COVID-19 pandemic in Bolivia

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bolivia is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Bolivia when its first two cases were confirmed on 10 March 2020 in the departments of Oruro and Santa Cruz[1][2]

COVID-19 pandemic in Bolivia
COVID-19 Outbreak in Bolivia by Confirmed Cases.svg
Map of the outbreak in Bolivia by department (as of 30 May 2020)
  5000+ confirmed cases
  1000–4999 confirmed cases
  500–999 confirmed cases
  100–499 confirmed cases
  1–99 confirmed cases
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationBolivia
First outbreakSpain, United States
Index caseOruro and Santa Cruz
Arrival date10 March 2020
(2 months and 22 days)
Confirmed cases9,592
Suspected cases900
Recovered889
Deaths
310
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

On 12 March, Bolivia suspended all public school sessions until 31 March, as well as all commercial flights to and from Europe indefinitely. They also prohibited large-scale public gatherings of more than 1,000 people.[3]

BackgroundEdit

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[4][5]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[6][7] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[8][6]

Measures taken by the governmentEdit

Before the first case was detected in Bolivia, the government announced that an Emergency Operating Committee had been formed, including officials from the World Health Organization and different ministries and specialized health organizations.[9] Measures implemented with the Pan American Health Organization included support for the implementation of detailed procedures in a guide to the surveillance of unusual respiratory incidents.[10]

The Ministry of Health set up free hotlines at 800-10-1104 and 800-10-1106 to inform people about symptoms and allow them to ask questions about the virus.[11]

On March 17, President Jeanine Áñez announced the following measures, to be in effect from March 19 to 31:

  • Closure of all borders.
  • Entry into Bolivia allowed only for Bolivian nationals and residents, who must follow protocols stipulated by the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization.
  • All international flights suspended.
  • Interdepartmental and interprovincial land transport suspended. Only merchandise can be transported.[12]

Decree 4196Edit

On March 17, the minister of the presidency, Yerko Núñez, declared a public health emergency and arranged a series of quarantine measures,[13] which would be implemented in the entire country until March 31.[14]

Supreme Decree 4196 indicates:

  • The Ministry of Labor will, exceptionally, regulate granting of special licenses to protect people with underlying diseases, older adults of age sixty or above, pregnant people, and people under five years old if their parent or guardian has a special license.
  • From midnight (00:00) on 20 March to 31 March the country's borders are closed.
  • From midnight (00:00) on 21 March international flights are suspended, as are land, river, and lake passenger transportation.
  • Effective 18 March the workday for all sectors is from 9:00 to 13:00. Markets and supermarkets are to open 8:00 to 15:00.
  • Public and private transportation is to operate 5:00 to 18:00.
  • Social sporting, religious, and other activities and gatherings are prohibited.
  • Those who violate the decree may be arrested for eight hours.

Decree 4199 – Nationwide quarantineEdit

A nationwide quarantine is in effect from 22 March at midnight (00:00) for 14 days, with the goal of slowing the spread of the virus in the country, under the following orders:[citation needed]

  • Markets and supply centers will continue to operate every morning until midday, so that one person from each family can get supplies.
  • Factories and transportation serving basic grocery needs will continue functioning normally. The banking system, pharmacies, and hospitals will continue to attend to the needs of the population.
  • People may leave their houses if they need medical attention.
  • Private and public transport is suspended. Permits will be provided to transport workers whose companies must continue working and for people who work in healthcare, water, electricity, and gas services, among others.
  • Electricity prices are reduced. It is prohibited to cut off water, gas, or internet during the quarantine. Tax and loan payments will be eased.[15]

