Black Widow (2021 film)

Black Widow is a 2021 American superhero film based on Marvel Comics featuring the character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the 24th film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Cate Shortland from a screenplay by Eric Pearson and stars Scarlett Johansson as Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow alongside Florence Pugh, David Harbour, O-T Fagbenle, Olga Kurylenko, William Hurt, Ray Winstone, and Rachel Weisz. Set after the events of Captain America: Civil War (2016), the film sees Romanoff on the run and forced to confront her past as a Russian spy before she became an Avenger.

Black Widow
Theatrical release poster
Directed byCate Shortland
Screenplay byEric Pearson
Story by
Based onMarvel Comics
Produced byKevin Feige
Starring
CinematographyGabriel Beristain
Edited by
Music byLorne Balfe
Production
company
Distributed byWalt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Release dates
  • June 29, 2021 (2021-06-29) (world premieres)
  • July 9, 2021 (2021-07-09) (United States)
Running time
134 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$288.5 million[2]
Box office$379.8 million[3][4][a]

Lionsgate Films began developing a Black Widow film in April 2004, with David Hayter attached to write and direct. The project did not move forward and the character's film rights had reverted to Marvel Studios by June 2006. Johansson was cast in the role for several MCU films beginning with Iron Man 2 (2010), and began discussing a solo film with Marvel. Work began in late 2017 and Shortland was hired in July 2018. Jac Schaeffer and Ned Benson contributed to the script before Pearson joined. The film was written to be a prequel that expands on Romanoff's history and helps end her MCU story following the character's death in Avengers: Endgame (2019). Shortland put an emphasis on the fight sequences and said this was the most violent MCU film so far. Filming took place from May to October 2019 in Norway, England, Budapest, Morocco, and Macon, Georgia.

Black Widow premiered at events around the world on June 29, 2021, and was released in the United States on July 9, simultaneously in theaters and through Disney+ with Premier Access. It is the first film in Phase Four of the MCU, and was delayed three times from an original May 2020 release date due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Black Widow broke several pandemic box office records and grossed over $379 million worldwide.[a] The film received positive reviews from critics, with particular praise for the action sequences and for the performances of Johansson and Pugh. In July 2021, Johansson filed a lawsuit against Disney over the simultaneous release, which was settled two months later.

Plot edit

In 1995, super soldier Alexei Shostakov and Black Widow assassin Melina Vostokoff work as Russian undercover agents, posing as a family in Ohio with Natasha Romanoff and Yelena Belova as their daughters. They steal S.H.I.E.L.D. intel and escape to Cuba where their boss, General Dreykov, has Romanoff and Belova taken to the Red Room for training as Widows. In the following decades, Shostakov is imprisoned in Russia while Romanoff and Belova become successful, dangerous assassins. Romanoff eventually defects to S.H.I.E.L.D. after helping Clint Barton bomb Dreykov's Budapest office, which apparently kills Dreykov and his young daughter Antonia.

In 2016, Romanoff is a fugitive for violating the Sokovia Accords.[b] She escapes from U.S. Secretary of State Thaddeus Ross and flees to a safehouse in Norway supplied by Rick Mason. Meanwhile, Belova kills a rogue former Widow but comes in contact with a synthetic gas that neutralizes the Red Room's chemical mind-control agent. Belova sends antidote vials to Romanoff, hoping she and the Avengers can free the other Widows, and goes into hiding. When Romanoff is unknowingly driving with the vials in her car, Red Room agent Taskmaster attacks her. Romanoff escapes from Taskmaster and realizes that the vials came from Budapest. There she finds Belova, who reveals that Dreykov is alive and the Red Room is still active. Widows and Taskmaster attack them, but Romanoff and Belova evade them and meet with Mason, who supplies them with a helicopter.

Romanoff and Belova break Shostakov out of prison to learn Dreykov's location, and he directs them to Vostokoff, who lives on a farm outside Saint Petersburg. There she is refining the chemical mind control process used on the Widows. Vostokoff alerts Dreykov and his agents arrive to take them, but Romanoff convinces Vostokoff to help them and the pair use face mask technology to switch places. At the Red Room, a secret aerial facility, Vostokoff frees Shostakov and Belova from their restraints. Dreykov sees through Romanoff's disguise. He reveals that Taskmaster is Antonia, who suffered damage in the Budapest bombing that was so severe Dreykov had to put technology in her head to save her. This turned Antonia into the perfect soldier, capable of mimicking the actions of anyone she sees. Romanoff is unable to attack Dreykov due to a pheromone lock installed in every Widow, but negates that by breaking her own nose and severing her olfactory nerve. Shostakov battles Taskmaster while Vostokoff takes out one of the facility's engines, and they then lock Taskmaster in a cell.

Dreykov escapes as other Widows attack Romanoff, but Belova exposes them to the antidote. Romanoff copies the locations of other Widows worldwide from Dreykov's computer as the facility begins to explode and fall. She retrieves two surviving antidote vials and frees Taskmaster from the locked cell. Vostokoff and Shostakov escape via a plane while Belova takes out Dreykov's aircraft, killing him. In freefall, Romanoff gives Belova a parachute before battling Taskmaster. After landing, Romanoff uses one antidote vial on Taskmaster and gives the other to Belova along with the locations of the other mind-controlled Widows so she can find and free them. Belova, Vostokoff, and Shostakov say goodbye to Romanoff and leave with Antonia and the freed Widows. Two weeks later, Mason supplies Romanoff with a Quinjet to use in freeing the imprisoned Avengers.

In a post-credits scene set after Romanoff's death,[c] Valentina Allegra de Fontaine visits Belova at Romanoff's grave. De Fontaine blames Romanoff's death on Barton and assigns him as Belova's next target.

Cast edit

 
From left: Feige, Johansson, Harbour, Pugh, Fagbenle, Shortland, and Weisz at the 2019 San Diego Comic-Con
  • Scarlett Johansson as Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow:
    An Avenger, highly trained former-KGB assassin, and former agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.[8][9] Romanoff is on the run and alone following the events of Captain America: Civil War,[10] which Johansson saw as an opportunity to show the character as "a woman who has come into her own and is making independent and active choices for herself".[11] Director Cate Shortland said Romanoff's ambiguous psychological journey was the center of the story,[12] and writer Eric Pearson said the film would show Romanoff become the "more emotional, vulnerable and at peace" version of the character seen in Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and Avengers: Endgame (2019).[13] Because the character dies in Endgame, Johansson said Black Widow allowed her to leave the MCU "on a high note" and said her work portraying Romanoff was now complete.[14] Ever Anderson portrays a young Natasha Romanoff.[15][16] Anderson, who speaks Russian,[17] felt her background in taekwondo and gymnastics training was helpful for the role.[18]
  • Florence Pugh as Yelena Belova:
    A sister to Romanoff who was trained in the Red Room as a Black Widow.[19][20][21] Johansson said Belova was an early inclusion in the film[10] who could stand on her own alongside Romanoff. Pugh said there was a generational difference between the two, describing Belova as "unapologetic, and confident in herself, and curious... and emotionally brave".[22] She admired Belova's bluntness and determination,[23] and noted that the character is a skilled fighter who does not know how to live a normal life.[24]: 4  Shortland said Romanoff would be handing the baton to Belova in the film,[25] and during filming Pugh looked to Johansson for guidance on meeting the demands of making Marvel films.[23] Johansson wanted to avoid an antagonistic dynamic between the two characters, instead having a sister-like but contentious relationship[10] that Pugh characterized as "a sister story that really hones in on grief, on pain, on abuse, on being a victim—and living with being a victim".[14] Violet McGraw portrays a young Yelena Belova.[16][26]
  • David Harbour as Alexei Shostakov / Red Guardian:
    The Russian super-soldier counterpart to Captain America and father-figure to Romanoff and Belova.[19][27][28] Harbour said Shostakov was not heroic or noble, and was both comically and tragically flawed.[29] Shostakov claims that he fought Captain America in the 1980s, and Pearson felt the character actually believes this despite it being impossible in the MCU timeline.[30] For Harbour's portrayal, he and Shortland discussed Ricky Gervais's performance in The Office and Philip Seymour Hoffman's in The Savages (2007), described as "comedy that comes out of real domestic need".[31]: 62  Harbour had already grown his facial hair for the fourth season of Stranger Things, and he gained weight for the role to be 280 pounds (127 kg). He then lost 60 pounds (27 kg) over the course of filming to portray a younger version of the character in the film's opening flashback sequence.[32]
  • O-T Fagbenle as Rick Mason:
    An ally from Romanoff's S.H.I.E.L.D. past who has a romantic history with her.[33][34] Fagbenle described Mason as a "finder for people who aren't so affiliated with armies" who assists Romanoff in that manner.[35] On why a romance between Mason and Romanoff is not directly explored in the film, Fagbenle said the film was "bigger than that" and their relationship was part of Romanoff's larger family instead.[36] Beyond Pearson's script, Fagbenle developed Mason's backstory with Shortland and Johansson. As Taskmaster's identity was kept secret, many people assumed Mason would secretly take up the mantle, which Fagbenle had to deny even to his personal trainer.[37] The film's final scene, in which Mason provides Romanoff with a Quinjet, was added during reshoots in early 2020 after test audiences liked seeing Romanoff and Mason together.[33]
  • Olga Kurylenko as Antonia Dreykov / Taskmaster:
    Dreykov's daughter who completes missions for the Red Room.[38] She has photographic reflexes that allow her to mimic opponents' fighting styles,[24]: 4 [39] and uses techniques from superheroes such as Iron Man, Captain America, the Winter Soldier, Spider-Man,[40] and Black Panther.[41] Several body doubles were required to portray the character's various skills.[42] Kurylenko said much of Antonia's pain is internal, and described her relationship with Dreykov as abusive since Dreykov uses her "as a tool [and] has her do whatever he wants".[43] Taskmaster is revealed to be Antonia in the film instead of the comic book counterpart Tony Masters since Masters did not fit into the film's story and it was more natural to Pearson to tie Taskmaster into a "loose end from Natasha's past".[44] Ryan Kiera Armstrong portrays a young Antonia Dreykov.[45]
  • William Hurt as Thaddeus Ross:
    The United States Secretary of State and a former U.S. Army general.[46] Regarding Ross's mindset in Black Widow following the character's attempt to control the Avengers in Civil War, Hurt said there was "fatigue setting in" and Ross was a "soldier on the last hill... the way he can strike back against the changing world would be by capturing Natasha Romanoff."[47]
  • Ray Winstone as Dreykov:
    A Russian general and the head of the Red Room.[31]: 62 [48][49]: 9  Pearson felt the film needed a villain that could fit within its timeframe undetected to avoid contradicting the events of Infinity War. He described Dreykov as a coward who is "puppeteering things" from the shadows and does not care about hurting others.[44][50]
  • Rachel Weisz as Melina Vostokoff:
    A seasoned spy trained in the Red Room as a Black Widow and mother-figure to Romanoff and Belova who is now one of the Red Room's lead scientists.[24]: 4 [51][52] Compared to Vostokoff's comic book counterpart, who becomes the supervillain Iron Maiden, Weisz felt the film's version was more ambiguous and layered, with a deadpan personality and no sense of humor which Weisz found amusing.[53] Weisz was given a tailored Black Widow suit for the film which she called an "iconic" piece of clothing that was "a lot to live up to".[54] Weisz decided to portray Vostokoff as more affectionate towards Shostakov, rather than dismissive.[55]

Additionally, Liani Samuel, Michelle Lee, and Nanna Blondell appear as Red Room assassins Lerato, Oksana, and Ingrid, respectively,[45][56] while Jade Xu portrays another Black Widow who was later identified as Helen in Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021).[57] Olivier Richters portrays Ursa Major, a fellow inmate of Shostakov's.[41][58] The film's post-credits scene sees Julia Louis-Dreyfus reprising her role as Valentina Allegra de Fontaine from the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021) in an uncredited cameo appearance.[59] Jeremy Renner reprises his MCU role as Clint Barton in an uncredited voice-only cameo.[41]

Production edit

Background edit

"What I tried to do was use the backdrop of the splintered Soviet Empire—a lawless insane asylum with 400-some odd nuclear missile silos. It was all about loose nukes, and I felt it was very timely and very cool. Unfortunately, as I was coming up on the final draft, a number of female vigilante movies came out. We had Tomb Raider and Kill Bill, which were the ones that worked, but then we had BloodRayne and Ultraviolet and Æon Flux. Æon Flux didn't open well, and three days after it opened, the studio said, 'We don't think it's time to do this movie.'"

