after bamboo supply disruption". The Guardian. 14 May 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  129. ^ Elassar, Alaa. "A tiger at the Bronx Zoo tests positive for coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  130. ^ "Tiger tests positive for coronavirus at Bronx Zoo, first known case in the world". Animals. 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  131. ^ Shoard, Catherine (6 March 2020). "Cinema bullish in the face of coronavirus despite projected $5bn loss". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  132. ^ a b "Box Office's Best Case Scenario? Down 40 Percent". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  133. ^ Chitwood, Adam (9 April 2020). "Taika Waititi Is Hosting an Instagram Live 'Thor: Ragnarok' Screening Party Today". Collider. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  134. ^ Marshall, Alex (1 March 2020). "Making a Plague Movie, With Coronavirus on the Doorstep". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  135. ^ Wax, Eddy (26 February 2020). "Life mimics art for plague drama in coronavirus-hit Italy". Politico. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  136. ^ Ravenscraft, Eric (3 April 2020). "Streaming New Movie Releases Could Be Here to Stay". Medium. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  137. ^ Whitten, Sarah (28 April 2020). "'Trolls World Tour' made more for Universal in 3 weeks on demand than 'Trolls' did in 5 months in theaters". CNBC. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  138. ^ Pulver, Andrew (14 April 2020). "Cannes film festival says 2020 edition cannot go ahead 'in original form'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  139. ^ "Cannes opens its doors to homeless after coronavirus delays film festival". Reuters. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  140. ^ Pulver, Andrew (21 April 2020). "Venice film festival 'to go ahead as planned' in September". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  141. ^ "Awards Rules and Campaign Regulations Approved for 93rd Oscars". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  142. ^ "Pandemic forces Academy to break with Oscars tradition for streaming films". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  143. ^ "Was Sundance a "First Petri Dish" of Coronavirus in the States?". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  144. ^ Shoard, Catherine (7 May 2020). "'First petri dish': Sundance film festival may have been Covid-19 incubator". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  145. ^ Pedersen, Erik (16 March 2020). "Coronavirus: TV Shows That Have Halted Or Delayed Production Amid Outbreak". Deadline. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  146. ^ Koblin, John (11 March 2020). "TV Talk Shows Throw Out the Audience". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  147. ^ "A message from NPR on programming". news.wbfo.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  148. ^ "How Everyone From "Keeping Up With The Kardashians" To "The Walking Dead" Have Kept Production Alive Despite Coronavirus Quarantines". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  149. ^ Kamin, Debra (30 March 2020). "'Live! From the Basement …'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  150. ^ Hern, Alex (16 March 2020). "No news is good news: Big Brother guests unaware of pandemic". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  151. ^ Sampson, Issy (17 March 2020). "'An ethical nightmare': how coronavirus turned Big Brother into a house of horrors". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  152. ^ Thomas, Opinion by Holly. "The moral quagmire of coronavirus and 'Big Brother'". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  153. ^ "In Times of Social Distancing: Watching Films Online". sabzian.be (in Dutch). Sabzian. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  154. ^ Browne, Ryan (27 March 2020). "The internet is under huge strain because of the coronavirus. Experts say it can cope — for now". CNBC. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  155. ^ Kang, Cecilia; Alba, Davey; Satariano, Adam (26 March 2020). "Surging Traffic Is Slowing Down Our Internet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  156. ^ Spangler, Todd (2 April 2020). "HBO Will Stream 500 Hours of Free Programming, Including Full Seasons of 'Veep,' 'The Sopranos,' 'Silicon Valley'". Variety. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  157. ^ Spangler, Todd (17 April 2020). "Netflix Releases 10 Documentary Films and Series for Free on YouTube". Variety. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  158. ^ "SiriusXM Offers Free Streaming Amid Social Distancing". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  159. ^ Zeitchik, Steven. "For the sports-entertainment business, coronavirus is taking a huge toll". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  160. ^ "At the Heart of the Response: Health Librarians Support Better Decision-Making around COVID-19". Library Policy and Advocacy Blog. IFLA. 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  161. ^ Krolak, Lisa (20 April 2020). "How can the library community serve people in institutions, such as prisons and homes for the elderly, in times of Covid-19?". Library Policy and Advocacy Blog. IFLA. