Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on prisons

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted prisons globally. There have been outbreaks of COVID-19 reported in prisons and jails around the world, with the housing density and population turnover of many prisons contributing to an increased risk of contracting the virus compared to the general population.[1] Prison crowding and lack of sanitation measures contribute to the risk of contracting diseases in prisons and jails. As a mitigation measure, several jurisdictions have released prisoners to reduce density and attempt to reduce the spread of the illness. There have also been protests among prisoners and prison breaks in multiple countries in response to prisoner anger over their risk of contracting illness in prison conditions.

For total number of prisoners infected around the world, visit the live global map of reported cases of prisoners testing positive across the world by Justice Project Pakistan and Prison Insider.

AfghanistanEdit

The Afghan government released 10,000 prisoners on March 26, 2020. They were mostly women, young people, the critically ill, and inmates over 55 years of age.[2]

AustraliaEdit

On March 16, the Australian government declared a public health emergency.[3] It has also planned to cancel all visits to the Alexander Maconochie prison starting on March 23. ACT Corrective Services commissioner Jon Peach stated that as a result there would be "increased access to telephones" for prisoners to keep in touch with their families.[4]

BrazilEdit

Hundreds of prisoners (who work outside the prison during the day) escaped from four prisons in São Paulo state after visitors were restricted and Easter furloughs were cancelled due to health concerns.[5]

ChinaEdit

The virus spread in at least four prisons in China.[6]

ColombiaEdit

On March 22, 23 prisoners were killed and 83 injured during a prison riot in La Modelo in Bogota, which erupted over fears over the spreading of COVID-19 through prison walls.[7][8] Prisoners across the country have been protesting against the poor health services ever since the outbreak of COVID-19.[9]

The government is planning to release about 10,000 prisoners on the weekend of 4–5 April 2020. The release will not apply to individuals who have been convicted of sexual offenses against minors, corruption, or crimes against humanity.[10]

Czech RepublicEdit

Due to the coronavirus, on March 13, the Czech government passed Resolution No. 204/2020 Coll which banned family members from visiting relatives in prisons and jails. Defense attorneys are exempted from the bans.[11]

El SalvadorEdit

Following an outbreak of alleged gang violence in late April that killed 77 people, President Nayib Bukele imposed a lockdown on imprisoned gang members from 26 April.[12] As part of the crackdown, gang members have been confined in crowded cells for 23 hours a day; cells we barricaded with plywood and metal sheets to block sunlight; mobile and wifi signals were blocked, and rival gang members were mixed together.[13][14][15] Human Rights Watch Americas director José Miguel Vivanco has condemned the treatment of prisoners as humiliating, degrading and a threat to health amidst the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.[14]

EthiopiaEdit

On March 25, 4,011 prisoners were granted a pardon by the Ethiopian President Sahle-Work Zewde in an effort to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This pardon only applied to prisoners convicted of minor crimes who were serving sentences of up to three years, and those who were about to be released.[16][17]

FranceEdit

On March 16, a detainee died in the Fresnes prison.[18] On March 22, a mutiny erupted in the Uzerche Detention Center, where 250 inmates had to be evacuated because their cells were unusable.[19]

IranEdit

On March 3, more than 54,000 prisoners were released temporarily to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[20]

Prisoners rioted in southern Iran on March 30. Since the beginning of the year, riots have broken out in prisons in Aligudarz, Hamedan, and Tabriz, with some prisoners escaping. On March 27, 70 inmates escaped Saqqez Prison in the Kurdistan province. 100,000 prisoners have been released as a measure to contain the pandemic, but an estimated 50,000 people remain in prison, including violent offenders, dual nationals and others with Western ties.[21]

ItalyEdit

An investigation was opened after six convicts died in the Sant'Anna prison of Modena from overdoses. Other events that prompted the investigation included riots in San Vittore prison and in the La Dogaia prison in Prato.