—David Hayter on his version of the film and why it failed to move forward[60]

In February 2004, Lionsgate acquired the film rights for the Marvel Comics character Black Widow,[61] and in April announced David Hayter as writer and director of the film, with Marvel Studios' Avi Arad producing.[62] By June 2006, Lionsgate had dropped the project and the rights reverted to Marvel Studios. Hayter and Marvel tried getting another financier to develop the project, but Hayter did not feel that they found another place "that was willing to take the movie, and the character, seriously". Hayter said this left him heartbroken, and he hoped the film would be made some day.[63]

Marvel Studios entered early talks with Emily Blunt to play Black Widow in Iron Man 2 (2010) in January 2009,[64] but she was unable to take the role due to a previous commitment to star in Gulliver's Travels (2010).[65] In March 2009, Scarlett Johansson signed on to play Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow, with her deal including options for multiple films.[66] In September 2010, while promoting the home media release of Iron Man 2, Marvel Studios President Kevin Feige stated that discussions with Johansson had already taken place regarding a Black Widow standalone film, but that Marvel's focus was on The Avengers (2012).[67] Johansson reprised her role in that film,[68] as well as in Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014),[69] Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015),[70] Captain America: Civil War (2016),[71] Avengers: Infinity War (2018),[72] and Avengers: Endgame (2019).[73] After the release of Age of Ultron, Johansson revealed that the number of films on her contract had been adjusted since she first signed to match the "demand of the character", as Marvel had not anticipated the audience's positive response to the character and Johansson's performance.[74]

After teasing Black Widow's past in Age of Ultron, Feige said in February 2014 that he would like to see it explored further in a solo film. Development work for this had already started,[75] including a "pretty in depth" treatment by Nicole Perlman who co-wrote Marvel Studios' Guardians of the Galaxy (2014).[76] The following April, Johansson expressed interest in starring in a Black Widow film and said it would be driven by demand from the audience.[77] That July, Hayter expressed interest in reviving the project for Marvel,[78] while director Neil Marshall said a month later that he "would love to do a Black Widow film". Marshall said he was fascinated by a superhero with "extraordinary skills" rather than superpowers who is also an ex-KGB assassin.[79] In April 2015, Johansson spoke more on the possibility of a solo Black Widow film, seeing the potential to explore the character's different layers as depicted in her previous appearances. However, she felt that the character was being "used well in this part of the universe" at that time.[74] While promoting Civil War the next April, Feige noted that due to Marvel's announced schedule of films for Phase Three of the MCU, any potential Black Widow film would be four or five years away.[80] He added that Marvel was "creatively and emotionally" committed to making a Black Widow film eventually.[81]

Joss Whedon, the director of The Avengers and Avengers: Age of Ultron, said in July 2016 that he was open to directing a Black Widow film. He liked the idea of making it a paranoid spy thriller that was "John le Carré on crack".[82] In October, Johansson discussed the potential film being a prequel, saying, "you can bring it back to Russia. You could explore the Widow program. There's all kinds of stuff that you could do with it." She cautioned that she may not want to wear a "skin-tight catsuit" for much longer.[83] The next February, Johansson said she would dedicate herself to making any potential Black Widow film "amazing. It would have to be the best version that movie could possibly be. Otherwise, I would never do it ... [it would] have to be its own standalone [film] and its own style and its own story."[84] Due to the development work already done and the public support for the project, Marvel Studios decided to move forward with the film at the beginning of the MCU's Phase Four in 2020 following the conclusion of the Infinity Saga storyline in Endgame.[20] Johansson said this decision had become "more of a reality" during the filming of Infinity War. Following Romanoff's death in Endgame, Johansson felt there was "no pressing urgency" to make a Black Widow film and this would improve the project's quality.[10]

Development edit

 
Director Cate Shortland at the 2019 San Diego Comic-Con

Feige met with Johansson to discuss the direction of a Black Widow film in October 2017. Marvel then began meeting with writers for the project, including Jac Schaeffer and Jessica Gao.[85][86] Gao's pitch was influenced by Grosse Pointe Blank (1997), in which Romanoff would have been planted in a high school to assassinate a target and then 20 years later attends a high school reunion where she has to deal with the fallout of her earlier actions.[86] The pitch heavily featured the character She-Hulk, and Marvel Studios executive Brad Winderbaum felt Gao was instead pitching a She-Hulk film that featured Black Widow. Gao would later be hired as the head writer for the Marvel Studios television series She-Hulk: Attorney at Law (2022).[87] Schaeffer met with Feige in December, and was hired to write the screenplay by the end of 2017.[88][89] Schaeffer and Johansson were set to discuss the direction of the film at the beginning of February 2018.[90]

Marvel began meeting with female directors to potentially take on the project, part of a priority push by major film studios to hire female directors for franchises.[91] By the end of April 2018, the studio had met with over 65 directors for the project in an "extremely thorough" search,[92] including Deniz Gamze Ergüven, Chloé Zhao—who went on to direct Marvel's Eternals (2021)[93]Amma Asante,[91] and Lynn Shelton.[94] Lucrecia Martel was also approached, but was discouraged when she was told that she would not have to "worry about the action scenes". She also felt the music and visual effects of Marvel films were "horrible".[95] In the following months, a shortlist of 49 directors was made before the top choices of Cate Shortland, Asante, and Maggie Betts met with Feige and Johansson in June.[96] Mélanie Laurent and Kimberly Peirce were also in the "next-to-final mix".[8][97] Johansson was a fan of Shortland's previous female-starring film Lore (2012),[8] and was the one who had approached her about directing the film;[24]: 1  Shortland was hired in July,[8] and watched all of Romanoff's MCU appearances in preparation for making the film.[98]

The Hollywood Reporter reported in October 2018 that Johansson would earn $15 million for the film, an increase from the "low-seven figure salary" that she earned for starring in The Avengers. Chris Evans and Chris Hemsworth each earned $15 million for the third films in their MCU franchises—Civil War and Thor: Ragnarok (2017), respectively—as well as for Infinity War and Endgame. Despite The Hollywood Reporter claiming that their report had been confirmed by "multiple knowledgeable sources", Marvel Studios disputed its accuracy and said they "never publicly disclose salaries or deal terms".[99] The Walt Disney Company later said Johansson had earned $20 million by the end of July 2021 for her work on the film,[100] including her role as an executive producer.[101]

As Romanoff dies during the events of Endgame, the film is set earlier in the MCU timeline.[10] It primarily takes place between the main plot of Civil War and that film's final scene, in which the Avengers escape from prison.[102] Johansson and Feige felt this was "the best place to start" because it is the first time that Romanoff is on her own and not tied to a larger organization such as the Red Room, S.H.I.E.L.D., or the Avengers.[10][103] This setting means the film is not an origin story for Romanoff, which Feige wanted to avoid because he felt that was the expected direction for a prequel to go.[25] He was influenced by the television series Better Call Saul, which is a prequel to the series Breaking Bad, calling it "a wonderful example of a prequel that almost completely stands on its own... because it informs you about so many things you didn't know about before".[104]

Pre-production edit

In February 2019, Ned Benson was hired to rewrite the script,[105] and Feige confirmed that, despite rumors, the studio did not want the film to receive an R-rating from the Motion Picture Association.[106] The following month, Florence Pugh entered negotiations to join the cast as a spy,[107] later revealed to be Yelena Belova.[19] Marvel had been considering Pugh for the role since late 2018, but began looking at other actresses in early 2019, including Saoirse Ronan[20][108] who passed on the role.[109] The studio returned to Pugh after she received strong reviews for her performance in the film Fighting with My Family (2019).[20] Devin Grayson and J. G. Jones, who co-created Belova, expected to receive $25,000 for her role in the film based on a 2007 agreement with Marvel Comics, but ultimately received $5,000 due to a provision in the contract which allowed Marvel to reduce creators' payments;[110] after Grayson went public with this, Marvel agreed to pay her the remaining amount.[111] In April 2019, Pugh was confirmed to have been cast alongside David Harbour,[27] Rachel Weisz,[34][112] and O-T Fagbenle.[34] An early version of the script included a scene from Civil War featuring Romanoff and Robert Downey Jr.'s Tony Stark / Iron Man,[113] and Downey was reported to be appearing in the film.[114] Fans also expected Jeremy Renner to reprise his MCU role as Clint Barton.[115] Shortland and Feige ultimately decided against including other heroes so Romanoff could stand on her own,[115][116] though Renner does have an uncredited voice-only cameo.[41]

Eric Pearson, who started his writing career in Marvel's screenwriting program and went on to work on several MCU projects, was hired during pre-production to rewrite the film's script again.[13][117] He ultimately received sole screenwriter credit, with Schaeffer and Benson receiving story credits.[118] Shortland and Johansson had decided to take inspiration from the television series The Americans, which is about a Russian undercover spy family, by introducing Romanoff's own "family" of Russian spies including Belova.[13] When Pearson joined the film, the opening sequence—a prologue set in the 1990s with Romanoff and her "family" living undercover in the Midwestern United States—had already been written.[119] The rest of the film focuses on this family coming back together in the "present day", with a pivotal scene later in the film where they are all reunited around a dining table.[13] Of all the MCU projects that he had worked on, Pearson found Black Widow's setting within the MCU timeline to be the most difficult to get right. This was because he wanted the audience to feel that the villain could succeed without breaking the timeline, which would be difficult considering audiences had already seen Civil War, Infinity War, and Endgame. He chose to focus on the Red Room—where the Black Widows are trained—and its leader, who "wields power from the shadows". Pearson thought that the film's spy thriller tone helped alleviate his concerns about the villain.[119][120] A scene at the end of the film in which Thaddeus Ross pursues Romanoff was deliberately left unresolved, as Shortland wanted to leave the audience "on a high" and questioning how Romanoff escapes rather than exhausted with another fight.[121] This is then followed by a scene that connects this film to the end of Civil War by showing Romanoff leaving on a Quinjet to save the Avengers. She is wearing a vest given to her by Belova and has dyed her hair blonde, which matches the character's appearance in Infinity War.[117]

Pearson said there were discussions about ensuring the film was an appropriate farewell for Romanoff. He said they wanted it to feature "the greatest hits" of the character, including expanding on the backstory that was mentioned in The Avengers. In that film, Romanoff and Barton discuss a past mission in Budapest and there is also a mention of "Dreykov's daughter". Black Widow expands on the Budapest hints by having Romanoff return to Budapest and revealing some of the details of that mission. Dreykov is revealed to be the head of the Red Room, who Romanoff believes to have been killed during the earlier Budapest mission.[120] Johansson wanted the film to comment on the #MeToo movement which saw women supporting each other and "coming through these shared experiences of trauma on the other side",[122] and this is seen in the way that Romanoff is forced, by the arrival of Belova, to confront Dreykov and her past trauma. Johansson was grateful to have the film to comment on these ideas.[122] Pearson felt the truth behind "Dreykov's daughter" needed to be "something pretty bad. Natasha is ashamed of it. We've been doing allusions to her having a dark past [throughout the MCU]... It had to be something actively tough that she did that haunts her dreams." He settled on the idea that Romanoff and Barton had used Dreykov's young daughter as bait to kill him and believed the girl had also died in the process. There were "heated conversation" with Marvel over how much of Romanoff's dark past to show in the film, and Pearson successfully argued for including this element. Earlier versions of the script had included the comic book character Tony Masters / Taskmaster as a villain. Pearson moved towards the more subtle villain Dreykov who he felt fit better into the story and the timeline, but decided to reveal that Dreykov's daughter is alive and now a version of Taskmaster that he compared to a Terminator. He felt this was a way to still have some "Marvel fun" within the otherwise grounded story.[120]

Filming edit

Principal photography began on May 28, 2019, in Norway.[123] Shortland took inspiration from such films as How to Train Your Dragon (2010),[31]: 63  No Country for Old Men (2007), and Thelma & Louise (1991), as well as Captain America: The Winter Soldier. She looked at combat films and those with armies and militia, allowing her to imagine females in those roles to help translate that to Black Widow.[124] Shortland also referenced fight scenes involving female characters in Alien (1979) and the Terminator franchise, and wanted the film's fights to resemble "real fights" rather than wrestling matches.[98] She edited together fight scenes from different films into shorts that helped her explore the style of fighting that she wanted in the film. Shortland said this was the most violent film in the MCU and she wanted to approach that aspect with the same "truth" that she was approaching the rest of the film.[115]

Early reports suggested that Rob Hardy would be the film's cinematographer, but he left the production before filming began. Gabriel Beristain served as cinematographer instead,[125] having previously done so for the Marvel One-Shot short films Item 47 (2012) and Agent Carter (2013), for the television series Agent Carter,[24]: 3 [126] and for additional photography on Iron Man and six other MCU films.[127] Beristain was initially not credited in Black Widow's trailers, as pointed out by Jeff Sneider at Collider who wondered if contractual obstacles were to blame for Marvel not crediting the cinematographer at that point. Sneider felt Beristain would be credited in later marketing materials,[125] and his hiring was confirmed in the film's official press advance.[24]: 3  Beristein later confirmed that he joined the film after production had already begun, opting to leave a television directing job and move to London so he could be the main cinematographer for an MCU film.[127] Shortland preferred to avoid technical equipment where possible and prioritize natural lighting, which provided a challenge for Beristain in having to match the light of the location shoots to later additional photography filmed in Los Angeles. The naturalistic approach was also reflected in interior scenes, lighting from outside the set or using lights with strong diffusion to create the same effect. An anamorphic format was chosen to highlight the expansive movements and landscapes in the film, with a special system used that split the camera's image sensor from its body to help with this approach.[128]

 
Hankley Common in Surrey, England, was made to look like a Russian farmstead for the film.[129][130]

The production moved to Pinewood Studios in London in early June.[131] Shortland hired someone to help Johansson and Pugh bond through trust exercises and other bonding activities, but the pair felt their "real bonding" happened during Pugh's first two days of filming when they were working on an early fight scene between Romanoff and Belova. Pugh had some stunt experience from her work on Fighting with My Family, and Johansson gave her advice that she had received from Samuel L. Jackson while working on Iron Man 2. Pearson was on set to hear a joke from Pugh about the "ridiculous" pose that Johansson often lands in while fighting as Romanoff throughout her MCU appearances, which led to him adding some jokes from Belova to Romanoff about the poses in the script.[132] Ray Winstone joined the film's cast later in June,[48] when filming took place on location in Budapest.[133] 13 BMW X3s were used to create a car chase involving Romanoff and Belova in Budapest, with the crew often switching off the electronic stability control and safety assistance functions to be able to do what the script asked for. They also swapped the X3's electronic parking brake for a hydraulically actuated one. Second unit director Darrin Prescott explained that the crew would often "replace the engine or tear the entire body off the car and rebuild it from scratch". The sequence's plot and locations were adjusted to help Prescott create the "spontaneous" stunts that he wanted.[37]