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  162. ^ Wiersen, Siri Åbø. "Biblioteket starter bok-taxi". Svalbardposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  163. ^ "La biblioteca argentina que reparte libros puerta a puerta por el coronavirus". www.efe.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  164. ^ "Bibliotecas Municipais face à pandemia do Covid-19 (serviços de empréstimo)". bibliotecas.dglab.gov.pt. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  165. ^ العالمية, شبكة الكفيل. "ضمن حملة مكافحة وباء كورونا: مكتبةُ العتبة العبّاسية المقدّسة تُطلق خدمة إعارة المصادر عن بُعْد" [Within the Campaign facing Corona Pandemic: The al-Abbas's Holy Shrine Library Launches the Remote Books Loan Service]. alkafeel.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  166. ^ a b c d "You can't keep a good public library (locked) down". www.eifl.net. EIFL. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  167. ^ "Fantasy, retour aux sources". Fantasy, retour aux sources (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  168. ^ "À un clic de 1300 cours en ligne". La Voix de l’Est (in French). 28 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  169. ^ "National Library offers free audiobooks amid coronavirus closures". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  170. ^ "Biblioteca del Congreso: todas las actividades online durante la pandemia del coronavirus". Infobae (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  171. ^ "Enquête : l'impact de la crise sanitaire Covid-19 sur l'offre numérique des bibliothèques des bibliothèques territoriales" (in French). ministère de la Culture. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  172. ^ Bracken, John (3 April 2020). "Our plans for the next 90 days". Digital Public Library of America. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  173. ^ "Demand For E-books Rises At Area Libraries". www.wbur.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  174. ^ "Announcing a National Emergency Library to Provide Digitized Books to Students and the Public". Internet Archive Blogs. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  175. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (28 March 2020). "Internet Archive offers 1.4 million copyrighted books for free online". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  176. ^ a b Alter, Alexandra (30 March 2020). "'Emergency' Online Library Draws Ire of Some Authors". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  177. ^ Hering, Katharina. "COVID 19 documentation initiatives". www.zotero.org. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  178. ^ "What to do during covid-19? A list for archivists / Quoi faire durant le covid-19? Une liste pour les archivistes". Google Docs. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  179. ^ "Documenting in Times of Crisis: A Resource Kit". www2.archivists.org. Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  180. ^ "City's fight against COVID-19 to be remembered". SHINE. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Coronacollectie". Netwerk Digitaal Erfgoed (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  182. ^ Dye, Josh (5 April 2020). "'Something we'll never see again': Museums record history as it unfolds". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  183. ^ "Home · Documenting COVID-19 in Niagara · Brock University Library". exhibits.library.brocku.ca. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  184. ^ "About · 20/20 Distance: A COVID-19 Digital Archive". 2020distance.omeka.net. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  185. ^ Bakare, Lanre (31 March 2020). "Art project captures sound of cities during coronavirus outbreak". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  186. ^ "covid-19 oral history project". sites.google.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  187. ^ "開館15分で来館者上限に 静岡・沼津の図書館1カ月ぶりに再開、待ちわびた市民が長い列". 毎日新聞 (in Japanese). Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  188. ^ "Libraries Around the World Prepare for a New Normal". bibliotheca library solutions. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  189. ^ 廖淑芳 (6 April 2020). "圖書館中文版". 臺北市立圖書館 (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  190. ^ Cowell, Jane (8 May 2020). "COVID-19 Infection Prevention Tips for Libraries". Medium. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  191. ^ Steger, Jason (3 April 2020). "'Deplorable': Australia Council stuns literary fold with funding cuts". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  192. ^ Tsiolkas, Christos (3 April 2020). "Why were so many of us wrong? Christos Tsiolkas on the new uncertainty". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  193. ^ a b Alter, Alexandra (16 March 2020). "The World of Books Braces for a Newly Ominous Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  194. ^ Williams, Megan (27 March 2020). "Exhibitions and a book festival go virtual in BBC's Culture in Quarantine". Creative Review. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  195. ^ "Across L.A., bookstores close, scramble to stay afloat amid coronavirus concerns". Los Angeles Times. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  196. ^ "April 2020 - Covid19 Important Update". Gleebooks. April 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020.
