COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan

The COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Afghanistan when its index case, in Herat, was confirmed on 24 February 2020.[2]

COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan
Afghanistan 2020 COVID-19 Map (Allio-19).png
Number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 by Province of Afghanistan as of 24 December 2020.[needs update]
  Confirmed cases 1–199
  Confirmed cases 200–499
  Confirmed cases 500–999
  Confirmed cases 1000–4999
  Confirmed cases ≥5000
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationAfghanistan
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseHerat
Arrival date24 February 2020
(2 years, 7 months and 1 day)
Confirmed cases198,244[1]
Recovered118,180 (as of 13 September 2021)
Deaths
7,796[1]
Government website
moph.gov.af/en/covid-19-pandemic

As of 25 September 2022, there have been 198,244[1] confirmed positive cases and 7,796[1] deaths. As of 13 September 2021, there have been 118,180 recoveries.[3] Kabul Province has the highest number of COVID-19 cases in Afghanistan at 18,896, followed by Herat with 9,343 cases, and then Balkh with 3,431.[4] However, on 5 August 2020, an official survey from the Ministry of Public Health reported that approximately a third of the country's population, or roughly 10 million people had contracted COVID-19.[5][6]

BackgroundEdit

OriginsEdit

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[7][8] The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[9][10] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[11][9] Model-based simulations for Afghanistan indicate that the 95% confidence interval for the time-varying reproduction number R t was below 1.0 and falling from November 2020 to February 2021.[12]

Mass returnees from Iran and PakistanEdit

In March 2020, at least 150,000 Afghans returned from Iran, due to the outbreak across the country, at the Islam Qala border in Herat Province. As many as over 1000 people a day crossed the border during the month. Between March and April 2020, the number of cases surged in Herat Province to over 200 cases.[13][14][15][16][17] At the Chaman and Torkham borders, over 60,000 Afghans returned from Pakistan in three days.[18]

TimelineEdit

COVID-19 cases in Afghanistan  ()
     Deaths        Active cases
Date
# of deaths
2020-02-24
2020-03-07
2020-03-11
2020-03-14
2020-03-15
2020-03-16
2020-03-17
2020-03-22
2020-03-23
2020-03-24
2020-03-25
2020-03-26
2020-03-27
2020-03-28
2020-03-29
2020-03-30
2020-03-31
2020-04-01
2020-04-02
2020-04-03
2020-04-04
2020-04-05
2020-04-06
2020-04-07
2020-04-08
2020-04-09
2020-04-10
2020-04-11
2020-04-12
2020-04-13
2020-04-14
2020-04-15
2020-04-16
2020-04-17
2020-04-18
2020-04-19
2020-04-20
2020-04-21
2020-04-22
2020-04-23
2020-04-24
2020-04-25
2020-04-26
2020-04-27
2020-04-28
2020-04-29
2020-04-30
2020-05-01
2020-05-02
2020-05-03
2020-05-04
2020-05-05
2020-05-06
2020-05-07
2020-05-08
2020-05-09
2020-05-10
2020-05-11
2020-05-12
2020-05-13
2020-05-14
2020-05-15
2020-05-16
2020-05-17
2020-05-18
2020-05-19
2020-05-20
2020-05-21
2020-05-22
2020-05-23
2020-05-24
2020-05-25
2020-05-26
2020-05-27
2020-05-28
2020-05-29
2020-05-30
2020-05-31
2020-06-01
2020-06-02
2020-06-03
2020-06-04
2020-06-05
2020-06-06
2020-06-07
2020-06-08
2020-06-09
2020-06-10
2020-06-11
2020-06-12
2020-06-13
2020-06-14
2020-06-15
2020-06-16
2020-06-17
2020-06-18
2020-06-19
2020-06-20
2020-06-21
2020-06-22
2020-06-23
2020-06-24
2020-06-25
2020-06-26
2020-06-27
2020-06-28
2020-06-29
2020-06-30
2020-07-01
2020-07-02
2020-07-03
2020-07-04
2020-07-05
2020-07-06
2020-07-07
2020-07-08
2020-07-09
2020-07-10
2020-07-11
2020-07-12
2020-07-13
2020-07-14
2020-07-15
2020-07-16
2020-07-17
2020-07-18
2020-07-19
2020-07-20
2020-07-21
2020-07-22
2020-07-23
2020-07-24
2020-07-25
2020-07-26
2020-07-27
2020-07-28
2020-07-29
2020-07-30
2020-07-31
2020-08-01
2020-08-02
2020-08-03
2020-08-04
2020-08-05
2020-08-06
2020-08-07
2020-08-08
2020-08-09
2020-08-10
2020-08-11
2020-08-12
2020-08-13
2020-08-14
2020-08-15
2020-08-16
2020-08-17
2020-08-18
2020-08-19
2020-08-20
2020-08-21
2020-08-22
2020-08-23
2020-08-24
2020-08-25
2020-08-26
2020-08-27
2020-08-28
2020-08-29
2020-08-30
2020-08-31
2020-09-01
2020-09-02
2020-09-03
2020-09-04
2020-09-05
2020-09-06
2020-09-07
2020-09-08
2020-09-09
2020-09-10
2020-09-11
2020-09-12
2020-09-13
2020-09-14
2020-09-15
2020-09-16
2020-09-17
2020-09-18
2020-09-19
2020-09-20
2020-09-21
2020-09-22
2020-09-23
2020-09-24
2020-09-25
2020-09-26
2020-09-27
2020-09-28
2020-09-29
2020-09-30
2020-10-01
2020-10-02
2020-10-03
2020-10-04
2020-10-05
2020-10-06
2020-10-07
2020-10-08
2020-10-09
2020-10-10
2020-10-11
2020-10-12
2020-10-13
2020-10-14
2020-10-15
2020-10-16
2020-10-17
2020-10-18
2020-10-19
2020-10-20
2020-10-21
2020-10-22
2020-10-23
2020-10-24
2020-10-25
2020-10-26
2020-10-27
2020-10-28
2020-10-29
2020-10-30
2020-10-31
2020-11-01
2020-11-02
2020-11-03
2020-11-04
2020-11-05
2020-11-06
2020-11-07
2020-11-08
2020-11-09
2020-11-10
2020-11-11
2020-11-12
2020-11-13
2020-11-14
2020-11-15
2020-11-16
2020-11-17
2020-11-18
2020-11-19
2020-11-20
2020-11-21
2020-11-22
2020-11-23
2020-11-24
2020-11-25
2020-11-26
2020-11-27
2020-11-28
2020-11-29
2020-11-30
2020-12-01
2020-12-02
2020-12-03
2020-12-04
2020-12-05
2020-12-06
2020-12-07
2020-12-08
2020-12-09
2020-12-10
2020-12-11
2020-12-12
2020-12-13
2020-12-14
2020-12-15
2020-12-16
2020-12-17
2020-12-18
2020-12-19
2020-12-20
2020-12-21
2020-12-22
2020-12-23
2020-12-24
2020-12-25
2020-12-26
2020-12-27
2020-12-28
2020-12-29
2020-12-30
2020-12-31
Cases: The number of non-repatriated cases reported by the Government
Sources: Various news sources and state health department websites. See Timeline Table and Timeline narrative for sources.