Eighty detainees escaped from Foggia's prison amid the chaos in prisons sparked by the government’s new restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[22]

JapanEdit

The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) decided that only lawyers are allowed to visit prisoners in prisons and detention houses in seven prefectures (Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka, Hyogo and Fukuoka), which are issued emergency declaration initially, from April 8 to May 6.[23] MOJ explained that the legal basis of the measure is the National Property Act (国有財産法, Kokuyū Zaisan Hō).[23] The Act on Penal Detention Facilities and the Treatment of Inmates and Detainees (刑事収容施設及び被収容者等の処遇に関する法律, Keiji Shūyō-shisetsu oyobi Hisyūyōsha-to no Shogū ni Kansuru Hōristu) does not have provisions for visiting restriction purpose of not spreading infectious diseases, therefore some lawyers criticized this decision.[23] On April 20, MOJ extended this measure to prisons and detention houses in six prefectures (Hokkaido, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Gifu, Aichi and Kyoto), which are designated as special alert prefectures (特定警戒都道府県, tokutei keikai todōfuken) from April 20 to May 6.[24] On April 27, immigration centers (入国者収容所), facility that accommodates foreigners have been pronounced deportation, are also subject of visiting restriction.[25]

The first case in Japan's penal detention facilities was detected at Osaka Detention House.[26] As of April 28, there were 8 officers of Osaka Detention House, 1 officer of Tsukigata Prison [ja], and 1 defendant of Tokyo Detention House confirmed cases of COVID-19.[27]

MexicoEdit

A riot in a migrant detention center in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico, left a Guatemalan man dead and four people injured on March 31. The detainees were concerned about a possible COVID-19 outbreak.[28]

Mexico City began to sanitize its 13 penitentiaries and four detention centers on April 4. The number of visitors allowed was cut in half. Staff, providers, and inmates were to be tested for COVID-19. The inmates were to be given measles shots as the city is also experiencing an outbreak of measles as of April 2020.[29]

PakistanEdit

The first case in Pakistan's prisons was detected on March 24 in Camp Jail, Lahore.[30] By April 14, 59 more cases were reported in the same jail, along with 14 in Sialkot Jail, seven in Gujranwala and nine in DG Khan Jail, taking Punjab province's total to 89.[31] One case in Quetta district jail was reported on April 6.[32] There has been a discrepancy in the numbers provided by different authorities in Punjab, but according to the highest figures collated by Justice Project Pakistan, the country has more than 100 cases in prisons, as of April 13.

SomalilandEdit

President Muse Bihi Abdi pardoned 574 prisoners and ordered them released to control the spread of the virus.[33]

SyriaEdit

ISIL militants in the Hassakeh province in eastern Syria rioted, and four escaped from prison. While there are no reports of coronavirus infections in prisons in this area, there are concerns about a possible outbreak in overcrowded facilities.[34]

ThailandEdit

A riot started at the prison in the Buriram Province in northeastern Thailand on March 29 when a false rumor about a coronavirus infection spread as a cover-up for an escape attempt. Seven of the 2,100 prisoners escaped but were recaptured. Two prisoners at a different facility in the country have been diagnosed with Covid-19, and families have been banned from visiting prisons in the country for 14 days.[35]

TurkeyEdit

On March 13, Minister of Justice Abdulhamit Gül announced that meetings in all open and closed prisons, the use of family meeting rooms, and transfers between prisons were all delayed for two weeks.[36]

On March 20, the Human Rights Association, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, the Association of Lawyers for Liberty, the Contemporary Lawyers Association, and the Health and Social Service Workers Union of Civil Society in the Penal System, published a statement on the COVID-19 outbreak and urged immediate action in prisons. In their article, they emphasized the importance of informing the public, especially family and prisoners' lawyers, about quarantine practices and the health status of prisoners.[37]

The Turkish parliament passed a law to free tens of thousands of prisoners on April 14. Human rights organizations criticized the law because it did not include individuals convicted under anti-terrorism laws, journalists, politicians, and lawyers in pre-trial detention.[38]

United KingdomEdit

The government released specific guidance to prisons in the event of COVID-19 symptoms or cases, specifically the rule that states "any prisoner or detainee with a new, continuous cough or a high temperature should be placed in protective isolation for 7 days".[39]