Shooting took place in mid-July 2019 at Hankley Common in Surrey, England, under the working title Blue Bayou. The site was made to look like a Russian farmstead, with added helicopter crash sites. The Thursley Parish Council objected to this filming, as it had occurred while Marvel Studios' application to use the site was still pending. The production planned to revisit the site in late August for further filming.[129][130] Black Widow was officially announced at the 2019 San Diego Comic-Con later in July, with a release date of May 1, 2020, revealed alongside roles for some of the new cast members.[19] In August, bodybuilder Olivier Richters revealed that he had been cast in the film,[134] and crew undertook scanning and texture photography at the Well-Safe Guardian oil rig in the North Sea as a reference for visual effects.[135] A wrap party was held at the end of September, before production moved to Macon, Georgia, for the week of September 30. Filming locations in Macon, including Terminal Station, were dressed to portray Albany, New York.[136] Set photos from the start of October revealed that William Hurt would appear in the film, reprising his MCU role as Thaddeus Ross.[46] Additional filming in Georgia took place in Atlanta and Rome.[137] Also in early October, filming took place in Tangier, Morocco, with local production services provided by Zak Productions.[138][139] Principal photography lasted for 87 days[24]: 3  and officially wrapped on October 6, 2019.[140]

Post-production edit

External videos
  Marvel Studios' Black Widow Opening Title Sequence presents the film's main title sequence, YouTube video from Perception's channel

Matthew Schmidt and Leigh Folsom Boyd served as editors on the film.[24]: 3  Pearson said the film's handling of Romanoff's Budapest backstory had been "85% cracked" prior to the start of filming, and the rest was determined during the editing process as well as additional photography.[120] Winstone disliked returning for the additional photography, feeling his performance was being criticized by Marvel Studios executives. He wanted his role to be recast instead, but was contractually obligated to return.[141] A scene of Romanoff wearing underwear and a T-shirt that Shortland enjoyed due to "how sexy [Johansson] is [when] she's in control" was cut from the film because test audiences criticized the scene as using the "male gaze".[98] Black Widow is one of the few Marvel films to feature an opening credits sequence, which Feige explained was because Shortland felt strongly about exploring what Dreykov is responsible for at the beginning of the film.[142][143] The sequence was designed by Perception, who worked with Shortland to film various vignettes on set that were made to look as if they were captured on 8 mm film, 90's digital video, and VHS. These were combined with old photographs and documents that Perception's team created and manipulated to tell the story.[144]

In mid-March 2020, Disney removed the film from its release schedule due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[145] In early April, Disney announced that Black Widow would be released on November 6, 2020, and the rest of their Phase Four slate of films were shifted to accommodate this.[146] In September 2020, Disney pushed the release back again to May 7, 2021,[147] followed by a third shift in March 2021 to July 9, 2021.[148] In April 2021, following Julia Louis-Dreyfus's appearance as Valentina Allegra de Fontaine in the Marvel Studios television series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021), Joanna Robinson of Vanity Fair reported that Louis-Dreyfus had been expected to first appear in Black Widow before the delays pushed its release to after The Falcon and the Winter Soldier's premiere on Disney+.[149] Feige later confirmed this, explaining that Black Widow's post-credits scene was originally intended to be the character's introduction but instead became a reference to her appearance in the series. He said this was the only change to Marvel's Phase Four plans that was forced by the pandemic.[150] The post-credits scene was added after Hawkeye showrunner Jonathan Igla expressed interest in having Yelena Belova appear in his series. Pearson was asked to write the scene, in which De Fontaine assigns Clint Barton as Belova's next target, without knowing who the target would be.[151] Shortland considered the setting of the scene, at Romanoff's grave in a remote clearing, to be a response to fans who were upset that Romanoff did not receive a funeral in Endgame. Shortland said the character was private and would not have wanted a large funeral, so this scene allowed the character's ending "to be the grief the individuals felt, rather than a big public outpouring".[25][152] Shortland said in May 2021 that the film had been completed a year prior and had not been altered, despite the release delays.[153] Olga Kurylenko's role as Antonia Dreykov / Taskmaster was revealed with the film's release.[38]

 
Original plate (top) and the completed shot (bottom) with visual effects by Digital Domain, for the film's final battle sequence

The film's visual effects vendors included Cinesite, Digital Domain, Industrial Light & Magic, Mammal Studios, SSVFX, Scanline VFX, Trixter, and Wētā FX.[154] Digital Domain was responsible for the final battle sequence and completed around 320 visual effects shots for the film. They created the Red Room, an airborne fortress hidden in the clouds, which was inspired by the brutalist architecture of the Soviet Union.[155][156] A combination of practical and visual effects were used to create the sequence where the Red Room is destroyed and falls from the sky: actors and stunt performers were filmed in a wind tunnel against bluescreens while being held with wires and mechanical arms, and the surrounding environment of sky and debris was created digitally.[155][156] Cinesite primarily handled the Russian prison that Harbour's Alexei Shostakov is found in during the film.[157] Wētā FX created the mountain range that surrounds the prison, based on photography from Svalbard, Norway, as well as an avalanche. Wētā also created the Mil Mi-8 helicopter that is seen in that sequence,[158] while Cinesite created it for other sequences.[157] For the pigs on the farm of Weisz's Melina Vostokoff, Wētā filmed live Kunekune pigs as reference for the digital pigs in the final shots.[158]

Industrial Light & Magic completed approximately 800 VFX shots for the film, working on the opening airplane escape scene, the Budapest apartment fight and subsequent motorcycle and car chase, and the fight between Romanoff and a group of Black Widows in Dreykov's office. The opening airplane scene was created with half of an airplane rig on a hydraulic platform. Footage filmed on location in Atlanta was played on LED screens on the soundstage to create interactive lighting for the actors on set. To create the Budapest scenes, ILM worked with second unit director Darren Prescott. Romanoff and Belova's chase across the rooftops was a combination of practical and visual effects, while scenes involving smokestacks were created using virtual actors. The car chase scene in Budapest features a practical tank driven by Taskmaster that was created by Paul Corbould, the film's special effects supervisor. Digital cars were added to the scene to make it appear more dangerous and for better interaction with the tank. For the fight scene in Dreykov's office, ILM worked on the graphic displays in the background as well as the lighting that interacts with the Widows' bodies.[159] In addition to creating the film's opening credits sequence, Perception designed the graphics for Dreykov's screens and other Red Room technology, researching Soviet Union technology for inspiration.[160] Trixter created Taskmaster's mask and worked on several action sequences as well.[157]

Music edit

Alexandre Desplat was revealed to be composing the music for the film in January 2020.[161] Late in post-production, Lorne Balfe replaced Desplat as composer, which Desplat confirmed in May 2020.[162][163] Balfe briefly references Alan Silvestri's motif for Romanoff and main theme for the Avengers from The Avengers in the score,[164][165] but otherwise wanted to focus on creating a new identity for Romanoff. His discussions with Shortland led to him writing an original piece in the style of Russian folk music that he thought Romanoff and Belova may have grown up listening to. The rest of his score developed from that piece, and also took inspiration from Russian composers Sergei Prokofiev and Igor Stravinsky. Balfe completed recording for the score at Abbey Road Studios as the COVID-19 pandemic began to impact studio recording sessions.[164]

The film's opening credits sequence features a cover of Nirvana's "Smells Like Teen Spirit" by Think Up Anger, featuring Malia J,[16] which was suggested by Perception.[144] "American Pie" by Don McLean and "Cheap Thrills" by Sia are also featured in the film.[166] A soundtrack album featuring Balfe's score was released digitally by Marvel Music and Hollywood Records on July 9, 2021.[167]

Marketing edit

 
Producer Kevin Feige at the 2019 San Diego Comic-Con

The film was officially announced at the 2019 San Diego Comic-Con by Feige, Shortland, and members of the cast. They discussed the film and introduced footage from the first 30 days of production.[19] Some of that footage was included in a teaser trailer for the film that was released in December,[168][169] with several commentators highlighting its spy thriller tone[170][171] and calling the film "long awaited" or "highly anticipated" by fans.[168][169][172] Rachel Leishman of The Mary Sue said finally seeing a trailer for the film was "surprisingly emotional". She felt that setting it between Civil War and Infinity War would allow the character to grow into her more mature form from the latter film after earlier MCU films had depicted her in a supporting role to the male Avengers.[172] Scott Mendelson of Forbes compared the trailer's story and tone to the films Atomic Blonde (2017), Red Sparrow (2018), and Anna (2019), but felt Black Widow had a commercial advantage over those films since it stars a familiar character. Mendelson thought this familiarity could outweigh the teaser's focus on "family melodrama" over superheroics, which he compared to Marvel Studios' Thor (2011).[171] The Hollywood Reporter's Richard Newby found noticeable differences in Shortland's shot composition and cinematography in the trailer compared to the styles of Jon Favreau, Joss Whedon, and the Russo brothers, all directors who helped define Black Widow in previous MCU films, indicating a move away from the MCU's "house style".[173]

What was intended to be the final trailer for the film debuted in March 2020. Nicole Carpenter of Polygon said it was the most in-depth look at the film yet with a more "intimate look" at the relationship between Romanoff and Belova.[174] Josh Weiss of Syfy Wire enjoyed the trailer's quieter moments in addition to the expected action sequences.[175] Mendelson found the trailer to be an improvement over the teaser, attributing this to its theme of "found families (the Avengers), forced families ([the Black Widows]) and actual family" portrayed by Pugh, Harbour, and Weisz.[176]

Disney's president of marketing Asad Ayaz said that after Black Widow was delayed from its original May 2020 release date, the marketing team paused their campaign for the film. Once they began working towards a new release date in 2021, they were able to use character looks and story points they had not revealed in the initial campaign to build a new approach to the film. Ayaz explained that they did not want it to feel like they had returned to the same marketing campaign, which focused on the Black Widow symbol and her traditional black costume. The marketing team differentiated the new campaign by instead featuring the character's new white costume from the film, and by focusing on her legacy as an Avenger.[177] The campaign featured 30 brands, including co-branded opportunities with GEICO, Ziploc, BMW, and Synchrony Bank. Additional custom partnerships occurred with Fandango, YouTube, Roku, TikTok, and Amazon, with a Twitter E3 gaming sponsorship as well as announcements, posters, and collectibles for premium theater experiences such as IMAX.[5]

In September 2020, Barbie released two Black Widow dolls featuring Romanoff's black and white outfits from the film.[178] Marvel released another trailer in April 2021, which Austen Goslin at Polygon described as a new "final" trailer for the film's new release date. He said it only had a few new scenes in it but provided the best look yet at the villain Taskmaster. Goslin highlighted the Russian-inspired version of The Avengers theme music used at the end of the trailer.[179] Germain Lussier of io9 also highlighted the use of The Avengers theme, feeling that the music combined with footage from previous MCU films as well as flashback moments of Romanoff and her family made the trailer feel more epic than the previous "final" trailer. Lussier said it was a trailer that "gets you excited for the return" of MCU films after the pandemic delays.[180] Ethan Anderton of /Film said the free-falling fight with Taskmaster showcased in the trailer "looks like a sequence unlike any other" in the MCU.[181] The trailer received over 70 million views in its first 24 hours.[182] On July 5, Moneymaker: Behind the Black Widow, a half-hour documentary special centered on Johansson's stunt double Heidi Moneymaker, premiered on ESPN+ as part of ESPN's E60 series. The special was directed by Martin Khodabakhshian and narrated by Johansson. A subsequent, eight-minute version of the special aired on ESPN's Outside the Lines on July 10.[183][184] An episode of the series Marvel Studios: Legends was released on July 7, exploring Black Widow using footage from her previous MCU appearances.[185]

Release edit

Theatrical and Premier Access edit

Black Widow premiered on June 29, 2021, at various red carpet fan events in London, Los Angeles, Melbourne, and New York City.[186][187] It was screened at the Taormina Film Fest on July 3,[188] and was released in the United States on July 9, simultaneously in theaters and on Disney+ with Premier Access for US$30.[148] It premiered in 46 territories over the course of its first weekend. In the U.S. it opened in 4,100 theaters, with 375 in IMAX, over 800 in premium large formats, 1,500 in 3D, and 275 in specialty D-Box, 4DX, and ScreenX theaters.[189] In IMAX screenings, approximately 22 minutes of the film appeared in IMAX's expanded aspect ratio.[190] Black Widow is the first film released in Phase Four of the MCU.[191][147] Release dates for China, Taiwan, India, parts of Australia, and other Southeast Asia and Latin America markets were not set by the film's opening weekend,[192] and by September the film was not expected to be released theatrically in China.[193] Black Widow was the first of several MCU films to not receive a theatrical release in China, a "de facto ban" that was not lifted until 2023.[194]