TimelineEdit

COVID-19 cases in Bolivia  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
10-03-2020
2(n.a.)
11-03-2020
2(=)
12-03-2020
3(+50%)
13-03-2020
10(+233%)
14-03-2020
10(=)
15-03-2020
11(+10%)
16-03-2020
11(=)
17-03-2020
12(+9%)
18-03-2020
12(=)
19-03-2020
16(+33%)
20-03-2020
19(+19%)
21-03-2020
20(+5%)
22-03-2020
27(+35%)
23-03-2020
28(+4%)
24-03-2020
32(+14%)
25-03-2020
39(+22%)
26-03-2020
61(+56%)
27-03-2020
74(+21%)
28-03-2020
81(+10%)
29-03-2020
96(+19%) 3
30-03-2020
107(+12%) 6(+100%)
31-03-2020
115(+8%) 7(+8%)
01-04-2020
123(+7%) 8(+14%)
02-04-2020
132(+7%) 9(+13%)
03-04-2020
139(+5%) 10(+11%)
04-04-2020
157(+13%) 10(=)
05-04-2020
183(+17%) 11(+10%)
06-04-2020
194(+6%) 14(+27%)
07-04-2020
210(+8%) 15(+7%)
08-04-2020
264(+26%) 18(+20%)
09-04-2020
268(+2%) 19(+6%)
10-04-2020
275(+3%) 20(+5%)
11-04-2020
300(+9%) 24(+20%)
12-04-2020
330(+10%) 27(+13%)
13-04-2020
354(+7%) 28(+4%)
14-04-2020
397(+12%) 28(=)
15-04-2020
441(+11%) 29(+4%)
16-04-2020
465(+5%) 31(+7%)
17-04-2020
493(+6%) 31(=)
18-04-2020
520(+6%) 32(+3%)
19-04-2020
564(+9%) 33(+3%)
20-04-2020
598(+6%) 34(+3%)
21-04-2020
609(+2%) 37(+9%)
22-04-2020
672(+10%) 40(+8%)
23-04-2020
703(+5%) 43(+8%)
24-04-2020
807(+15%) 44(+2%)
25-04-2020
866(+7%) 46(+2%)
26-04-2020
950(+10%) 50(+9%)
27-04-2020
1014(+7%) 53(+6%)
28-04-2020
1053(+4%) 55(+4%)
29-04-2020
1110(+5%) 59(+7%)
30-04-2020
1167(+5%) 62(+5%)
01-05-2020
1229(+5%) 66(+6%)
02-05-2020
1470(+20%) 71(+8%)
03-05-2020
1594(+8%) 76(+7%)
04-05-2020
1681(+5%) 82(+9%)
05-05-2020
1802(+7%) 86(+5%)
06-05-2020
1886(+5%) 91(+6%)
07-05-2020
2081(+10%) 102(+12%)
08-05-2020
2266(+9%) 106(+4%)
09-05-2020
2437(+8%) 114(+8%)
10-05-2020
2556(+5%) 117(+3%)
11-05-2020
2831(+11%) 122(+3%)
12-05-2020
2964(+5%) 128(+5%)
13-05-2020
3148(+6%) 142(+11%)
14-05-2020
3372(+7%) 152(+7%)
15-05-2020
3577(+6%) 164(+8%)
16-05-2020
3826(+7%) 165(+1%)
17-05-2020
4088(+7%) 169(+1%)
18-05-2020
4263(+4%) 174(+3%)
19-05-2020
4481(+5%) 189(+9%)
20-05-2020
4919(+10%) 199(+5%)
21-05-2020
5187(+5%) 215(+8%)
22-05-2020
5579(+8%) 230(+7%)
23-05-2020
5915(+6%) 240(+4%)
24-05-2020
6263(+6%) 250(+4%)
25-05-2020
6660(+6%) 261(+4%)
26-05-2020
7136(+7%) 274(+5%)
27-05-2020
7768(+9%) 280(+2%)
28-05-2020
8378(+8%) 293(+5%)
29-05-2020
8731(+4%) 300(+2%)
30-05-2020
9592(+10%) 310(+3%)
31-05-2020
9982(+4%) 313(+0%)
Data sourced from boliviasegura.gob.bo.
Last updated: May 31, 2020

On 12 March, the government announced seven measures to slow the spread of the disease, including the suspension of educational activities until March 21 in schools and universities and the suspension of flights to and from Europe starting March 14.[16][17][18]

As a result of the six confirmed cases, the city of Oruro declared a 14-day quarantine beginning on 16 March.[19] The same day, the government announced that there would be criminal punishments for anyone who sabotaged healthcare, due to incidents of blocking access to healthcare centers for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients.[20] In the city of La Paz, arrests were made of people engaged in price gouging of medical products.[21]

On 14 March, Interim President Jeanine Áñez prohibited anyone coming from China, South Korea, Italy, or Spain to enter the country.[22] Starting on 18 March 2020, this will be extended to cover all of Europe, including Great Britain and Ireland, as well as Iran.[23]