On March 18, the first coronavirus case was reported in a UK prison. The prisoner, who had been serving time in HMP Manchester (commonly referred to as Strangeways), was moved to a hospital. While no other prisoners or staff tested positive for the virus, thirteen prisoners and four members of staff were put into isolation as a precaution.[40] Prison visits remained open, but the situation is being monitored.[41]

On March 19, it was revealed that around 75 officers at HMP Berwyn in Wales were off work due to sickness or self-isolation, and 22 prisoners showing symptoms of coronavirus were being isolated by the prison. However, the prison had enough staff members to remain fully operational.[42]

Following the case in HMP Manchester, public services think tank Reform called for the release of 2,305 "low-risk" offenders on short sentences to reduce the risk of coronavirus within the prison population.[43] Their report argued that prison are "overcrowded [with] insanitary conditions and poor-quality healthcare".[44] Similar actions have been taken in Iran and the United States.[45]

On March 21, former justice secretary David Gauke called for the suspension of short sentences and early release of some prisoners to avoid the spread of COVID-19.[46]

United StatesEdit

 
April 24, 2020: Protest event in Columbus, Ohio calling for 20,000 early prison releases

On any given day, 2.3 million people are incarcerated in 6,000 facilities in the United States, presenting officials with the difficult task of preventing coronavirus outbreaks among prisoners and staff.[47] Prisoners often sleep close together. Many prisons have poor sanitation, and alcohol-based hand sanitizer is often prohibited for inmates.[48][49]

The vast majority of these prisoners are in state or local custody. State governors usually have the power to choose to release prisoners, but generally they do not do so, a trend that has not changed even given the COVID-19 crisis. For example, in response to the pandemic, California and Kentucky released less than four percent of their prisoners, while Arizona stated that it would release none.[47]

The remaining minority of prisoners are in federal custody.

Between March 22 and March 26, 23 inmates escaped and at least one inmate tested positive for COVID-19 in each of two prisons. Judges ordered the liberation of thousands of prison inmates, and there are calls to release all medically vulnerable inmates.[50]

As of April 8, there were at least 1,300 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 32 deaths in prisons and jails across the United States.[51]

Federal correctional systemEdit

Attorney General William Barr announced on March 26, 2020, that he had instructed federal prisons to free some inmates to lessen the impact of the coronavirus epidemic. This order favors inmates over 60 who have not been convicted of violent or sex crimes. This applies to about 2,000 of the 170,000 inmates in the federal correctional system. At the time of Barr's announcement, there had been about a dozen cases of COVID-19 among federal prisoners and staff.[52] A high-profile release was Paul Manafort, the former campaign chairman of President Trump, who, at age 71, left a federal prison in Pennsylvania to serve the rest of his sentence in home confinement due to coronavirus concerns.[53]

Patrick Jones, a 49-year old inmate at a minimum-security prison in Oakdale, Louisiana, became the first fatality of Covid-19 in a federal prison on March 28. Five other inmates were infected.[54] The federal Bureau of Prisons is locking all its 146,000 inmates in their cells from April 1 to 14. COVID-19 is so common at Federal Correctional Complex, Oakdale in Louisiana that authorities stopped testing for it and instead assume that anyone with symptoms is infected with it.[55]

Immigration facilitiesEdit

Detainees at several U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities went on strike to demand sanitary supplies.[56] Federal judges in California and Pennsylvania have ordered ICE to release several detainees who have sued. Lawsuits are pending in Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Washington state. As of April 2, there were 35,000 people in ICE custody.[57]

Twenty-seven migrant children held by the Office of Refugee Resettlement have tested positive for COVID-19 as of April 13. Six have recovered; three are in isolation in Texas and Illinois.[58]

ArizonaEdit

On March 21, it was reported that 50 inmates had been released in Coconino County to reduce coronavirus risks. In Pima County, the sheriff proposed measures to reduce the inmate population, such as releasing 135 people jailed for probation violations or relocating some prisoners to state prisons.[59]