The film was originally scheduled for release on May 1, 2020.[19] In early March 2020, after the COVID-19 pandemic had caused the closure of theaters in many countries, the release date for the film No Time to Die was shifted from April 2020 to November 2020. Commentators began speculating about the potential for other major films like Black Widow to be postponed as well. Deadline Hollywood reported on rumors in the film distribution industry suggesting that Black Widow would take the November release date of Marvel's Eternals, with the latter being delayed until 2021, but Disney said that it still intended to release Black Widow in May 2020.[195] After a trailer was released for the film a week later, Scott Mendelson at Forbes said the trailer's existence and use of the May 2020 release date confirmed that the film was not being delayed. He said this was "the logical choice" because it was an ideal release date for the film and there was no evidence that the pandemic would affect its performance in the U.S.[176] A week later, theaters across the U.S. were closed due to the pandemic and gatherings larger than 50 people were discouraged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Disney removed the film from its May release date.[145] Adam B. Vary and Matt Donnelly at Variety questioned whether the MCU could be impacted more by pandemic delays than other franchises due to its interconnected nature. A Marvel Studios source told them that changing the film's release date would not affect the MCU timeline, and the pair speculated that this was due to the film being a prequel.[196] In April, Disney gave Eternals's November 6, 2020, release date to Black Widow and shifted all other Phase Four films back in the release schedule to accommodate this.[146]

Anthony D'Alessandro of Deadline Hollywood reported in September 2020 that Disney was considering rescheduling Black Widow again,[197] with Variety also reporting this and attributing it to the low box office returns for Disney's Mulan in China and Warner Bros.' Tenet in North America.[198] Later that month, Disney pushed the release to May 7, 2021, rescheduling Eternals and Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021) as a result.[147] In January 2021, Feige said he still expected Black Widow to debut in theaters,[199] but Variety reported that Disney was considering releasing the film on its streaming service Disney+. There was also potential to delay the film's release again, or release it concurrently in theaters and on Disney+ with Premier Access—as was done with Disney's Raya and the Last Dragon (2021)—if the effects of the pandemic did not improve leading up to May 2021. Variety felt it would be "insurmountably more challenging" for Black Widow to become profitable if it did not have a traditional theatrical release.[200][201] In early February, Disney CEO Bob Chapek reaffirmed that Black Widow was intended to be solely released in theaters, but Disney was cognizant of theaters reopening, particularly in large cities such as New York and Los Angeles, as well as consumer desire to return to theaters.[202] According to Variety, Feige was opposed to a hybrid release for the film.[203] If the film was delayed again, the film distribution industry believed Disney would move it to July 9, 2021, which at that point was the release date for Shang-Chi.[204] Chapek reiterated the next month that Disney planned to release Black Widow in theaters on May 7,[205] while Deadline Hollywood again noted the possibilities of delaying the film, releasing it simultaneously on Disney+, or releasing it in theaters for a short time before making it available on Disney+.[205] Chapek soon stated that Disney was remaining flexible as they gauged consumer behavior, and they would make a final decision at the "last minute".[206]

In late March, Disney moved the film's release date to July 9, 2021, and announced that it would be released simultaneously in theaters and on Disney+ with Premier Access. Shang-Chi was delayed again as a result. Kareem Daniel, the chairman of Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution, said the simultaneous release gave fans options to see the film while serving the "evolving preferences of audiences".[148] Chaim Gartenberg at The Verge opined that Disney had to move forward with a simultaneous release because they could not afford to delay Marvel's Phase Four television series, which were some of the few "high-profile, must-watch shows" on Disney+ and once they began with WandaVision in January 2021 there was only so long that the films could be delayed before the interconnected nature of Marvel's storytelling began causing issues. For instance, the series Hawkeye was expected to be released later in 2021 and contain spoilers for Black Widow, so the film needed to be released before then. Gartenberg said Disney and Marvel were victims of their own success, but felt the potential revenue loss from the simultaneous release could lead to long-term positives such as fans who otherwise would not have watched Marvel's series potentially discovering them when signing up for Disney+ to watch Black Widow.[207]

Lawsuit edit

In July 2021, Johansson filed a lawsuit in Los Angeles County Superior Court against The Walt Disney Company, alleging that the simultaneous release of Black Widow in theaters and on Disney+ breached a stipulation in her contract that the film be released exclusively in theaters.[100] The suit claimed that the simultaneous release exempted Disney from paying "very large box office bonuses" that Johansson would have been entitled to.[208] According to The Wall Street Journal, Johansson had been concerned about the possibility of the film being released on Disney+ as early as prior to the release of Avengers: Endgame when Black Widow was still in development.[209] Vulture contributor Chris Lee opined that not having any planned appearances in future MCU projects might have influenced Johansson's decision to move forward with filing the lawsuit.[210] Disney issued a statement in response to the suit, saying it had "no merit whatsoever" and that Johansson had shown a "callous disregard for the horrific and prolonged global effects of the COVID-19 pandemic". The company claimed that they had fully complied with Johansson's contract and that the Disney+ Premier Access release of the film had "significantly enhanced [Johansson's] ability to earn additional compensation" beyond the $20 million she had already received for the film.[100]

Bryan Lourd, Johansson's agent and co-chairman of Creative Artists Agency, condemned Disney's response as "shamelessly and falsely accus[ing] Ms. Johansson of being insensitive to the global COVID pandemic". He accused the company of "leaving artistic and financial partners" out of their streaming profits and denounced the disclosure of Johansson's $20 million earnings as "an attempt to weaponize her success as an artist and businesswoman, as if that were something she should be ashamed of".[211][212] The advocacy organizations Women in Film, ReFrame, and Time's Up jointly denounced Disney's response, calling it a "gendered character attack" and saying they "stand firmly against Disney's recent statement which attempts to characterize Johansson as insensitive or selfish for defending her contractual business rights".[213] TheWrap reported that Johansson was shocked by the tone of Disney's response,[214] while Disney chairman and former CEO Bob Iger was allegedly mortified.[215] Feige was reported to be angered and embarrassed by Disney's handling of the situation, and wanted the company to make it right with Johansson.[216] SAG-AFTRA president Gabrielle Carteris also condemned Disney's response, saying they "should be ashamed of themselves for resorting to tired tactics such as gender-shaming and bullying".[217] In response to these criticisms, Disney attorney Daniel Petrocelli called the suit a "highly orchestrated [public relations] campaign to achieve an outcome that is not obtainable in a lawsuit".[218]

Eriq Gardner at The Hollywood Reporter believed Johansson's case was potentially weak since disputes of this kind usually take place in arbitration, and that she had been forced into presenting a claim of tortious interference rather than a standard contract breach due to a clause in her contract. Gardner added that Disney could defend not waiting for the market to recover from the pandemic since they had already delayed the film's release by a year and needed Black Widow to be released so they could continue the MCU, considering the film introduces important new characters such as Yelena Belova who was expected to appear in future MCU projects.[219] Screen Daily editor Matt Mueller told BBC News that he expected the case would be resolved between Disney and Johansson before reaching court, and expressed surprise that Disney had let it get to this stage, given Warner Bros. had made agreements with stars for simultaneous releases in theaters and on HBO Max for films like Space Jam: A New Legacy (2021). Mueller also believed the case would prompt other studios with streaming services to look at what contractual steps they would need to prevent further legal action like this.[220] Variety reported in July 2021 that the case had prompted other Disney actors to consider similar litigations.[212]

In August 2021, Disney filed a motion to move the lawsuit to arbitration, citing that Black Widow had outgrossed other MCU films in its opening weekend with an "impressive pandemic-era showing".[221] Johansson's attorney John Berlinski criticized this move as an attempt by Disney to "hide its misconduct in a confidential arbitration", while calling the company's initial response to the case misogynistic.[222] The suit was settled a month later under undisclosed terms, though Deadline Hollywood reported that Johansson would receive over $40 million from Disney.[223][224] The settlement came after Disney chose to give theatrical-only releases to subsequent 2021 films following the box office success of Shang-Chi and Free Guy (2021), which both received exclusive theatrical windows when initially released.[225] In November 2021, Johansson said in regards to the lawsuit that she felt "very fortunate that nobody will have to go through what I went through" and thought the case had made "a positive impact in the industry and hopefully for artists and creatives' lives and livelihood[s]."[226]

Home media edit

Black Widow was released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on digital download in the U.S. on August 10, 2021, and was released on Ultra HD Blu-ray, Blu-ray, and DVD on September 14. Deleted scenes, a gag reel, and behind-the-scenes featurettes were included. The film was made available to all Disney+ subscribers starting October 6.[227] The IMAX Enhanced version of the film was made available on Disney+ on November 12.[228]

Reception edit

Box office edit

Black Widow grossed $183.7 million in the United States and Canada, and $196.1 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $379.8 million.[3][4] The film's opening weekend earned $226.2 million globally, which included $80.4 million at the domestic box office, $78.8 million at the international box office, and $67 million in Disney+ Premier Access global revenue.[6][7] The opening weekend gross was within or had exceeded various pre-release projections.[189][229] In June 2021, Fandango reported that the film had the most ticket presales in 2021, and surpassed other MCU films from previous years like Doctor Strange (2016) and Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017).[230]

Black Widow earned $39.5 million on its opening day, including $13.2 million from Thursday night previews, which was the best preview night and opening day since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. Its total weekend gross was $80.4 million, making it the top film of the weekend.[5][231][232] This was the largest box office opening since the COVID-19 pandemic began, surpassing F9's opening of $70 million,[192] and the largest opening weekend since Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker (2019).[5] The domestic gross was within some of the pre-release projections for the film,[189][229] but it was below some updated industry projections that were made during the weekend after the opening night and preview grosses were known; Deadline Hollywood partially attributed this to the film's availability on Disney+ with Premier Access.[5] When the $80.4 million theatrical gross was combined with the domestic Premier Access revenue of $55 million, totaling over $135.4 million for its opening weekend, Disney noted that Black Widow was the only film to surpass $100 million in domestic consumer spend on opening weekend since the start of the pandemic, and it marked the third largest opening ever for an MCU origin film behind Black Panther ($202 million) and Captain Marvel ($153.4 million).[5][222] Following its opening weekend, Black Widow posted the largest non-holiday Monday ($7.16 million) and Tuesday ($7.6 million) gross in the pandemic.[233] The film passed $100 million at the domestic box office in six days, the fastest to do so in the pandemic.[234]

In its second weekend, the film grossed $25.8 million,[235] finishing second behind Space Jam: A New Legacy. Its 67% drop marked the largest sophomore week decline for an MCU film, passing Ant-Man and the Wasp (62%).[236] Box office analysts attributed Black Widow's second-week decline to its Disney+ Premier Access release, as well as widely reported piracies of the film online.[237][238] In its third weekend, the film earned a further $11.6 million and became the fastest film to reach $150 million in total domestic box office gross in the pandemic.[239][240] Black Widow was the fourth-highest-grossing film of 2021 in the United States and Canada.[241]

Outside of North America, Black Widow earned $78.8 million in its opening weekend, from 46 markets. It was the number one film in nearly all of these markets, including the markets in the Asia Pacific region where it opened—excluding Japan, where it was third[6][242]—and all markets in the Latin America region. Black Widow had the top pandemic opening weekend in 15 European markets. IMAX accounted for $4.8 million of the weekend gross, from 59 countries, 11 of which set opening weekend records for the pandemic. In South Korea, the film's opening day was the second-best of 2021, with $3.3 million, and Hong Kong had the best opening of the pandemic, with $3.2 million. The film had the largest opening day of the pandemic in Austria, the Czech Republic, Qatar, and Slovakia, while in Saudi Arabia, the film earned the highest opening day for a Disney release ever. It was the number one film on opening day in many other markets. As of October 2021, the top markets for the film outside of North America were South Korea ($26.3 million), the United Kingdom ($25.8 million), and France ($15.1 million).[3][6]

Streaming viewership edit

With Disney+ Premier Access, Black Widow earned $67 million worldwide in its opening weekend.[6][7] It was the first film that Disney revealed Premier Access revenue for, with the revenue skewing heavily towards the United States with $55 million.[5][222] Viewer tracking application Samba TV, which measures at least five minutes of viewership on smart televisions in over 3 million U.S. households, reported that 1.1 million households watched the film in its opening weekend. Deadline Hollywood noted that this viewership translated to about $33 million in revenue for Disney, considering the US$30 price of Premier Access, which lined up with the announced worldwide revenue.[243] The site also stated that Disney was receiving about 85% of the Disney+ Premier revenue, sharing the rest with platform providers such as Amazon Firestick and Apple TV+.[244]

The following weekend, Deadline Hollywood reported that Black Widow had become the most-pirated film of the past week,[236] while some industry sources believed it had become the most-pirated film of the pandemic.[245] Samba TV later updated the film's Disney+ Premier Access viewership, reporting that the film had been streamed over 2 million times in the U.S. over its first 10 days of release, which resulted in around $60 million in overall domestic revenue from Disney+. Samba TV also reported updates to 10-day viewership in the United Kingdom (258,000), Germany (116,000), and Australia (47,000).[244] In October, Samba TV reported that over 1.1 million U.S. households had watched Black Widow in the first five days of its availability to all subscribers on Disney+. They also reported viewership in the United Kingdom (190,000) and Germany (96,000) during that same time frame.[246] As of August 2021, Black Widow had earned $125 million through streaming and digital downloads.[221] In its first 30 days, the film was watched in over 2.8 million U.S. households. Deadline Hollywood reported the film had been pirated over 20 million times, resulting in at least $600 million in lost revenue for Disney.[247] In January 2022, tech firm Akamai reported that Black Widow was the third-most pirated film of 2021.[248]

Critical response edit

The performances of Scarlett Johansson (L) and Florence Pugh (R) were praised by critics.