On 15 March, the government announced new measures including the expansion of entry restrictions on travelers coming from the Schengen Area, in addition to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Iran.[24]

Starting March 16, the departments of Oruro, Potosí, Cochabamba, and Chuquisaca implemented measures to restrict movement, initially to last until March 31, while Tarija prohibited public trips between departments.[25]

On 17 March, President Áñez announced the closure of Bolivia's borders to all foreign nationals – effective as of 19 March. Additionally, as of 20 March, all international flights will be suspended, and domestic travel between departments and provinces will be prohibited.[26]

On 20 March, the government of Santa Cruz declared a quarantine for Porongo, starting at noon and lasting 14 days.[27] The minister of health did not rule out taking measures with greater impact in the coming days.[28]

On 21 March, the government announced a 14-day nationwide quarantine, taking effect on 22 March at midnight and ending on 5 April at midnight.[29]

On 23 March, Áñez released a statement at 13:00 local time confirming the extreme quarantine measures and requesting the support and understanding of the population. She also took the opportunity to commemorate the 141st anniversary of the loss of the Litoral Department and with it Bolivia's sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean. Áñez confirmed the government's unwavering aspiration to recover its sovereign access to the sea.[30]

On 25 March, Áñez declared a public health emergency in the country and completely locked down its borders, with nobody allowed to enter or leave except for health or safety reasons.[31] This will be in effect until 15 April.

On 1 April, Áñez announced the following measures:[32]

  • From 3 April, the 'family basket' of Bs. 400 will be paid in cash through banks to the following sectors: those who receive only dignity income but do not receive retirement or other income, the mothers who receive Juana Azurduy voucher[33] and people with disabilities.
  • In the second week of April, the 'family voucher' of Bs. 500 will be awarded for families with children in kindergarten, pre-kindergarten and primary school in fiscal schools.
  • The price of household gas will be reduced by 50%.
  • The postponement of the payment of taxes and credits is ratified, as well as the discounts in the payment of other basic services.

On 8 April, the Minister of Health, Dr. Anibal Cruz, was replaced by Dr. Marcelo Navajas Salinas, a specialist in pulmonology and with experience in public health. Áñez stated that Cruz stepped aside for personal reasons.[34]

On 8 April, Áñez announced that the 'family voucher' of Bs. 500 will be extended to high school students and confirmed the payment from April 15.[35]

On 14 April, Áñez announced the extension of nationwide quarantine until April 30. Other economic measures were also announced including the 'Universal Bonus' of Bs. 500, for people over 18 who have not benefited from any of the previous aid launched by the Government and who are not salaried.[36]

On 29 April, Áñez announced that the total quarantine will remain until May 10 and a 'dynamic' quarantine will be applied, with relaxations on least affected regions from May 11. The borders will remain closed until May 30.[37]

GraphEdit

  Total confirmed cases      Active Cases      Recoveries      Deaths

Regional distribution of casesEdit

COVID-19 pandemic in Bolivia by department ()

Department Confir Active Recov. Deaths
  Beni 1242 1157 8 77
  Chuquisaca 22 11 2 9
  Cochabamba 345 267 60 18
  La Paz 410 167 219 24
  Oruro 153 68 72 13
  Pando 13 5 7 1
  Potosí 44 23 20 1
  Santa Cruz 4888 4480 273 135
  Tarija 19 9 7 2
Total 7136 6185 677 274


Timeline of COVID-19 cases in Bolivia by department ()

Date
(2020)
Region Cases Deaths Recoveries
New Total Increase (%) New Total New Total
                 