CaliforniaEdit

  • Alameda County: On March 20, Alameda County officials announced that 247 people would be released from Santa Rita Jail, located in Dublin.[60]
  • Los Angeles County: On March 17, the county Sheriff's Department announced that it had reduced the inmate population by 600 during the previous two weeks in an attempt to keep prisoners from being infected by coronavirus.[61]
  • San Diego County: On March 16, the Sheriff's Department said it had started reducing the number of people being accepted into the county's seven jails and had received approval for early release of some prisoners. Other measures included in-cell meals, a suspension of visitation, and suspension of jail programs.[62]
  • Santa Barbara County: As of April 17, the county jail had released 324 prisoners. The Sheriff announced on a Friday night that one inmate has tested positive for COVID-19.[63]

GeorgiaEdit

The Georgia Department of Corrections (DOC) suspended visitations and announced additional sanitation measures, but The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported that inmates had seen no extra soap.[64] A prison worker was confirmed to have COVID-19 on March 18—the DOC, citing "security and HIPAA restrictions", declined to name the affected prison. The first detected case of COVID-19 in a prison inmate was at Lee State Prison two days later, on March 20.[65]

On March 21, CNN reported that three inmates tested positive for COVID-19 at Lee State Prison in Leesburg. Three other prisoners were under observation with similar symptoms.[66]

IllinoisEdit

Testing for COVID-19 revealed the first case of infection on March 22 in Cook County Jail, Chicago. 10% of the 5,000 inmates were released as a cautionary measure, but the number of infections had risen to 134 by March 30. Fifteen inmates and eleven staff have tested positive at other facilities in the state, with at least 80 waiting for test results. One prisoner died on March 30 at Stateville Correctional Center in Crest Hill, Illinois.[67]

LouisianaEdit

As of April 9, six out of nine deaths among prisoners in federal prisons in the United States had occurred within a single prison at Oakdale, Louisiana.[68]

Twenty-seven youths aged 13 to 20, and 14 staff have tested positive in Louisiana's four secure juvenile detention facilities—the Bridge City Center near New Orleans, the Acadiana Center for Youth in Bunkie, the Swanson Center for Youth in Columbia, and the Swanson Center for Youth in Monroe. Children are confined to their rooms, they do not get schooling or visits from case managers or clergy.[69]

MassachusettsEdit

The first prison case of COVID-19 in Massachusetts was reported on March 21 at Massachusetts Treatment Center. The prisoner and his roommate were placed in quarantine on March 19.[70] As of March 31, 17 prisoners had tested positive at the Massachusetts Treatment Center as well as six Department of Correction staff—four at the treatment center, one at MCI-Shirley, and one at the Department of Correction central office. Two prisoners have tested positive at the Middlesex Jail and House of Correction in Billerica, as have 14 employees in the state's county jail systems.[71]

MichiganEdit

The Michigan Department of Corrections banned visitors to prisons, along with prohibiting any volunteers from working in them. Staff at prisons will be required to have their temperatures taken and them to be under 100.4 °F (38.0 °C) along with other measures.[72] The Michigan Career and Technical Institute suspended all programs until April 5.[73]

New JerseyEdit

On March 24, a 31-year-old male Mexican national in custody by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in Hackensack, New Jersey, was held in isolation after being tested positive for Covid-19. He was the first migrant to test positive, and ICE suspended the intake of new migrants.[74]

New YorkEdit

After a guard and a prisoner tested positive for coronavirus at the Rikers Island prison, New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio stated that city officials will identify individuals for release, including persons arrested for minor crimes and those most vulnerable to infection due to chronic health problems. In addition to the cases at Rikers, other prisons in the state, including Sing Sing, have recorded positive tests among prisoners, and one member of the correction's department has died from the virus.[61] Rikers Island released 51 non-criminals with underlying conditions on April 14.[75]

As of March 25, 75 New York City inmates had tested positive for Covid-19 and 37 city corrections staff members, up from 50 inmates and 30 staffers the previous day.[50]