The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported an approval rating of 79%, with an average score of 6.9/10, based on 457 reviews. The website's critical consensus reads, "Black Widow's deeper themes are drowned out in all the action, but it remains a solidly entertaining standalone adventure that's rounded out by a stellar supporting cast."[249] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 68 out of 100 based on reviews from 58 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[250] Critics commonly praised the cast, particularly Johansson and Pugh, as well as the action sequences.[251][252][253] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A−" on an A+ to F scale, while PostTrak reported that 88% of audience members gave it a positive score and 69% said they would definitely recommend the film.[5]

Owen Gleiberman of Variety initially feared that Black Widow would just be two hours of Johansson fighting, but found the film to be more interesting than that despite still having fight sequences that would "give a mainstream audience that getting-your-money's-worth feeling". He praised Shortland's direction and said, "from the opening credits, most of it has a gritty, deliberate, zap-free tone that is strikingly—and intentionally—earthbound for a superhero fantasy".[16] Writing for The Hollywood Reporter, David Rooney felt the film's move away from the superhero genre into a "high-octane espionage thriller" made it a more satisfying female-starring MCU film than the "blandly bombastic" Captain Marvel.[254] At IGN, Nicole Clark discussed the ambition of the film to go beyond the superhero genre to explore the abuse and "intense tragedy" from Romanoff's past.[255]

At The Hollywood Reporter, Rooney described the film as a "stellar vehicle" for Johansson and praised her vulnerability in the film,[254] while Gleiberman said Johansson "holds the film together and gives it its touch of soul" with her vulnerability which he said was unusual for a superhero film performance.[16] Several critics praised the film's supporting cast,[253] with the chemistry between Johansson and Pugh in particular a highlight.[251] Pete Hammond of Deadline Hollywood said "Natasha's awkward shyness [is] counterpunched by the lively and cynical Yelena", and praised Johansson's presence in her role. He felt Pugh was ready to lead her own franchise and also praised the performances of Weisz, Harbour, and Winstone.[256] Leah Greenblatt of Entertainment Weekly said the relationship between Romanoff and Belova was the "real love story" of the film,[257] and Nicole Clark felt the film was at its strongest in the scenes where the pair were fighting against or beside each other.[255] Brian Tallerico of RogerEbert.com said Pugh was the film's MVP and had found "just the right shades of strength and vulnerability".[258] Caryn James at the BBC also praised Pugh and said Belova was "more lived-in than most action-movie characters".[259]

IndieWire's Eric Kohn gave the film a B grade, saying it delivered on action and praising the lower stakes. He positively compared the film's fight sequences to the Bourne franchise and said, "If this is the last time we get to see Johansson mete out justice to her assailants with gymnastic velocity, it's an apt send-off."[260] Hammond of Deadline Hollywood agreed, writing that Johansson "goes out with all guns blazing as this [film...] does not stint one bit on the action".[256] Gleiberman also compared the film to the Bourne franchise,[16] while James compared it to the Mission: Impossible franchise and said it was "the least Avenger-like movie in the [MCU] so far". She gave the film four out of five stars, but did criticize the ending as being typical of the franchise.[259] Writing for Vanity Fair, Richard Lawson praised Shortland's direction of the action sequences and the film's more grounded physics.[261]

Despite calling the film stylish and fun, Joshua Rivera of Polygon said it came across as "hollow" and like an "apology" for Romanoff's death in Endgame.[262] Similarly, Hoai-Tran Bui at /Film felt the film was "too little, too late" after the character's death,[263] and Matt Goldberg at Collider felt the film wasted the chance to further explore the Budapest mission in Romanoff's past in favor of introducing Belova as a replacement Black Widow.[264] Ann Hornaday at The Washington Post had similar thoughts, noting the set-up for Pugh to continue in the franchise and feeling the film did not make up for Johansson getting "short shrift" in earlier MCU installments.[265]

Accolades edit

Black Widow was one of 28 films that received the ReFrame Stamp for 2021, awarded by the gender equity coalition ReFrame for films that are proven to have gender-balanced hiring.[266]

Accolades received by Black Widow
Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient(s) Result Ref(s)
Golden Trailer Awards July 22, 2021 Best Fantasy Adventure "Control" (MOCEAN) Won [267]
Best Summer 2021 Blockbuster Trailer "Home" (Wild Card) Nominated
Best Summer Blockbuster TV Spot (for a Feature Film) "Choose" (Wild Card) Won
Best Teaser Poster "Teaser One-Sheet" (LA/Lindeman Associates) Nominated
Women's Image Network Awards October 14, 2021 Outstanding Actress Feature Film Scarlett Johansson Nominated [268]
Outstanding Feature Film Black Widow Won
Hollywood Music in Media Awards November 17, 2021 Score – SciFi/Fantasy Film Lorne Balfe Nominated [269]
Hollywood Professional Association Awards November 18, 2021 Outstanding Visual Effects – Feature Film David Hodgins, Hanzhi Tang, Ryan Duhaime, James Reid, Edmond Smith III (Digital Domain) Won [270]
Sean Walker, Marvyn Young, Karl Rapley, Lily Lawrence, Timothy Walker (Weta Digital) Nominated
People's Choice Awards December 7, 2021 Movie of 2021 Black Widow Won [271]
Action Movie of 2021 Nominated
Female Movie Star of 2021 Scarlett Johansson Won
Florence Pugh Nominated
Action Movie Star of 2021 Scarlett Johansson Nominated
Florence Pugh Nominated
St. Louis Film Critics Association December 19, 2021 Best Action Film Black Widow Nominated [272]
Best Visual Effects Nominated
San Diego Film Critics Society January 10, 2022 Best Comedic Performance David Harbour Runner-up [273]
Georgia Film Critics Association January 14, 2022 Oglethorpe Award for Excellence in Georgia Cinema Cate Shortland, Eric Pearson Nominated [274]
Houston Film Critics Society January 19, 2022 Best Stunt Coordination Black Widow Nominated [275]
Screen Actors Guild Awards February 27, 2022 Outstanding Performance by a Stunt Ensemble in a Motion Picture Black Widow Nominated [276]
Hollywood Critics Association Film Awards February 28, 2022 Best Stunts Black Widow Nominated [277]
Visual Effects Society March 8, 2022 Outstanding Model in a Photoreal or Animated Project "The Red Room" – Tristan John Connors, Bo Kwon, James Stuart, Ryan Duhaime Nominated [278]
Outstanding Compositing and Lighting in a Feature "Red Room Crashing Back to Earth" – Michael Melchiorre, Simon Twine, Daniel Harkness, Tim Crowson Nominated
Critics' Choice Super Awards March 17, 2022 Best Superhero Movie Black Widow Nominated [279]
[280]
Best Actress in a Superhero Movie Florence Pugh Won
Scarlett Johansson Nominated
Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards April 9, 2022 Favorite Movie Actress Scarlett Johansson Nominated [281]
MTV Movie & TV Awards June 5, 2022 Best Hero Scarlett Johansson Won [282]
Best Fight Black Widow vs. Widows Nominated

Documentary special edit

In February 2021, the documentary series Marvel Studios: Assembled was announced. The specials go behind the scenes of the MCU films and television series with cast members and additional creatives. A special for this film, "The Making of Black Widow", featuring Johansson,[283] was released on Disney+ on October 20, 2021.[284]

Future edit

Pugh reprised her role as Belova in the Disney+ series Hawkeye, continuing the storyline that is set up by the film's post-credits scene.[152] In June 2021, Shortland expressed interest in directing another film in the MCU, and noted that a potential sequel to Black Widow would likely revolve around a different character following Romanoff's death.[285] Weisz said she would be interested in a future storyline featuring Vostokoff assuming her Iron Maiden comic book persona.[54] In March 2023, Jeff Sneider at Above the Line reported that the in-development MCU ensemble film Thunderbolts (2025) was being re-written after its initial script from Black Widow writer Eric Pearson had focused too much on the Black Widow characters that were confirmed to be returning for that film: Pugh's Belova, Harbour's Shostakov, and Kurylenko's Taskmaster, as well as Louis-Dreyfus's De Fontaine.[286][287]

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Disney announced that Black Widow also earned $67 million globally from Disney+ Premier Access in its opening weekend. This is not factored into box office grosses.[5][6][7]
  2. ^ As depicted in Captain America: Civil War (2016)
  3. ^ As depicted in Avengers: Endgame (2019)