  197. ^ Partridge, Joanna (17 March 2020). "Amazon to suspend non-essential shipments to UK and US warehouses". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  198. ^ a b Ferguson, Donna (26 April 2020). "Tolstoy, Steinbeck, Defoe – why are so many turning to classic novels?". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  199. ^ Spicer, André (9 March 2020). "The Decameron – the 14th-century Italian book that shows us how to survive coronavirus". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020.
  200. ^ Vanamee, Norman (16 March 2020). "Decameron and Chill? Why a 14th-Century Italian Masterpiece Is on Everyone's Coronavirus Reading List". Town & Country. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  201. ^ Flood, Alison (6 March 2020). "Publishers report sales boom in novels about fictional epidemics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  202. ^ a b "Coronavirus leads to surge in traffic: How publishers are building reader loyalty by offering free content". What’s New in Publishing. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  203. ^ "Coronavirus (Covid-2019)". STM. International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  204. ^ "Library boosts digital resources for teaching, learning". Cornell Chronicle. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  205. ^ "Libraries React to Macmillan Embargo Lift". American Libraries Magazine. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  206. ^ a b Flood, Alison (6 April 2020). "French writers' coronavirus getaways prompt backlash". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  207. ^ Flood, Alison (30 March 2020). "Prize shares £10,000 between publishers amid coronavirus damage". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  208. ^ March 2020, Alex Whitelock 24. "Free audiobooks offered by Audible for kids affected by coronavirus school closures". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  209. ^ "Audible just made hundreds of titles completely free to help during coronavirus crisis". Radio Times. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  210. ^ "PODCAST: Museum Directors on COVID-19 and Its Impact on Museums, Part 1". The Iris. The Getty. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  211. ^ "Museums Cut Staff as COVID-19 Bites". MuseumNext. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  212. ^ a b Organisations, NEMO-The Network of European Museum. "NEMO publishes initial results of survey on the impact of the corona crisis on museums in Europe". NEMO - The Network of European Museum Organisations. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  213. ^ "The Ultimate Guide to Virtual Museum Resources". MCN. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  214. ^ "2,500 Museums You Can Now Visit Virtually". Hyperallergic. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  215. ^ "The 8 Essential Things Museums are Providing Right Now". MCN. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  216. ^ "Free strategy workshops March 23 – April 3". Usingdata. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  217. ^ "Europeana Communicators webinar : Culture From Home". Europeana Pro. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  218. ^ a b "Copyright & Open Access for GLAMs in the age of COVID-19". Medium. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  219. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) and museums: impact, innovations and planning for post-crisis". ICOM. International Council of Museums. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  220. ^ "What #COVID19 questions do you want to pose to the museum field? Comment below or DM us to include it in our #MuseumsDiscussCOVID19 Tweet chat! TODAY 3-4 pm". Twitter. American Alliance of Museums. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  221. ^ Hester, Jessica Leigh (17 April 2020). "How Museums Will Eventually Tell the Story of COVID-19". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  222. ^ "China's museums offer online exhibitions amid coronavirus outbreak". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  223. ^ "关于向"博物馆网上展览平台"提供网上展览内容资源的倡议书". www.ncha.gov.cn (in Chinese). National Cultural Heritage Administration. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  224. ^ "'Paint has more time to dry': Archibald Prize delayed". The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  225. ^ "Museum Social Media Entertains During the COVID-19 Crisis". MuseumNext. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  226. ^ Wareham, Jamie (28 March 2020). "#MuseumFromHome Is The Trend We Need In These Strange Times". Forbes. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  227. ^ Crace, John (6 April 2020). "Coronavirus art challenge: how a pan turned me into the Duke of Urbino". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  228. ^ "Put These Artistic Masterpieces Re-created With Household Items in a Museum". Time. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  229. ^ "Your 'Animal Crossing' obsession is about to get worse. Blame the Getty Art Generator". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  230. ^ Lee, Alicia. "With the aquarium closed to humans, penguins take opportunity to explore and visit other animals". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  231. ^ Marshall, Alex (30 March 2020). "Museum World's King of Memes Brings Humor to Lockdown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  232. ^ "Cowboy Museum Puts Their Head Of Security In Charge Of Their Twitter, And His Tweets Are Hilariously Wholesome". Bored Panda. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  233. ^ Srinivasan, Pankaja; Basu, Soma; Nagarajan, Saraswathy; Anand, Shilpa Nair; Tankha, Madhur (7 May 2020). "Amid Coronavirus lockdown, how museums are sprucing up their collections and keeping history virtually alive". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  234. ^ "Reorganise, Reuse, Rethink and Relaunch - Lessons from Philbrook". MuseumNext. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  235. ^ Cooper, Nathanael (5 April 2020). "For musicians, collapse of touring industry opens door to creativity". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  236. ^ Leight, Elias (30 March 2020). "They Were Going to Be Spring's Biggest Albums -- Until COVID-19 Hit". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  237. ^ Rettig, James (23 March 2020). "HAIM, Dua Lipa, Willie Nelson, & Sufjan Stevens Among Artists Moving Album Release Dates Amid Pandemic". Stereogum. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  238. ^ Farokhmanesh, Megan. "Nine Inch Nails just released two new albums for free". The Verge. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  239. ^ Kreps, Daniel (1 April 2020). "Phish to Debut New Album 'Sigma Oasis' During April 1st Livestream". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  240. ^ "Pink Floyd announces YouTube concert series for fans in quarantine". Consequence of Sound. 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  241. ^ McFadyen, Matthew (30 March 2020). "Murder Most Foul: Bob Dylan's surprise song for the viral age". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  242. ^ Marshall, Alex (18 March 2020). "Eurovision Song Contest Is Canceled Over Coronavirus Concerns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  243. ^ "Eurovision venue turned into Covid-19 hospital". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  244. ^ Snapes, Laura (6 April 2020). "Lady Gaga, Billie Eilish and Paul McCartney to play coronavirus benefit". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  245. ^ Newstead, Al (19 March 2020). "Isol-Aid is a stacked Aussie livestreaming music festival that's happening this weekend". triple j. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  246. ^ "@isolaidfestival". Linktree. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  247. ^ "Bocelli, concerto di Pasqua nel Duomo di Milano". lastampa.it (in Italian). 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  248. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (10 April 2020). "Liam Gallagher leads wave of free concerts for NHS staff". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  249. ^ "Coronavirus: Ongoing List of Virtual Concerts & Livestreams". Billboard. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  250. ^ Tilden, Imogen (15 April 2020). "Bittersweet symphony: the best lockdown orchestras and choirs online". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  251. ^ Clements, Laura (20 March 2020). "The best live streamed gigs to watch at home during coronavirus". walesonline. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  252. ^ Phillips, Tom (29 April 2020). "Brazil's musicians offer 'little seed of happiness' via shutdown sessions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  253. ^ "Couch Choir - (They Long To Be) Close To You". YouTube. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020.
  254. ^ Lamond, Scott (26 March 2020). "Coronavirus sees ARIA-winning musicians turn online teachers as students flock to lessons". ABC News. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  255. ^ Hennessy, Kate (8 May 2020). "'We shouldn't just be used for charity': musicians are still getting work – but they're not being paid". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  256. ^ "Edinburgh festivals cancelled for first time since 1947". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 April 2020.
  257. ^ Unitt, Chris. "Cultural Digital: Streams". streams.culturaldigital.com. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  258. ^ "The best theatre to watch online right now". Time Out Worldwide. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  259. ^ Convery, Stephanie; Rawson, Sharnee (20 March 2020). "Livestreaming schedule: music, art, literature and events from Australia and beyond". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  260. ^ "Stage shows, musicals and opera you can watch online now for free". www.whatsonstage.com. WhatsOnStage. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  261. ^ McPhee, Ryan (23 March 2020). "In Wake of Season Cancellation, Metropolitan Opera Continues Free Streaming Series With a Week of Wagner". Playbill. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  262. ^ "Spend an Evening at the Bolshoi". The Moscow Times. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  263. ^ "Russia's Bolshoi Theater goes online as coronavirus curbs public life". Reuters. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  264. ^ "Shakespeare's Globe to release 40 free productions as part of new digital content offering". www.whatsonstage.com. WhatsOnStage. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  265. ^ "Andrew Lloyd Webber's musicals will be streamed for free online". Evening Standard. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  266. ^ "The living room where it happens: Hamilton film to premiere on Disney+". The Guardian. 12 May 2020.