OhioEdit

 
Protestor at an April 24 event with a sign referencing the Marion County prison

On April 8, the National Guard arrived at Elkton Federal Prison in Columbiana County to assist the medical staff when a large number of prisoners became ill with the virus.[76] On April 18, the National Guard and Highway Patrol arrived at the state prison in Marion county to assist with "mission critical functions" after infections of correctional workers and prisoners.[77] By April 19, over 1800 prisoners at Marion Correctional Institution, approximately 3/4ths of the population, plus 100 staff had tested positive.[78] Overall, the prison system had almost 2500 cases by April 19, representing almost a fifth of Ohio's cases.[78]

On April 22, the Marion County prison was first-ranked as the hot-spot for the virus in the country, followed by the Pickaway Correctional Institution. Marion County was first in cases per capita in the nation, while Pickaway County was fourth.[79] The Ohio prison system is designed to hold about 35,000 inmates, but held about 49,000 in April 2020.[80]

On April 22, federal judge James S. Gwin ordered the Elkton prison to identify vulnerable inmates and transfer them from the facility. He also ordered officials to "evaluate each subclass member’s eligibility for transfer out of Elkton through any means, including but not limited to compassionate release, parole or community supervision, transfer furlough or non-transfer furlough within two weeks". He noted, "with the shockingly limited available testing and the inability to distance inmates, COVID-19 is going to continue to spread, not only among the inmate population, but also among the staff". He condemned the Federal Department of Corrections, asking: "Why has the Justice Department allocated Elkton an entirely insignificant number of tests while Ohio has been able to pull off mass testing across not only Marion, but at multiple institutions?"[81]

PennsylvaniaEdit

Due to ongoing public health concerns related to the coronavirus, on March 13, the Eastern State Penitentiary (a historic site which stopped operating as a prison in 1971) was closed to the public.[82]

South DakotaEdit

Nine prisoners escaped from a minimum-security women's prison on March 23, the same day a fellow inmate tested positive for COVID-19-19. Three were captured on the Crow Creek Indian Reservation and one was captured in Rapid City. It was not immediately clear if the diagnosis prompted the prisoners to escape.[83]

WashingtonEdit

Fourteen inmates escaped from the county jail in Yakima County on March 23. They used a table to break down an exit door and then climbed a fence. The U.S. Marshals Service offered rewards of up to $1,000 for information leading to the arrests of these escaped inmates.[83]

WisconsinEdit

The first COVID-19 positive case in the Wisconsin state prison system, an employee at Waupun Correctional Institution, was reported on March 18 by warden Brian Foster. Inmate advocacy groups called on the Department of Corrections and Governor Tony Evers to change prison policies to protect prisoners and guards during the epidemic.[84]

VenezuelaEdit

Reuters reported that Venezuela's notoriously overcrowded and unsanitary prisons could spread the coronavirus "like a fast-moving fire." Venezuelan prisons frequently lack bathrooms, people sleep on floors, and many inmates spend their days without shirts or shoes on, in part to combat the heat of windowless facilities.[85]

This has caused US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to demand the Maduro government release six Citgo executives, held in prison since 2017, on humanitarian grounds.[86][87] Pompeo said that all six men have weakened immune systems and "face a grave health risk if they become infected" with COVID-19.[87] The Venezuelan Medical Federation asked for the release of political prisoners in the country, specifically Roberto Marrero, Juan Requesens and other lawmakers.[88]

On March 18, 84 out of 518 inmates escaped from a prison in San Carlos, Zulia, after restrictions against the pandemic were announced, including jail visits. Mayor Bladimir Labrador declared that ten prisoners were killed during the prison break and that two policemen were detained for complicity. According to Carlos Nieto Palma from the NGO Ventana a la Libertad, the suspension of visits directly affects the prisoner's nutrition, given that there was no state-sponsored program to feed them.[89] The NGO Provea denounced "grave human rights violations" after a military spokesperson announced the "neutralization" of 35 escapees. State authorities later declared that the there were eight deaths.[90]

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