References edit

  1. ^ "Black Widow (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  2. ^ Reid, Caroline (August 31, 2023). "Marvel's 'Black Widow' Made Disney $67 Million. Here's Why". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 4, 2023. Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c "Black Widow". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Black Widow". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 11, 2021). "Disney Claims $215M+ WW Victory At The B.O. & Disney+ Premier With 'Black Widow' Weekend: Will Distrib Model Endanger A Movie's Life Cycle? – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e Tartaglione, Nancy (July 11, 2021). "'Black Widow' Weaves $79M Overseas Debut For $159M WW Theatrical Bow – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Scarlett Johansson v The Walt Disney Company, U.S., 9 (Cal. Super. August 20, 2021) ("$67MM in total worldwide Premier Access opening-weekend receipts"). Archived from the original on August 22, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d Kit, Borys (July 12, 2018). "'Black Widow' Movie Finds Director in Cate Shortland (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  9. ^ Burcham, Cori (March 14, 2020). "Black Widow: Everything We Know About Natasha's Pre-Avengers Past". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on March 15, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Robinson, Ashley (June 15, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson on the Sexualization of Natasha Romanoff and Why It Took 10 Years to Make 'Black Widow'". Collider. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  11. ^ Boucher, Geoff (November 30, 2018). "Spider-Women, Captain Marvel & Harley Quinn: Females Fly In The Face Of Old Hollywood Perceptions". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on December 1, 2018. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Kwak, Yeon-soo (June 24, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson calls 'Black Widow' action film with lots of heart". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d ""A Russian Undercover Family Drama" Eric Pearson Talks 'Black Widow'". Creative Screenwriting. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  14. ^ a b Aurthur, Kate (July 7, 2021). "'Black Widow' Stars Scarlett Johansson and Florence Pugh on Their Epic Journey and Natasha's Final Bow". Variety. Archived from the original on July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  15. ^ Kroll, Justin (March 10, 2020). "Disney's Live-Action 'Peter Pan' Movie Finds Its Wendy and Peter (Exclusive)". Variety. Archived from the original on March 11, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Gleiberman, Owen (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Review: A Superhero Movie That's Grittier, More Layered With Feeling, Than You Expect". Variety. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  17. ^ Soko (December 6, 2016). "Ever Anderson". Interview. Archived from the original on March 3, 2021. Retrieved July 31, 2021. I also speak Russian.
  18. ^ Runnells, Riley (July 7, 2021). "Ever Anderson Is Hollywood's Latest Force". Paper. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Coggan, Devan (July 20, 2019). "Black Widow hits Comic-Con with first details of Scarlett Johansson film". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  20. ^ a b c d Kroll, Justin (March 18, 2019). "Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' Movie Adds Florence Pugh". Variety. Archived from the original on March 19, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  21. ^ Evangelista, Chris (July 29, 2019). "'Black Widow' Will Have Multiple Black Widows". /Film. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  22. ^ Sheperd, Jack (September 17, 2020). "Florence Pugh and Scarlett Johansson discuss the future of Black Widow". Total Film. GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  23. ^ a b Travis, Emlyn (July 7, 2021). "How A Sisterly Friendship Helped Florence Pugh Through Black Widow". MTV News. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Black Widow Advance" (PDF). Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 20, 2021. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
  25. ^ a b c Travis, Ben (July 6, 2020). "Black Widow Movie Will 'Hand The Baton' To Florence Pugh, Says Cate Shortland – Exclusive". Empire. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  26. ^ MC (January 27, 2021). "Exclusive: Violet McGraw Talks her New Film, Our Friend and her Role in Black Widow!". Beautiful Ballad. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  27. ^ a b N'Duka, Amanda (April 3, 2019). "David Harbour Set For Disney/Marvel 'Black Widow' Standalone". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  28. ^ Collura, Scott (July 10, 2021). "Black Widow: Did Red Guardian Really Fight Captain America?". IGN. Archived from the original on July 10, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  29. ^ Gonzales, Umberto; Mass, Jennifer (January 12, 2020). "David Harbour Says Red Guardian in 'Black Widow' 'Was the Captain America of His Day for Russia'". TheWrap. Archived from the original on January 11, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
  30. ^ Couch, Aaron (July 15, 2021). "Why 'Black Widow' Writer Eric Pearson Felt Post-Credits Scene Guilt". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  31. ^ a b c O'Hara, Helen. "Against the Odds". Empire. No. May 2020. United Kingdom: Bauer Media Group. pp. 58–65.
  32. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (July 11, 2021). "'Black Widow' Star David Harbour Loves Being a Big-Screen Loser". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  33. ^ a b Couch, Aaron (July 17, 2021). "The 'Black Widow' Scene O-T Fagbenle Was Surprised to Join". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  34. ^ a b c N'Duka, Amanda; D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 10, 2019). "Marvel's 'Black Widow' Snares 'The Handmaid's Tale' Actor O-T Fagbenle". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  35. ^ Lovett, Jamie (November 15, 2020). "Black Widow Star Tease Natasha's Romance With Mysterious Mason". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  36. ^ Davis, Brandon (July 13, 2021). "Black Widow: O-T Fagbenle Mason And Natasha's Relationship (Exclusive)". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  37. ^ a b Barlow, Jason (July 16, 2021). "Behind the scenes of Black Widow's car chase". Top Gear. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  38. ^ a b Molina-Whyte, Lidia (July 7, 2021). "Who is Taskmaster in Marvel's Black Widow?". Radio Times. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  39. ^ Anderton, Ethan (March 9, 2020). "'Black Widow' Trailer: Natasha Romanoff Made Some Bad Decisions Before She Became an Avenger". /Film. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  40. ^ Barnhardt, Adam (November 14, 2020). "Black Widow's Taskmaster Fighting Style Taken From Spider-Man and Winter Soldier". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  41. ^ a b c d Gallagher, Simon (July 9, 2021). "Black Widow: All Easter Eggs, MCU Connections & Hidden Details". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  42. ^ Reyes, Mike (July 16, 2021). "Black Widow's Taskmaster Was So Crazy To Execute, It Took Multiple Stunt Doubles, According To Olga Kurylenko". CinemaBlend. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  43. ^ Langmann, Brady (July 12, 2021). "Exclusive: Olga Kurylenko Opens Up About Her Secret Black Widow Role". Esquire. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  44. ^ a b Cairns, Bryan (July 18, 2021). "Black Widow: Bringing Dreykov, Taskmaster, Yelena, and More to Life". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  45. ^ a b Gemmill, Allie (July 9, 2021). "Black Widow Movie Cast & Character Guide". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 10, 2021. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  46. ^ a b Arrant, Chris (October 1, 2019). "William Hurt Joins Black Widow Film". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  47. ^ Black Widow: The Official Movie Special. Titan Comics. 2020. ISBN 978-1-78773-352-7.
  48. ^ a b Kroll, Justin (June 20, 2019). "Ray Winstone Joins Marvel's 'Black Widow' (Exclusive)". Variety. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  49. ^ "Black Widow Press Kit" (PDF). Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  50. ^ Armstrong, Vanessa (July 8, 2021). "'Black Widow': How the Limited Time Frame Influenced Ray Winstone's "Cowardly" Villain". /Film. Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  51. ^ Kile, Meredith (July 20, 2019). "Scarlett Johansson Ushers in the MCU's Female Future With 'Black Widow': 'It's Pretty Explosive' (Exclusive)". Entertainment Tonight. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  52. ^ Knox, Kelly (December 12, 2019). "Black Widow: Rachel Weisz's Character Explained – Who Is Melina Vostokoff?". IGN. Archived from the original on December 15, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
  53. ^ Gordon, Naomi (July 9, 2021). "Rachel Weisz talks reproductive rights and taking down the patriarchy". Harper's Bazaar. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  54. ^ a b Davis, Brandon (July 13, 2021). "Black Widow: Rachel Weisz on a Melina Villain Turn, Marvel Secrets (Exclusive)". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  55. ^ White, Brett (July 9, 2021). "'Black Widow's' David Harbour Says There's a Whole Other Movie of Just Alexei and Melina Flirting". Decider. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  56. ^ Shaw-Williams, Hannah (July 11, 2021). "Black Widow: Who Plays Taskmaster?". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  57. ^ Bonomolo, Cameron (September 4, 2021). "Marvel's Shang-Chi Clip Reveals a Black Widow Cameo". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2021. Retrieved September 4, 2021.
  58. ^ Romano, Nick (July 16, 2021). "Black Widow actor confirms X-Men Easter egg you probably missed". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  59. ^ Craig, David (July 7, 2021). "Who is Valentina in Black Widow? Julia Louis Dreyfus villain explained". Radio Times. Archived from the original on July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  60. ^ Melrose, Kevin (November 17, 2011). "David Hayter Recalls Details of Abandoned Black Widow Movie". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  61. ^ "Lions Gate & Marvel Sign Iron Fist & Black Widow Deal". Superhero Hype!. February 26, 2004. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  62. ^ Kit, Borys (April 29, 2004). "Hayter bitten by Marvel 'Widow'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 20, 2004. Retrieved August 11, 2023.
  63. ^ Weinberg, Scott (June 6, 2006). "Lionsgate Squashes the "Black Widow"". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  64. ^ Fleming, Michael Jr. (January 14, 2009). "Emily Blunt rumored for 'Iron Man 2'". Variety. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  65. ^ Moore, Roger (February 25, 2009). "Emily Blunt on losing Black Widow..." Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  66. ^ Finke, Nikki (March 11, 2009). "Another 'Iron Man 2' Deal: Scarlett Johannson To Replace Emily Blunt As Black Widow For Lousy Lowball Money". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  67. ^ Pirrello, Phil (September 22, 2010). "Black Widow: The Movie?". IGN. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  68. ^ "Marvel-ous Star Wattage: Actors Assemble For Comic-Con Panel Including 'The Avengers', 'Captain America', & 'Thor'". Deadline Hollywood. July 24, 2010. Archived from the original on June 22, 2022. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  69. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (October 2, 2012). "Five Actresses Testing For 'Captain America 2' Role; Black Widow Might Drop By As Well". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
  70. ^ Maresca, Rachel (September 29, 2013). "Scarlett Johansson flaunts curves in new magazine photo shoot, reveals details on 'The Avengers' sequel". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  71. ^ Arrant, Chris (January 15, 2015). "Captain America: Civil War Directors: Black Widow Will Be Back, More". Newsarama. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  72. ^ Welch, Alex (June 7, 2017). "Avengers: Infinity War – Black Panther Actor Starts Filming". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  73. ^ Mithaiwala, Mansoor (October 28, 2017). "Robert Downey Jr. Announces Avengers 4 Return". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  74. ^ a b Chitwood, Adam (April 15, 2015). "BLACK WIDOW Movie: Scarlett Johansson and Kevin Feige Have Discussed a Series of Films". Collider. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  75. ^ Couto, Anthony (February 12, 2014). "Feige: Black Widow's Past to be Explored in Avengers 2 and Possible Solo Film". IGN. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  76. ^ West, Rachel (July 25, 2014). "Screenwriter Nicole Perlman gives us the scoop on Guardians, Marvel, and more!". Cineplex. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  77. ^ Keyes, Rob (April 2014). "Captain America 2 Interview: Scarlett Johansson Talks 'Black Widow' Solo Film". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  78. ^ "X-Men's David Hayter wants to revive Black Widow". Digital Spy. July 21, 2014. Archived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  79. ^ Robinson, Joanna (August 21, 2014). "Game of Thrones Big-Battle Director Neil Marshall Either Wants to Direct a Black Widow Movie or Unleash Those Dragons". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  80. ^ Davis, Erik (April 11, 2016). "Here's When We'll Know Who's Starring in And Directing Marvel's 'Captain Marvel' Movie". Fandango. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  81. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (May 6, 2016). "Kevin Feige On 'Captain America: Civil War' And All Things Marvel – Deadline Q&A". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  82. ^ Yehl, Joshua (July 23, 2016). "Comic-Con 2016: Joss Whedon Would Direct a Black Widow Movie if Marvel Asked". IGN. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  83. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (October 12, 2016). "Scarlett Johansson on Black Widow Movie, 'The Avengers' and Donald Trump". Variety. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  84. ^ Russell, Bradley (February 10, 2017). "The Black Widow movie "should be done" says Scarlett Johansson". Total Film. GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  85. ^ Kroll, Justin [@krolljvar] (January 10, 2018). "Couple side notes on this one, Feige met with ScarJo either right before or right after Thanksgiving to talk about direction they wanted to go with this pic before meeting with writers" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved January 13, 2018 – via Twitter.
  86. ^ a b Taylor, Drew (August 19, 2022). "'She-Hulk' Creator Jessica Gao Reveals Her 'Black Widow' Movie Pitch and the Secret Origins of Trolling Kevin Feige". TheWrap. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  87. ^ Vary, Adam B. (August 16, 2022). "'She-Hulk' Head Writer on Reshaping the Pilot, Cutting CGI, and Steve Rogers' Virginity". Variety. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2022.
  88. ^ Kroll, Justin (January 10, 2018). "Marvel's Standalone 'Black Widow' Movie Gains Momentum With Jac Schaeffer Writing". Variety. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  89. ^ Kroll, Justin [@krolljvar] (January 10, 2018). "Jac had two meetings with Marvel, the last one being with Feige the week before Xmas, decision was made before the New Year" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved January 13, 2018 – via Twitter.
  90. ^ Kroll, Justin [@krolljvar] (January 12, 2018). "Black Widow update: While Jac didn't get a chance to meet with ScarJo before she was tapped to pen BW, hearing the two are likely to sit down at the beginning of next month to talk about the film and how they see it going" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved January 13, 2018 – via Twitter.
  91. ^ a b Kit, Borys (April 26, 2018). "'Jessica Jones' Director in Talks to Helm 'Star Trek 4'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  92. ^ Kroll, Justin [@krolljvar] (May 2, 2018). "Fun fact: More than 65 directors have met for the Black Widow job. Marvel being extremely thorough on this one" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Twitter.
  93. ^ Kit, Borys (September 21, 2018). "Marvel Studios' 'The Eternals' Finds Its Director With Chloe Zhao". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  94. ^ "Marvel Approached 'Laggies' Director Lynn Shelton to Direct 'Black Widow'". Variety. March 10, 2019. Archived from the original on March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  95. ^ Sharf, Zack (December 12, 2018). "Lucrecia Martel Turned Down 'Black Widow' After Marvel Told Her 'Don't Worry About' Action Scenes". IndieWire. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  96. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (June 20, 2018). "Marvel Eyes Female Helmers For 'Black Widow' Film: Watch For Cate Shortland". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  97. ^ Sneider, Jeff [@TheInSneider] (July 2, 2018). "Add Kimberly Peirce (Boys Don't Cry) to the shortlist of possible directors for Marvel's Black Widow" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved July 3, 2018 – via Twitter.
  98. ^ a b c Clarke, Cath (July 2, 2021). "'I enjoy how sexy she is, as long as she's in control': Black Widow's Cate Shortland on Scarlett Johansson". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 28, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  99. ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (October 11, 2018). "Scarlett Johansson Lands $15 Million Payday for Black Widow Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  100. ^ a b c McClintock, Pamela (July 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Files Lawsuit Against Disney Over 'Black Widow' Release". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  101. ^ Couch, Aaron (July 7, 2021). "Kevin Feige and 'Black Widow' Team on Straddling Marvel's Past and Future". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  102. ^ Grebey, James (July 9, 2021). "When Does Black Widow Fit into the MCU Timeline? It's Only Slightly More Complicated Than You Think". Syfy Wire. Archived from the original on July 10, 2021. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  103. ^ Bucksbaum, Sydney (July 21, 2019). "Black Widow cast spills exclusive new details about their Marvel movie". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  104. ^ Lussier, Germain (June 19, 2019). "Kevin Feige Hints at How a Black Widow Prequel Could Reveal Secrets of the MCU". io9. Archived from the original on July 2, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  105. ^ Sneider, Jeff (February 15, 2019). "Exclusive: Marvel, Scarlett Johansson Tap Ned Benson to Rewrite 'Black Widow' Movie". Collider. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  106. ^ Davis, Brandon (February 22, 2019). "'Black Widow': Kevin Feige Rules Out R-Rating". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  107. ^ Kit, Borys (March 18, 2019). "Florence Pugh in Talks to Join Scarlett Johansson in 'Black Widow'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 19, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  108. ^ Kroll, Justin [@krolljvar] (March 18, 2019). "Marvel has been high on Florence since December for the part but did open it up at the top of the year with other actresses meeting (Saorise also in the mix) but in the end she wins the coveted role" (Tweet). Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2019 – via Twitter.