  267. ^ "Masken statt Kostüme: Theaterwerkstätten stellen um". www.bz-berlin.de. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  268. ^ Craven, Peter (1 April 2020). "When the going got tough, Sam Neill got out his ukulele". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  269. ^ "Patrick Stewart Is Treating Twitter To One Shakespeare Sonnet A Day During Lockdown". Londonist. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  270. ^ Marshall, Konrad (10 April 2020). "A force for good: how the coronavirus crisis is sweetening our collective tune". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  271. ^ "STC Virtual". Sydney Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  272. ^ "Dancers Still Need Daily Class. No Barre? Just Grab a Chair". New York Times. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  273. ^ Lansky, Chava (16 March 2020). "Take Virtual Class From Your Kitchen Counter With These Pros". Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  274. ^ a b "Arts Council England Has Launched a $190 Million Emergency Relief Package for Creative Organizations and Artists". artnet News. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  275. ^ Cole, Brendan (20 March 2020). "Cirque du Soleil lays off 95 percent of its workforce after coronavirus forces closure of all its shows globally". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  276. ^ Mahdawi, Arwa (31 March 2020). "The coronavirus crisis has exposed the ugly truth about celebrity culture and capitalism". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  277. ^ "COVID-19 update". Australian Government. Department of Communications and the Arts. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  278. ^ Caust, Jo. "Coronavirus: what the latest stimulus measures mean for Australian artists and arts organisations". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  279. ^ "Exit stage left: Opera Australia leads arts shutdown". Australian Financial Review. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  280. ^ Galvin, Nick (16 March 2020). "Opera Australia looks to sell-offs to stay afloat". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  281. ^ Miller, Nick (15 April 2020). "Stood-down musicians 'blindsided' by MSO decision". The Age. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  282. ^ "Coronavirus, l'impatto negativo delle chiusure sui musei (che valgono l'1,6% del Pil)". Il Sole 24 ORE (in Italian). Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  283. ^ "Updates COVID-19". Fonds Podiumkunsten. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  284. ^ "Impact of Covid-19 on DCMS sectors - Committees - UK Parliament". committees.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  285. ^ Syal, Rajeev (22 April 2020). "Treasury blocks wage top-ups for furloughed museum staff". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  286. ^ Riley, Bethany (8 April 2020). "Self-employed artists left out of government's Covid-19 support packages, union warns".
  287. ^ "Check if you can claim a grant through the Self-Employment Income Support Scheme". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  288. ^ Sharratt, Chris. "A Desperate Time: How the UK Art World is Responding to the Coronavirus Lockdown". Frieze. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  289. ^ Reily, Bethany (8 April 2020). "Self-employed artists left out of government's Covid-19 support packages, union warns". Morning Star.
  290. ^ "This will be a thread for tracking museum layoff news". Twitter. Art + Museum Transparency. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  291. ^ Woolfe, Zachary (19 March 2020). "Metropolitan Opera Cancels Season Over Virus and Faces $60 Million Loss". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  292. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (18 March 2020). "Met Museum Prepares for $100 Million Loss and Closure Till July". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  293. ^ a b Hotchkiss, Sarah (27 March 2020). "SFMOMA to Lay Off or Furlough Over 300 Museum Staff". KQED. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  294. ^ "Museums Across the US Lay Off Workers as COVID-19 Cases Rise". www.artforum.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  295. ^ Litt, Steven; Dealer, The Plain (26 March 2020). "Cleveland Museum of Art announces pay cuts, furloughs, anticipating $5 million revenue loss due to coronavirus shutdown". cleveland. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  296. ^ "Mass MoCA Lays Off Majority Of Staff As Coronavirus Closures Continue To Batter Cultural Institutions". www.wbur.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  297. ^ "Carnegie Museums, Pittsburgh Glass Center furlough employees, reduce pay". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  298. ^ "Science Museum of Minnesota, Children's Museum temporarily lay off most staff in wake of COVID-19". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  299. ^ "LA MoCA Lays Off All Part-Time Staffers". www.artforum.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  300. ^ "Wet Paint: MOCA Board President Revealed as Secret Trump Backer, Murakami Mix-Up at Paris Fashion Week, & More Juicy Art-World Gossip". artnet News. 16 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  301. ^ "MoMA Terminates All Museum Educator Contracts". Hyperallergic. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  302. ^ "Art + Museum Transparency Newsletter #2 -- March 2020". artandmuseumtransparency. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  303. ^ "Frye Art Museum Workers Say Layoffs Motivated by Union Busting". Hyperallergic. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  304. ^ "ACTORS' EQUITY MAKES NEW, TEMPORARY STREAMING AGREEMENTS AVAILABLE TO PRODUCERS IN AREAS WITH LIMITS ON PUBLIC GATHERINGS · Actors' Equity Association". www.actorsequity.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  305. ^ Clement, Olivia (1 April 2020). "Red Bull Cancels Scheduled Live Stream Reading Following Dispute With Actors' Equity". Playbill. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  306. ^ "Red Bull Theater Livestream". Red Bull Theater. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  307. ^ a b "Worldwide policy response to COVID-19 in support of the CCS". KEA. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  308. ^ Gaynor, Jessie (3 April 2020). "Friend of booksellers James Patterson will donate $500,000 to indie bookstores". Literary Hub. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  309. ^ Frater, Patrick (2 April 2020). "Sony Unveils $100 Million Coronavirus Relief Fund". Variety. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  310. ^ "Emerging Artists Are Pledging to Support One Another During the Health Crisis by Buying Each Other's Work on Instagram". artnet News. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  311. ^ "Coronavirus en Algérie : des aides financières au profit des artistes". DzVID (in French). 4 April 2020. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  312. ^ "Creative industry unites to secure Australia's cultural life". NAVA. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  313. ^ Farr, Malcolm (15 April 2020). "Call for $750m rescue package for coronavirus-hit Australian arts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  314. ^ Cooper, Nathanael (8 April 2020). "$27 million for arts organisations in new targeted support package". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  315. ^ a b "'If our government wants cultural life to return, it must act now': an open letter from Australia's arts industry". The Guardian. 24 April 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  316. ^ Miller, Nick (7 April 2020). "'Wrack and ruin': Leading actors warn industry is on brink of collapse". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  317. ^ "The workers shut out of jobkeeper: 'I've lost 100% of my business'". the Guardian. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  318. ^ a b Nankervis, Kay. "Coronavirus TV 'support' package leaves screen writers and directors even less certain than before". The Conversation. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  319. ^ Watts, Richard. "Victorian Government announces $16.8 million arts survival package". ArtsHub Australia. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  320. ^ O'Sullivan, Matt (27 March 2020). "City of Sydney to increase crisis relief package to $72.5m". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  321. ^ "ALIA COVID-19 Relief Fund". www.alia.org.au. Australian Library and Information Association. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  322. ^ a b "IFRRO News - COVID19". us16.campaign-archive.com. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  323. ^ "COVID-19 prompts advance funding to stabilize arts sector". Canada Council for the Arts. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  324. ^ "COVID-19 SUPPORTS FOR ARTISTS AND THOSE WORKING IN THE ARTS SECTOR | Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht". www.chg.gov.ie. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  325. ^ "Bureau ivoirien du droit d'auteur : Une commission d'aide aux artistes malades instituée". www.fratmat.info. FratMat. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  326. ^ "Coronavirus : le gouvernement annonce des mesures pour les intermittents du spectacle" (in French). Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  327. ^ "ACTION CULTURELLE : LA SOFIA NE DEMANDERA PAS LE REMBOURSEMENT DES AIDES ACCORDEES POUR 2020". Sofia (in French). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  328. ^ "A l'ADAGP : Mesures exceptionnelles liées au COVID 19". www.adagp.fr. ADAGP. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  329. ^ "Germany Has Rolled Out a Staggering €50 Billion Aid Package For Small Businesses That Boosts Artists and Galleries—and Puts Other Countries to Shame". artnet News. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  330. ^ "Emergenza Covid 19, le misure adottate dal Consiglio di Gestione SIAE per associati e utilizzatori". www.siae.it. Società Italiana degli Autori ed Editori. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  331. ^ "Details of Creative New Zealand's first phase arts sector boost, ahead of 14 April opening". creativenz.gov.nz. Creative New Zealand. 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  332. ^ Hatim, Yahia (13 May 2020). "COVID-19: Moroccan Museums to Purchase Artwork to Support Local Artists". Morocco World News. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  333. ^ "En miljard i akut stöd till kultur och idrott" (in Swedish). Expressen. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  334. ^ "Konstnärsorganisationer föreslår krispaket för drabbade bildskapare". press.bildupphovsratt.se. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  335. ^ "Doctor Who stars unite for BBC's Big Night In". BBC News. 23 April 2020. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  336. ^ Sharrock, Lee (10 April 2020). "The Connor Brothers, Anish Kapoor, Antony Gormley, Bambi, Julian Opie, Sarah Pope and Grayson Perry donate to Bonhams The Blue Auction To Raise Funds for NHS Charities Covid-19 Appeal". FAD Magazine. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  337. ^ "Auction houses and dealers hold sales to help Covid-19 NHS charity appeals". www.antiquestradegazette.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  338. ^ Kendall Adams, Geraldine (17 March 2020). "Museums and galleries close as coronavirus emergency intensifies". Museums Association. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  339. ^ Wiseman, Andreas (24 March 2020). "BFI & UK Film And TV Charity Set Up Covid-19 Emergency Relief Fund With £1M Donation From Netflix". Deadline. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  340. ^ Kanter, Jake (27 March 2020). "BBC Joins Netflix In Making $600,000 Donation To Coronavirus Emergency Relief Fund". Deadline. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  341. ^ "£1 million awarded to visual artists and composers in the UK". Paul Hamlyn Foundation. 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  342. ^ "'This is a scary time': coronavirus emergency fund set up for authors". the Guardian. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  343. ^ "ALCS offers additional financial support to writers through the Society of Authors' Emergency Fund". www.alcs.co.uk. ALCS. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  344. ^ "Amazon's £250,000 for bookshops fund stuns trade". BBC News. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  345. ^ "Tell Congress: Include Museums in COVID-19 Economic Relief". Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  346. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art Is Calling on the US Government to Bail Out At-Risk Museums With $4 Billion in Aid". artnet News. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  347. ^ a b Jacobs, Julia (24 March 2020). "Arts Groups, Facing Their Own Virus Crisis, Get a Piece of the Stimulus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  348. ^ "Museums Included in Economic Relief Legislation". American Alliance of Museums. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  349. ^ "New Funding Starts to Flow for Artists and Cultural Groups Facing Calamity". Inside Philanthropy. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  350. ^ "» NPPA COVID-19 Relief Fund". Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  351. ^ "Archival Workers Emergency Fund". www2.archivists.org. Society of American Archivists. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  352. ^ "Europe Must Take Urgent Copyright Law Action To Support Distance Learning & Research During the Coronavirus Pandemic". LIBER. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  353. ^ SWIATEK, Cécile (5 April 2020). "Covid-19, " Ouvrez l'accès aux publications scientifiques! " / "Open access to scientific publications!" – Appel ADBU, Couperin, EPRIST aux éditeurs académiques". ADBU – Association des directeurs et des personnels de direction des bibliothèques universitaires (in French). Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  354. ^ "Appello Per Il Diritto Di Accesso Alla Conoscenza Scientifica In Stato Di Emergenza". Centumcellae (in Italian). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  355. ^ Nobre, Teresa (3 April 2020). "Open Letter to WIPO: Intellectual Property and COVID-19". International Communia Association. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  356. ^ "Read Aloud Canadian Books Program". Access Copyright. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  357. ^ "DILIA". www.dilia.cz. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  358. ^ "VG-Musikedition: Detail". www.vg-musikedition.de. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  359. ^ Enonic. "Covid-19: Kopinor keeps the wheels turning". Kopinor. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  360. ^ "Approved Plays for Live Streaming". playscripts.com. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  361. ^ "Digitization in an Emergency: Fair Use/Fair Dealing and How Libraries Are Adapting to the Pandemic". Association of Research Libraries. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  362. ^ Morrison, Chris (18 March 2020). "Copyright, Fair Dealing and Online Teaching at a Time of Crisis". UK Copyright Literacy. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  363. ^ "Public Statement: Fair Use & Emergency Remote Teaching & Research". docs.google.com. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  364. ^ "COVID-19 & Copyright at Cornell". copyright.cornell.edu. Cornell University. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  365. ^ Hampton, Rachelle (1 April 2020). "The Internet Archive Started an "Emergency" Online Library. Authors Are Furious". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  366. ^ "Internet Archive responds: Why we released the National Emergency Library". Internet Archive Blogs. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  367. ^ Machemer, Theresa. "Why the National Emergency Library Is So Controversial". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  368. ^ Cole, Samantha (26 March 2020). "Please Don't Sue LeVar Burton for Reading Soothing Stories to Scared Children". Vice. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  369. ^ Heidel, Evelin (23 April 2020). "GLAM Collections on Social Media: Navigating Copyright Questions". Medium. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  370. ^ "Seminario online "Propiedad intelectual y cultura libre en tiempos de coronavirus"". Ártica - Centro Cultural Online (in Spanish). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  371. ^ Australian Libraries Copyright Committee. "Remote supply – information for libraries and archives during the COVID 19 shutdown". Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  372. ^ Dye, Josh (28 March 2020). "'Perplexing and confusing': Art Gallery of NSW director grapples with coronavirus crisis". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  373. ^ "Art Competition - "UNITED AGAINST CORONA - EXPRESS THROUGH ART."". www.iccr.gov.in. Indian Council for Cultural Relations. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  374. ^ Bakare, Lanre (1 May 2020). "Historic England launches lockdown photography project". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  375. ^ "Art + Activism against repression during the COVID-19 crisis". University of York. Centre for Applied Human Rights. 14 April 2020. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  376. ^ Prescott, Emilia Brock, Pria Mahadevan, Virginia. "Coronavirus Goes Viral: How Online Meme Culture Reflects Our Shared Experience Of A Global Pandemic". www.gpbnews.org. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  377. ^ Miller, Nick (21 April 2020). "An egg, a Pringle, some Lego: Aussies attempt DIY art masterpieces". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  378. ^ a b "Pandemic pop: At home and around the world, dark-humored new songs about coronavirus go viral". Los Angeles Times. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  379. ^ "Online life explodes with COVID-19 memes, and hand-washing TikToks". Australian Financial Review. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  380. ^ Taylor, Tegan (6 April 2020). "Scientists translate coronavirus spike protein into music, revealing more about its structure". ABC News (Sydney). Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  381. ^ Venugopal, Vineeth (3 April 2020). "Scientists have turned the structure of the coronavirus into music". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abc0657. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  382. ^ "Tim Minchin and Briggs release isolation track satirising Scott Morrison's leadership". The Guardian. 9 April 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  383. ^ "iTunesCharts.net: 'Coronavirus' by iMarkkeyz (Brazilian Songs iTunes Chart)". www.itunescharts.net. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  384. ^ "iTunesCharts.net: 'Coronavirus' by iMarkkeyz (American Songs iTunes Chart)". www.itunescharts.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  385. ^ Shelton, Tracey (27 April 2020). "Captain Tom Moore becomes oldest artist to top the UK charts with You'll Never Walk Alone cover". ABC News. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  386. ^ Flood, Alison (7 May 2020). "The sound of silence: visiting the library during lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  387. ^ Crosley, Sloane (17 March 2020). "Someday, We'll Look Back on All of This and Write a Novel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  388. ^ a b Momigliano, Anna (9 April 2020). "In Italy, Coronavirus Books Rush to Publication". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  389. ^ Elassar, Alaa. "A pandemic thriller, once rejected by publishers for being unrealistic, is now getting a wide release". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  390. ^ King, Stephen. "Stephen King Is Sorry You Feel Like You're Stuck In A Stephen King Novel". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  391. ^ Carpinelli, Rosalia (2020). "Roberto Burioni - "Virus. The Great Challenge"". www.consulenzeditoriali.it/. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020.
  392. ^ "Andrà tutto bene". Garzanti.it. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020.
  393. ^ "Banksy follows stay-at-home orders and makes bathroom art during coronavirus crisis". ABC News. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  394. ^ "The artists painting front-line workers for free". BBC News. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  395. ^ "Covid-19 #10: Painting Portraits of NHS Heroes - has gone worldwide". Making a Mark. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  396. ^ Kaufman, Sarah L. (22 April 2020). "The best music video to emerge from our age of isolation". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  397. ^ "Damien Hirst's rainbow giveaway". BBC News. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  398. ^ "Graphic designers get creative to show support during Covid-19 outbreak". Dezeen. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  399. ^ "Where to Find Information on Coronavirus in Canada". Elle Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  400. ^ "Instagram crystal artist Sara Shakeel pays a glittering tribute to healthcare workers". Grazia Middle East. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  401. ^ "Pakistani artist Sara Shakeel's crystal-covered image of exhausted medical worker sends powerful message". The National. Retrieved 23 May 2020.

  This article incorporates text by IFLA available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

External linksEdit