Mar 10 1 1 2 2
Mar 11 1 1 3 +50%
Mar 13 1 6 7 10 +233%
Mar 15 1 1 11 +10%
Mar 17 1 1 12 +9%
Mar 19 1 1 1 1 4 16 +33%
Mar 20 3 3 19 +19%
Mar 21 1 1 20 +5%
Mar 22 6 1 7 27 +35%
Mar 23 1 1 28 +4%
Mar 24 2 2 4 32 +14%
Mar 25 6 1 7 39 +22%
Mar 26 10 4 7 1 22 61 +56%
Mar 27 8 4 1 13 74 +21%
Mar 28 2 2 2 1 7 81 +10%
Mar 29 8 (1) 3 (2) 4 15 96 +19% 3 3
Mar 30 7 (2) 1 (1) 2 1 11 107 +12% 3 6
Mar 31 5 (1) 2 1 8 115 +8% 1 7
Apr 1 4 (1) 1 3 8 123 +7% 1 8
Apr 2 2 3 (1) 1 1 2 9 132 +7% 1 9
Apr 3 4 1 (1) 2 7 139 +5% 1 10 1 1
Apr 4 14 3 1 18 157 +13% 1 2
Apr 5 9 9 8 (1) 26 183 +17% 1 11
Apr 6 3 5 (2) (1) 3 11 194 +6% 3 14
Apr 7 3 2 5 2 (1) 4 16 210 +8% 1 15
Apr 8 24 (3) 18 9 3 54 264 +26% 3 18
Apr 9 3 (1) 1 4 268 +2% 1 19
Apr 10 4 2 1 (1) 7 275 +3% 1 20
Apr 11 13 (1) 6 (1) 1 (2) 2 2 1 25 300 +9% 4 24
Apr 12 16 8 (2) 3 2 (1) 1 30 330 +10% 3 27
Apr 13 14 7 (1) 2 1 24 354 +7% 1 28 4 6
Apr 14 13 11 3 16 43 397 12% 1 7
Apr 15 25 (1) 10 2 7 44 441 11% 1 29 7 14
Apr 16 3 (1) 19 (1) 1 1 24 465 +5% 2 31 12 26
Apr 17 19 1 4 2 1 1 28 493 +6% 5 31
Apr 18 18 6 3 (1) 27 520 +6% 1 32
Apr 19 35 7 1 (1) 1 44 564 +9% 1 33
Apr 20 27 2 1 (1) 4 34 598 +6% 1 34 6 37
Apr 21 7 (2) (1) 3 1 11 609 +2% 3 37 7 44
Apr 22 47 (2) 3 (1) 1 10 2 63 672 +10% 3 40
Apr 23 14 (3) 10 3 3 1 31 703 +5% 3 43 10 54
Apr 24 61 31 5 (1) 4 3 104 807 +15% 1 44 9 63
Apr 25 43 (1) 6 4 (1) 1 5 59 866 +7% 2 46 12 75
Apr 26 36 (2) 18 9 7 14 (2) 84 950 +10% 4 50 6 81
Apr 27 28 (3) 5 17 13 1 64 1014 +7% 3 53 19 100
Apr 28 34 (2) 1 3 1 39 1053 +4% 2 55 10 110
Apr 29 28 (2) 4 14 1 10 (2) 57 1110 +5% 4 59 7 117
Apr 30 41 (3) 16 57 1167 +5% 3 62 15 132
May 1 37 (2) 16 (2) 3 5 1 62 1229 +5% 4 66 2 134
May 2 113 (4) 108 (1) 15 1 4 241 1470 +20% 5 71 25 159
May 3 98 (2) 21 (2) 5 (1) 124 1594 +8% 5 76 7 166
May 4 75 (4) 2 1 7 1 (1) 1 (1) 87 1681 +5% 6 82 8 174
May 5 104 (2) (1) 10 (1) 2 2 1 2 121 1802 +7% 4 86 13 187
May 6 77 (4) (1) 7 84 1886 +5% 5 91 11 198
May 7 158 (2) 19 (8) 11 2 (1) 5 195 2081 +10% 11 102 21 219
May 8 69 (1) 81 (3) 23 8 1 3 185 2266 +9% 4 106 18 237
May 9 150 (3) (4) 7 5 5 (1) 3 1 171 2437 +8% 8 114 21 258
May 10 96 (3) 2 8 9 3 1 119 2556 +5% 3 117 15 273
May 11 190 (1) 75 (2) 4 (1) 5 1 (1) 275 2831 +11% 5 122 26 299
May 12 102 (4) (1) 3 21 (1) 4 3 133 2964 +5% 6 128 14 313
May 13 116 (8) 47 (3) 3 (2) 18 (1) 184 3148 +6% 14 142 26 339
May 14 122 (4) 73 (6) 3 22 4 224 3372 +7% 10 152 17 356
May 15 134 (7) 39 (4) 6 26 (1) 205 3577 +6% 12 164 78 434
May 16 221 (1) 3 5 18 1 1 249 3826 +7% 1 165 39 473
May 17 245 (3) (1) 2 10 3 2 1 262 4088 +7% 4 169 20 493
May 18 131 (1) 30 (1) 7 (1) 4 (1) 2 1 (1) 175 4263 +4% 5 174 10 503
May 19 88 (7) 98 (6) 13 (1) 18 (1) 1 218 4481 +5% 15 189 30 533
May 20 259 (2) 154 (7) 8 13 (1) 1 2 1 438 4919 +10% 10 199 20 553
May 21 173 (10) 69 (3) 12 (1) 7 3 (2) 1 3 268 5187 +5% 16 215 8 561
May 22 251 (4) 113 (9) 6 (1) 19 2 (1) 1 392 5579 +8% 15 230 14 575
May 23 235 (6) 82 (1) 5 (1) 10 (2) 2 2 336 5915 +6% 10 240 34 609
May 24 299 (6) (4) 8 34 5 1 1 348 6263 +6% 10 250 20 629
May 25 328 (5) 45 (1) 9 10 (5) 1 2 1 1 397 6660 +6% 11 261 18 647
May 26 361 (7) 100 (5) 7 6 2 (1) 476 7136 +7% 13 263 30 677
Total 4888 1242 410 345 152 44 22 19 13 7136 263 677
Note: (bracketed numbers) denote deaths in each department on one day.