  109. ^ Rangel, Felipe (January 4, 2024). "MCU's Original Black Widow Replacement Reportedly Rejected The Role Before Florence Pugh Was Cast". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on January 5, 2024. Retrieved January 4, 2024.
  110. ^ Couch, Aaron (July 20, 2022). "Marvel's Movie Math: Comic Creators Claim It's "Bait and Switch" On Payments". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  111. ^ Couch, Aaron; Galuppo, Mia; Kit, Borys (October 21, 2022). "Marvel, DC Among Last Bastion for Supersized Paydays". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  112. ^ Kroll, Justin (April 3, 2019). "'Black Widow': Rachel Weisz Circling Key Role in Marvel's Standalone Film". Variety. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  113. ^ Towers, Andrea (July 15, 2021). "'Black Widow' writer confirms there was a Robert Downey Jr. cameo in earlier script". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  114. ^ Boucher, Geoff (September 13, 2019). "Saturn Awards: 'Spider-Man' Star Tom Holland Wins For Third Year In A Row". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 14, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  115. ^ a b c Sharf, Zack (July 12, 2021). "Kevin Feige Supported 'Black Widow' Excluding Big MCU Cameos: 'She Doesn't Need the Boys'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on June 26, 2023. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  116. ^ Shepherd, Jack (July 9, 2021). "Black Widow director reveals why a rumored cameo does not show up". Total Film. GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  117. ^ a b Monaghan, Jeremiah (July 13, 2021). "Eric Pearson on 'Black Widow' and Filling the Gaps in the MCU – Exclusive Interview". DiscussingFilm. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  118. ^ Barnhardt, Andrew (January 14, 2020). "Thor: Ragnarok Writer Gets Sole Screenwriting Credit on Black Widow". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  119. ^ a b Armstrong, Vanessa (July 9, 2021). "'Black Widow' Screenwriter Talks That Opening Scene, Yelena's Sense Of Humor, And More [Interview]". /Film. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  120. ^ a b c d Davis, Brandon (July 12, 2021). "Black Widow Writer Eric Pearson on Budapest, Taskmaster, and Post-Credits Scene (Exclusive)". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  121. ^ Owen, Phil; Oritz, Andi (July 12, 2021). "Uh, Is a Scene Missing at the Very End of 'Black Widow'?". TheWrap. Archived from the original on July 14, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  122. ^ a b Polowy, Kevin (July 7, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson explains how 'Black Widow' became Marvel's #MeToo movie: 'You cannot miss the opportunity'". Yahoo! Entertainment. Archived from the original on July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  123. ^ Aguilar, Matthew (May 29, 2019). "New Black Widow Set Photos Surface as Production Officially Begins". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on May 29, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  124. ^ Ferber, Taylor (June 11, 2021). "'Black Widow' Director Cate Shortland on its Unique Identity in the MCU (and Which Marvel Film It's Most Like)". Fandango. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  125. ^ a b Sneider, Jeff (January 16, 2020). "'Black Widow' Cinematographer Mystery Solved: Gabriel Beristain Shot the Marvel Movie". Collider. Archived from the original on January 17, 2020. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
  126. ^ "Beristain Brings 1940s Hollywood into the Digital Era for Agent Carter". American Society of Cinematographers. January 14, 2015. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
  127. ^ a b "'Black Widow' Cinematographer Gabriel Beristain Featured in THR's 'Behind the Screen'". The Hollywood Reporter. July 8, 2021. Archived from the original on July 16, 2022. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  128. ^ Mutter, Zoe. "Gabriel Beristain BSC ASC AMC / Black Widow". British Cinematographer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  129. ^ a b McKeon, Christopher (July 24, 2019). "Marvel film Black Widow shooting on Hankley Common – but the parish council isn't happy". SurreyLive. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
  130. ^ a b Horton, Helena (July 24, 2019). "Parish council says plans to film Marvel's new Black Widow film will disrupt nesting of rare birds". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  131. ^ Cranswick, Amie (June 7, 2019). "Scarlett Johansson featured in latest Black Widow set photos". Flickering Myth. Archived from the original on June 27, 2023. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  132. ^ Davids, Brian (June 30, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson and Florence Pugh on 'Black Widow,' Fighting Poses and Sam Jackson's Advice". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  133. ^ Flint, Hanna (June 25, 2019). "'Black Widow' set photo hints Florence Pugh will replace Scarlett Johansson as top spy". Yahoo! Entertainment. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  134. ^ Dominguez, Noah (August 15, 2019). "Black Widow: 'The Dutch Giant' Olivier Richters Boards Marvel Film". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 16, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  135. ^ Thomas, Allister (July 9, 2021). "Black Widow special effects crew Marvel at North Sea oil rig". Energy Voice. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  136. ^ Barnhardt, Adam (September 30, 2019). "Black Widow Shifts Production to Macon, Georgia for the Week". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  137. ^ DeLetter, Emily (July 9, 2021). "No spoilers, but 'Black Widow' is probably from Cincinnati like the rest of us". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  138. ^ "Scarlett Johansson Spotted in Tangier While Shooting the Film, Black Widow". Morocco Travel Blog. October 7, 2019. Archived from the original on June 26, 2023. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  139. ^ Dale, Martin (November 14, 2022). "Khadija Alami Plans Major Studio Near Marrakech as Uncapped Rebate Revs Up Foreign Shoot Scene (Exclusive)". Variety. Archived from the original on November 14, 2022. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  140. ^ Ridgely, Charlie (October 7, 2019). "Marvel's Black Widow Wraps Production". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  141. ^ Molina-Whyte, Lidia (February 27, 2024). "Ray Winstone remembers "soul-destroying" experience filming for MCU". Radio Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2024. Retrieved February 28, 2024.
  142. ^ Marvel Studios [@MarvelStudios] (July 20, 2021). "This is one of our few main title sequences but Cate Shortland and the creative team really believed we should tell the story and the horrors that Dreykov was responsible for at the beginning of the movie. – KF #BlackWidowWatchParty" (Tweet). Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Twitter.
  143. ^ Warner, Sam (July 22, 2021). "Marvel's Kevin Feige explains Black Widow's unique opening sequence". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on July 24, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  144. ^ a b "Black Widow | Opening Title Sequence Design". Perception. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2022.
  145. ^ a b Rubin, Rebecca (March 17, 2020). "'Black Widow' Release Pulled Amid Coronavirus Pandemic". Variety. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  146. ^ a b Welk, Brian (April 3, 2020). "'Black Widow' Moves to November as Other MCU Films Shift Back to 2021, 2022". TheWrap. Archived from the original on April 3, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  147. ^ a b c Gonzalez, Umberto; Welk, Brian (September 23, 2020). "Disney Pushes 'Black Widow' Back to 2021". TheWrap. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  148. ^ a b c Rubin, Rebecca (March 23, 2021). "'Black Widow,' 'Cruella' to Debut on Disney Plus and in Theaters as Disney Shifts Dates for Seven Films". Variety. Archived from the original on March 23, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  149. ^ Robinson, Joanna (April 16, 2021). "Marvel Has Big Plans for That Surprise Falcon and the Winter Soldier Cameo". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  150. ^ Whitbrook, James (July 6, 2021). "Black Widow Was Meant to Set Up a Falcon and Winter Soldier Connection". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  151. ^ Couch, Aaron (December 11, 2021). "'Black Widow' Post-Credit Scene Was Kept Secret From 'Hawkeye' Team (At First)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved December 11, 2021.
  152. ^ a b Vary, Adam B.; Aurthur, Kate (July 10, 2021). "'Black Widow' Star and Director Break Down That Post-Credits Scene (Spoilers)". Variety. Archived from the original on July 10, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  153. ^ Travis, Ben (May 11, 2021). "Black Widow: Scarlett Johansson And Florence Pugh Team Up In Exclusive Image". Empire. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  154. ^ Frei, Vincent (June 28, 2021). "Black Widow". The Art of VFX. Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  155. ^ a b Seymour, Mike (June 24, 2021). "Digital Domain brings Black Widow's Red Room Crashing Down". Fxguide. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  156. ^ a b Marshall, Rick (September 10, 2021). "How GPU-fueled visual effects built Black Widow's Red Room, then blew it up". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on September 10, 2021. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  157. ^ a b c "Cinesite London VFX Adds Excitement to 'Black Widow'". Computer Graphics World. July 26, 2021. Archived from the original on September 16, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  158. ^ a b "Our Work on Black Widow". Wētā FX. July 21, 2021. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  159. ^ Hogg, Trevor (August 30, 2021). "ILM's VFX Help Marvel Studios 'Wing It' in 'Black Widow'". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on August 30, 2021. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  160. ^ "Black Widow | Technology Design". Perception. January 13, 2023. Archived from the original on January 28, 2023. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  161. ^ Gemmill, Allie (January 14, 2020). "Alexandre Desplat to Score 'Black Widow', a Fact Casually Revealed in the Latest Trailer". Collider. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  162. ^ "Lorne Balfe Scoring Marvel's 'Black Widow'". Film Music Reporter. March 31, 2020. Archived from the original on March 31, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  163. ^ Ehrlich, David (May 21, 2020). "Alexandre Desplat on Wes Anderson's Amazing 'French Dispatch' and del Toro's Musical 'Pinocchio'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  164. ^ a b Silliman, Brian (July 7, 2021). "Black Widow composer Lorne Balfe on (finally) giving Natasha her own theme music". Syfy Wire. Archived from the original on December 5, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  165. ^ Solzman, Danielle (June 29, 2021). "Black Widow: Marvel Does It Again With Spy Thriller". Solzy at the Movies. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  166. ^ Gallagher, Simon (July 8, 2021). "Black Widow Soundtrack Guide – Every Song In The Movie". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 10, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  167. ^ "'Black Widow' Soundtrack Album Details". Film Music Reporter. July 5, 2021. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  168. ^ a b Holcombe, Madeline (December 3, 2019). "The first 'Black Widow' trailer is out and it's an action-packed family reunion". CNN Entertainment. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  169. ^ a b Alexander, Julia (December 3, 2019). "First Black Widow trailer finally puts Scarlett Johansson's Marvel hero in the spotlight". The Verge. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  170. ^ Vincent, Brittany (December 3, 2019). "First Black Widow Trailer Teases the Spy Thriller Marvel Fans Have Always Wanted". MTV News. Archived from the original on December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  171. ^ a b Mendelson, Scott (December 3, 2019). "The Ironic Reason Why Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' Could Be A Huge Box Office Hit". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  172. ^ a b Leishman, Rachel (December 3, 2019). "The Black Widow Trailer Held a Surprising Emotional Impact". The Mary Sue. Archived from the original on December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  173. ^ Newby, Richard (December 3, 2019). "How 'Black Widow' Prequel Can Set Marvel's Future". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  174. ^ Carpenter, Nicole (March 9, 2020). "Marvel's final Black Widow trailer 'goes back to the beginning'". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  175. ^ Weiss, Josh (March 9, 2020). "Black Widow: Natasha Fights To Free The Red Room From Taskmaster In Final Trailer". Syfy Wire. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  176. ^ a b Mendelson, Scott (March 9, 2020). "'Black Widow' Trailer: The Most Important Reveal Is The Release Date". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  177. ^ Couch, Aaron (June 18, 2021). "Disney Studios Marketing Head Asad Ayaz on Mischievous 'Loki' Campaign". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 19, 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
  178. ^ Paige, Rachel (September 24, 2020). "Black Widow Teams Up With Barbie for New Collectible Dolls". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  179. ^ Goslin, Austen (April 3, 2021). "Black Widow's new trailer reveals Taskmaster's villainous mission". Polygon. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  180. ^ Lussier, Germain (April 3, 2021). "A New Black Widow Trailer Has Major Avengers Vibes". io9. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  181. ^ Anderton, Ethan (April 3, 2021). "Marvel's 'Black Widow' Trailer: Natasha Romanoff's Family Secrets Are About to Be Revealed". /Film. Archived from the original on April 4, 2021. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  182. ^ McClintock, Pamela (April 5, 2021). "'Black Widow' Trailer Spins Strong Web With 70M Views". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  183. ^ Hall, Andy (July 1, 2021). "ESPN E60 Goes Behind Scenes of Marvel Studios' Black Widow with Champion Gymnast Turned Hollywood Stunt Performer". ESPN Press Room. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  184. ^ Dinh, Christine (July 5, 2021). "The Unsung Hero Behind Black Widow, Scarlett Johansson's Stunt Double — Heidi Moneymaker". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  185. ^ Ridgely, Charlie (June 16, 2021). "Disney+: Every Movie and TV Show Arriving in July 2021". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  186. ^ "Marvel fans attend special showing of 'Black Widow' in NYC". WABC-TV. June 29, 2021. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  187. ^ Burrows, Mindy (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' screening rolls out the red carpet for London film fans". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  188. ^ Volonté, Martina (June 25, 2021). "Black Widow film di chiusura del Taormina Film Fest 2021". Cinematographe.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on June 25, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  189. ^ a b c D'Alessandro, Anthony; Tartaglione, Nancy (July 7, 2021). "'Black Widow' To Weave $140M Weekend Around The World As Theatrical & Disney+ Day & Date Model Further Rattles Industry". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  190. ^ Goldsmith, Jill (June 7, 2021). "Marvel's 'Black Widow' To Open With Expanded Aspect Ratio On Imax – Meaning A Bigger Picture". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 7, 2021. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  191. ^ Oddo, Marco Vito (July 24, 2022). "'She-Hulk: Attorney at Law' and 'Black Panther: Wakanda Forever' End Marvel's Phase 4". Collider. Archived from the original on July 26, 2022. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  192. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (July 11, 2021). "Box Office: 'Black Widow' Spins Record $80M U.S. Opening, Earns $60M on Disney+ Premier Access". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  193. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (September 10, 2021). "'Shang-Chi' China Release Unlikely In Wake Of Unearthed Comments By Star Simu Liu; 'The Eternals' Hopes In Question". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 10, 2021. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
  194. ^ Cain, Sian; Davidson, Helen (January 18, 2023). "China ends de facto ban on Marvel films after more than three years". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 18, 2023. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  195. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 4, 2020). "Coronavirus Concern At The B.O.: After 'No Time To Die' Move, Could 'Black Widow' & 'F9' Be Next?". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  196. ^ Vary, Adam B.; Donnelly, Matt (March 17, 2020). "Could Coronavirus Woes Take a Hammer to the Marvel Cinematic Universe?". Variety. Archived from the original on March 18, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  197. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (September 9, 2020). "'Wonder Woman 1984': Exhibition Braces For Another Release Date Change During Pandemic Post-'Tenet'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 9, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  198. ^ Rubin, Rebecca; Lang, Brett (September 15, 2020). "'Black Widow' Eyes New Release Date, 'Soul' May Move to Disney Plus". Variety. Archived from the original on September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  199. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 10, 2021). "Marvel Boss Kevin Feige On 'Black Panther 2' Post Boseman, 'Black Widow' Release & Why Streaming Plans Won't Burn MCU At The B.O." Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  200. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (January 11, 2021). "Hollywood Prepares to Delay Another Slew of Blockbusters". Variety. Archived from the original on January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  201. ^ Eriksen, Kaare (January 20, 2021). "The Film Release-Date Shifts to Expect Next in 2021". Variety. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  202. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 11, 2021). "'Black Widow' Still On Course For Theatrical Release". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  203. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (February 12, 2021). "'Black Widow' vs. 'F9': Which Summer Blockbuster Will Blink First?". Variety. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  204. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 24, 2021). "How The Marvel Cinematic Universe Calendar Is Shaping Up For 2021 & Beyond Between Movies & Streaming Series – TCA". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  205. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony; Goldsmith, Jill (March 9, 2021). "'Black Widow': Disney Boss Bob Chapek, Once Again, Confirms That Pic's Current Summer Release Date Remains Unchanged". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  206. ^ Hayes, Dade (March 17, 2021). "Will 'Black Widow' Have Exclusive Movie Theater Run? It'll Be A "Last-Minute" Call, Disney CEO Bob Chapek Says". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 17, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  207. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (March 25, 2021). "Marvel couldn't wait any longer to kick off its next phase of movies and shows". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 25, 2021. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  208. ^ Pallotta, Frank (July 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson is suing Disney over 'Black Widow' Disney+ release". CNN. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  209. ^ Flint, Joe; Schwartzel, Erich (July 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Sues Disney Over 'Black Widow' Streaming Release". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  210. ^ Lee, Chris (August 3, 2021). "What Does the Black Widow Lawsuit Mean for COVID-Era Movies?". Vulture. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  211. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 30, 2021). "'Black Widow' Scarlett Johansson Lawsuit: Actress' Agent Slams Disney For "Direct Attack On Her Character" & Leaving Talent Out Of Streaming Profit Equation". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  212. ^ a b Lang, Brent; Maddaus, Gene (July 30, 2021). "'Black Widow' Legal Battle: Inside the Fallout After Scarlett Johansson Sues Disney". Variety. Archived from the original on August 23, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  213. ^ Aquilina, Tyler (July 31, 2021). "Women in Film, ReFrame, Time's Up slam Disney's 'gendered character attack' on Scarlett Johansson". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved July 31, 2021.
  214. ^ Verhoeven, Beatrice; Gonzalez, Umberto; Haithman, Diane (August 2, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson's Lawsuit and Disney Brand 'Carnage': Is CEO Bob Chapek to Blame?". TheWrap. Archived from the original on August 2, 2021. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  215. ^ Waxman, Sharon (August 2, 2021). "Inside Disney: How the Bob Iger-Bob Chapek Rift Led to the ScarJo Blunder". TheWrap. Archived from the original on August 2, 2021. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  216. ^ Hughes, William (July 30, 2021). "Kevin Feige reportedly "angry and embarrassed" about Disney's handling of ScarJo". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  217. ^ Hipes, Patrick (August 6, 2021). "SAG-AFTRA President On Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' Lawsuit: "Disney Should Be Ashamed"". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  218. ^ Littleton, Cynthia (August 6, 2021). "Disney Lawyer Daniel Petrocelli Calls 'Black Widow' Lawsuit an 'Orchestrated PR Campaign'". Variety. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  219. ^ Gardner, Eriq (July 30, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' Lawsuit Is Game-Changing, But May Be Legally Weak". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  220. ^ "Scarlett Johansson sues Disney over streaming of Black Widow". BBC. July 30, 2021. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved July 31, 2021.
  221. ^ a b Gardner, Eriq (August 21, 2021). "Disney Makes First Move in Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' Suit". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 21, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  222. ^ a b c Patten, Dominic (August 21, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Slams "Misogynistic" Disney Response As Mouse House Tries To Move 'Black Widow' Suit Behind Closed Doors – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 21, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  223. ^ Masters, Kim; Siegel, Tatiana (September 30, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson, Disney Settle Explosive 'Black Widow' Lawsuit". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  224. ^ Patten, Dominic (September 30, 2021). "Disney & Scarlett Johansson Resolve Bitter 'Black Widow' Profits Lawsuit; Big $$$ Win For Oscar Nominee". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  225. ^ Fuster, Jeremy (September 30, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Settles 'Black Widow' Lawsuit With Disney". TheWrap. Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021.
  226. ^ Gardner, Chris (November 19, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Touts "Positive Impact" of 'Black Widow' Lawsuit, Kevin Feige Teases "Top-Secret" Marvel Project With Her as Producer". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 21, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  227. ^ Trenholm, Richard (July 26, 2021). "Black Widow digital and Blu-ray release date comes early. Thanks, Marvel". CNET. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  228. ^ Byford, Sam (November 8, 2021). "Disney Plus is upgrading Marvel movies to IMAX aspect ratio". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  229. ^ a b Robbins, Shawn (July 2, 2021). "Long Range Box Office Forecast: Marvel Studios' Black Widow (July 2 Update)". Boxoffice Pro. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  230. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 7, 2021). "'Black Widow' Advance Ticket Sales Are Fandango's Best Of The Year To Date". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  231. ^ "Domestic 2021 Weekend 28". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  232. ^ Bemidele, Michael (July 13, 2021). ""Black Widow" Sets New Covid-Era Box Office Record With $80 Million". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  233. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 14, 2021). "'Black Widow' Captures Record Tuesday At Domestic Pandemic B.O.; MCU Title Expected To Reign Over 'Space Jam 2' – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  234. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 15, 2021). "'Black Widow' Crosses $100M At Domestic B.O. In Record Time During Pandemic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  235. ^ "Domestic 2021 Weekend 29". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  236. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 18, 2021). "'Space Jam: A New Legacy' Steals Ball Away From 'Black Widow' With $31M+ Opening, Best For Family Pic & WB During Pandemic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  237. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (July 18, 2021). "Movie Theater Owners Blame Marvel's 'Black Widow' Box Office 'Collapse' on Disney Plus Launch". Variety. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  238. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 18, 2021). "'Black Widow' Posts Steepest 2nd Weekend B.O. Drop For Disney MCU Title; Studio Silent On PVOD Update As Piracy Impacts Pic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  239. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 24, 2021). "Box Office Drops With 'Old', 'Snake Eyes', 'Black Widow' & 'Space Jam 2': But Is Delta Variant Or Dynamic Windows To Blame?". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  240. ^ McClintock, Pamela (July 25, 2021). "Box Office: 'Old' Slithers Past 'Snake Eyes' to Top Slow Weekend With $16.5M". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  241. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (August 7, 2021). "'The Suicide Squad' Takes In $12M+ On Friday, Under 'Birds Of Prey' Opening Day". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 6, 2021. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  242. ^ Komatsu, Mikikazu (July 13, 2021). "Japan Box Office: Tokyo Revengers Live-action Film Beats Godzilla vs. Kong, Black Widow". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  243. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 12, 2021). "'Black Widow' Racks Up Near $33M In Samba TV U.S. Households". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  244. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 19, 2021). "'Black Widow' 10-Day U.S. Household Viewership Rises To 2M On Disney+ Premier, Samba TV Reports". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  245. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 18, 2021). "'Black Widow' Posts Steepest 2nd Weekend B.O. Drop For Disney MCU Title; Studio Silent On PVOD Update As Piracy Impacts Pic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  246. ^ Samba TV [@samba_tv] (October 11, 2021). "1.1M US households watched #BlackWidow in its first 5 days on #DisneyPlus at no additional cost to subscribers. It became available free to stream on the platform Wednesday, October 6. 190k UK and 96k German households also watched during that same window" (Tweet). Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021 – via Twitter.
  247. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 3, 2022). "With Tentpoles Bound To Surge The 2022 Box Office, The Great Theatrical-Streaming Day & Date Experiment Goes Out Like A Dud In 2021". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  248. ^ Ortiz, Andi (January 26, 2022). "'Zack Snyder's Justice League,' 'Black Widow' Among 2021's Most Pirated Movies". TheWrap. Archived from the original on February 2, 2022.
  249. ^ "Black Widow". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  250. ^ "Black Widow (2021) Reviews". Metacritic. Fandom, Inc. Retrieved June 26, 2023.
  251. ^ a b Lash, Jolie (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' reviews praise Scarlett Johansson-Florence Pugh dynamic in superhero spy thriller". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  252. ^ The Credits (June 30, 2021). ""Black Widow" Review Roundup: An Epic Spy Thriller That Was Worth The Wait". Motion Picture Association. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  253. ^ a b Edwards, Belen (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' reviews are in: What critics have to say about Marvel's latest". Mashable. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  254. ^ a b Rooney, David (June 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson in Marvel's 'Black Widow': Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  255. ^ a b Clark, Nicole (June 29, 2021). "Marvel's Black Widow Review". IGN. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  256. ^ a b Hammond, Pete (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Review: Marvel Universe Starts Phase 4 With Action-Packed Sendoff For Scarlett Johansson's Avenger". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 5, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  257. ^ Greenblatt, Leah (June 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson's 'Black Widow' is a smart spy thriller with a family twist". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  258. ^ Tallerico, Brian (June 29, 2021). "Black Widow". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  259. ^ a b James, Caryn (June 29, 2021). "Black Widow: the least Avenger-like movie in the series". BBC. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  260. ^ Kohl, Eric (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Review: Johansson and Pugh Share Banter and Badass Fights in Solid Bourne-Meets-Marvel Romp". IndieWire. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  261. ^ Lawson, Richard (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Manages to Do What Few Marvel Movies Can". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  262. ^ Rivera, Joshua (June 29, 2021). "Black Widow isn't too little, but it is too late". Polygon. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  263. ^ Bui, Hoai-Tran (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Review: Scarlett Johansson's Long-Awaited Solo Film Is A Big Disappointment". /Film. Archived from the original on December 4, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  264. ^ Goldberg, Matt (June 29, 2021). "'Black Widow' Review: The MCU Never Did Right by Natasha Romanoff". Collider. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  265. ^ Hornaday, Ann (June 29, 2021). "Review | Marvel's Black Widow gets the spotlight she deserves, only to have it stolen from her". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on May 22, 2022. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  266. ^ Hipes, Patrick (March 1, 2022). "ReFrame Stamp Recipients Hit 28 In 2021 Including Oscar Nominees 'CODA', 'Power Of The Dog', 'West Side Story'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 9, 2022. Retrieved August 2, 2022.
  267. ^ Crist, Allison; Perez, Lexy (July 22, 2021). "Golden Trailer Awards: A Quiet Place: Part II, Black Widow Among Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  268. ^ Tuttle, Joy (August 28, 2021). "Women's Image Network Announces its 23rd Women's Image Awards Film & Television Nominees" (Press release). Hollywood, California: Women's Image Network Awards. Cision. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  269. ^ "2021 Music in Visual Media Nomination". Hollywood Music in Media Awards. November 17, 2021. Archived from the original on November 4, 2021. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  270. ^ "HPA Awards: 'Sound of Metal,' 'Black Widow' Among 2021 Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. November 18, 2021. Archived from the original on November 19, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  271. ^ Huff, Lauren; Gettell, Oliver (December 7, 2021). "2021 People's Choice Awards: See the full list of winners". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  272. ^ "Annual StLFCA Awards". St. Louis Film Critics Association. December 19, 2021. Archived from the original on January 8, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  273. ^ "2021 San Diego Film Critics Society Award Winners". San Diego Film Critics Society. January 10, 2022. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  274. ^ "2021 Awards". Georgia Film Critics Association. January 7, 2022. Archived from the original on January 9, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  275. ^ Vonder Haar, Pete (January 4, 2022). "The Power Of The Dog Is Compelling Enough To Lead The 2021 Houston Film Critics Society Nominations". Houston Press. Archived from the original on January 7, 2022. Retrieved January 9, 2022.
  276. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (February 27, 2022). "SAG Awards: Winners List". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 1, 2022. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
  277. ^ Meltzer, Lee (December 2, 2021). "Dune, Coda, and Belfast Lead the 5th Annual HCA Film Awards Nominations" (Press release). Los Angeles, California: Hollywood Critics Association. Archived from the original on December 3, 2021. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  278. ^ Hipes, Patrick (January 18, 2022). "VES Awards Nominations Led By 'Dune', 'Encanto', 'Loki'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 1, 2022. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  279. ^ Couch, Aaron (February 22, 2022). "'Spider-Man,' 'Shang-Chi' Lead Critics Choice Super Awards Film Nominations". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 30, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  280. ^ "Winners Announced for the 2nd Annual Critics Choice Super Awards". Critics' Choice Super Awards. March 17, 2022. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  281. ^ Pedersen, Erik (March 9, 2022). "Kids' Choice Awards Nominations Set; Miranda Cosgrove & Rob Gronkowski To Host Show". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 9, 2022. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  282. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (June 5, 2022). "MTV Movie & TV Awards: 'Spider-Man: No Way Home,' 'Euphoria' Top Winners List". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  283. ^ Paige, Rachel (February 16, 2021). "Marvel Studios Announces Assembled, a Behind-the-Scenes Look at the Making of the Marvel Cinematic Universe". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  284. ^ Ridgely, Charlie (September 22, 2021). "Everything Coming to Disney+ in October 2021". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2021. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
  285. ^ Fullerton, Huw (June 30, 2021). "Exclusive – Black Widow director says there could be a sequel, just not with Scarlett Johansson". Radio Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  286. ^ Panaligan, EJ (September 10, 2022). "Marvel's 'Thunderbolts' Recruits Florence Pugh, Sebastian Stan, David Harbour, Julia Louis-Dreyfus and More". Variety. Archived from the original on September 10, 2022. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  287. ^ Barnhardt, Adam (April 9, 2023). "Thunderbolts Receiving Major Rewrites Because of Black Widow (Report)". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2023. Retrieved April 10, 2023.

External links edit