Source: Data sourced from https://www.boliviasegura.gob.bo/. Last updated: May 26, 2020



OruroEdit

A sixty-five-year-old woman in Oruro was one of the first patients known to be infected with the coronavirus. Six other infected patients in Oruro and one in Cochabamba, as confirmed through tests by 12 March, were in contact with her.[38] This was the first known instance of local transmission in Bolivia. The city and department began mandatory social distancing measures on 16 March. A further 65 contacts and family members of those were infected were confined to their homes, but showed no symptoms of the disease.[39] As of 25 March, the first Oruro patient was no longer showing symptoms and had test negative for the disease twice; doctors expect her to be declared Bolivia's first recovered COVID-19 patient.[40]

PotosíEdit

The first case to be tested positive in Potosí was announced on 25 March. Regional health authorities that this patient is a 69-year-old woman. She was infected by her son, a transport driver who had recently been in Chile. The driver had not disclosed his symptoms and was, according to the health authorities, treated privately by family members who are physicians.[41]

Impacts and incidentsEdit

Following the announcement of the first confirmed case, incidents were reported among the local population, including large-scale purchasing of surgical masks[42][43] and hand sanitizer and blocking access to hospitals,[44].On 19 March a patient under observation who was required to stay in isolation tried to escape but was caught when he tried to take a trip between departments.[45] Operations were suspended at San Cristóbal mine.[46]

Government corruptionEdit

Bolivia's health minister Marcelo Navajas has been arrested on suspicion of corruption related to the over-priced purchase of ventilators to fight COVID-19.[47][48] Bolivia bought 179 ventilators from a Spanish manufacturer for $27,683 each, costing almost $5 million. It later transpired that the manufacturer was offering ventilators for 9,500-11,000 euros each ($10,312-$11,941).[47]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ @MinSaludBolivia (10 March 2020). "#ULTIMO" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  2. ^ "Confirman los dos primeros casos de coronavirus en Bolivia". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 10 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Gobierno suspende clases hasta el 31 de marzo y todos los vuelos europeos desde el sábado". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  4. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  5. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  7. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  8. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Ministerio de Salud conforma comité intersectorial para detectar posibles casos sospechosos de coronavirus" (in Spanish).
  10. ^ "OPS apoya a Bolivia en su preparación de la respuesta al coronavirus" (in Spanish).
  11. ^ "Gobierno habilita línea gratuita 800-10-1104 para consultas sobre el coronavirus" (in Spanish).
  12. ^ "Coronavirus: Bolivia cierra fronteras, restringe transporte terrestre, suspende vuelos y reduce jornada laboral" (in Spanish).
  13. ^ "Coronavirus en Bolivia: 15 casos, cuarentena parcial y reducción de la jornada laboral". Clarín (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Gobierno presenta D.S 4196 de emergencia sanitaria y cuarentena Nacional".
  15. ^ "La presidenta Jeanine Áñez confirma cuarentena en el país desde el domingo" (in Spanish).
  16. ^ "Bolivia suspende clases y vuelos desde y hacia Europa por coronavirus" (in Spanish). 12 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Gobierno determina suspensión de clases, y vuelos desde y hacia Europa". Página Siete (in Spanish). 12 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  18. ^ "Áñez suspende clases en todo el país y cierra el espacio aéreo a vuelos de Europa". Opinión (in Spanish). 12 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Coronavirus: declaran cuarentena de 14 días en la ciudad de Oruro". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Gobierno boliviano aplicará el "peso" de la ley a quienes saboteen la atención sanitaria" (in Spanish).
  21. ^ "Dos comerciantes de La Paz serán sentenciados por agio de insumos de higiene" (in Spanish).
  22. ^ @JeanineAnez (14 March 2020). "He ordenado que se prohíba la entrada a Bolivia de pasajeros procedentes de China, Corea, Italia y España. Esta decisión es parte del paquete de medidas firmes con las cuales luchamos contra el virus para proteger la salud de la gente" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  23. ^ "Áñez lanza horario continuo y más prohibiciones para frenar Covid-19". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  24. ^ "Coronavirus: Bolivia prohibió reuniones de más de 100 personas y los vuelos desde Europa e Irán". Infobae (in Spanish). 15 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  25. ^ "Cinco regiones se aíslan del virus y el Gobierno hace esperar sus medidas" (in Spanish).
  26. ^ "Bolivia cierra fronteras, suspende vuelos y limita el transporte terrestre por el coronavirus". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Porongo entra en cuarentena por 14 días" (in Spanish).
  28. ^ "Bolivia podría tomar medidas de mayor impacto por "alta probabilidad" de transmisión comunitaria del Covid-19" (in Spanish).
  29. ^ "Gobierno dispone cuarentena total por el Covid-19 en Bolivia". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  30. ^ "En el dia del mar Añez, perfila estrategia de diálogo, con firmeza para volver al Pacífico". La razón (La Paz, Bolivia) (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Bolivia decreta estado de emergencia sanitaria y cierre total de fronteras por el Covid-19". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Los 11 puntos centrales del anuncio de la presidenta Jeanine Áñez este martes | EL DEBER". eldeber.com.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  33. ^ "Áñez anuncia que "canasta familiar" será de Bs 400 y se pagará desde el viernes". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 31 March 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  34. ^ "President appoints new minister of health". www.presidencia.gob.bo (in Spanish). 8 April 2020.
  35. ^ "Añez amplía el Bono Familia a estudiantes de secundaria y confirma pago desde el 15". La Razón | Noticias de Bolivia y el Mundo. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  36. ^ "Bolivia amplía la cuarentena hasta el 30 de abril | EL DEBER". eldeber.com.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  37. ^ "Gobierno decide mantener la cuarentena total hasta el 10 de mayo y flexibilizarla regionalmente desde el día 11 | EL DEBER". eldeber.com.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  38. ^ Ortiz Duran, Deisy; Mendieta, Leyla. "Los casos de coronavirus suben a 10 y confirman transmisión local". El Deber (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Sedes de Oruro: Encapsulamos casos positivos para frenar el contagio". eju.tv (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  40. ^ Cambara Ferrufino, Cesar (25 March 2020). "Segunda prueba a paciente cero resulta negativa; se alista su alta médica". El Deber (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Potosí: "Paciente cero" es un transportista que ocultó sus síntomas". Opinión Bolivia (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  42. ^ Cambara Ferrufino, Pablo Cesar (13 March 2020). "No todas las personas deben usar barbijos, sepa cuándo y cómo utilizarlos". El Deber. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  43. ^ Cabrera, Ulises (17 March 2020). "Ministro dice que barbijos de tela no sirven, pero ambulantes los comercializan" (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Suspenden bloqueo en la ruta a Warnes por la apertura de un centro de atención para pacientes con coronavirus". El Deber (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  45. ^ Alanoca Paco, Jesus Reynaldo (19 March 2020). "Procesarán a sospechoso de coronavirus que huyó cuando debía estar en cuarentena". El Deber (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  46. ^ "Sumitomo halts mines in Bolivia, Madagascar". 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  47. ^ a b "Bolivia health minister arrested for corruption over ventilators". The Telegraph. 20 May 2020.
  48. ^ "Bolivia's health minister has been arrested on corruption charges for overspending millions on ventilators that don't even work right". Business Insider. 21 May 2020.