February 2020Edit

On 23 February, at least three citizens of Herat who had recently returned from Qom, Iran were suspected of COVID-19 infection. Blood samples were sent to Kabul for further testing.[19] On 24 February, Afghanistan confirmed the first COVID-19 case involving one of the three people from Herat, a 35-year-old man.[20]

March 2020Edit

1 to 14 March – Early spreadEdit

On 7 March, three new cases were confirmed in Herat Province, raising the total number of positive cases in Afghanistan to four.[21]

On 10 March, the first case was reported outside of Herat province, in Samangan Province, meaning that there was a total of five cases in Afghanistan.[22] This count later rose to seven in the evening.[23]

On 14 March, the tenth positive case was confirmed. The Ministry of Public Health announced that Balkh Province and Kapisa Province had their first cases. Samangan also had their third positive case of coronavirus infection.[24] The eleventh case was also announced that day.[25] The patient from Balkh Province had fled after testing positive.[25]

On 14 March, the first recovery from the coronavirus in Afghanistan was recorded as a patient in Herat, who was also the first positive case.[26]

15 to 24 March – First deathEdit

Five new cases were reported on 15 March, including the first case in Daykundi Province.[27]

On 16 March, five new positive cases were identified, meaning that the total number of cases rose to 21.[28] 38 patients, including one positive patient, escaped from quarantine in Herat Province, but were quarantined upon return.[29] Also on that day, the Taliban announced that they had arrested the runaway patient from Balkh Province and had handed him back to health authorities.[28]

On 17 March, there were 22 total cases confirmed.[30] Also on that day, seven patients that escaped from Herat Hospital were returned.[31] By 19 March, two new positive cases were confirmed for the first time in Badghis and Logar provinces.[32]

On 22 March, 10 new cases were reported out of 97 tests, resulting in a total of 34 positive cases. New cases were reported in Ghazni, Kandahar and Zabul provinces. The two new cases in Kabul Province were both foreign diplomats.[33] The first possible fatality of COVID-19 in Afghanistan was also announced on 22 March, a man who had visited a hospital in Herat because he had heart disease, but who had also shown signs of COVID-19.[34]

On 22 March, Khalilullah Hekmati, head of Balkh's public health directorate, announced the first official death of an Afghan due to COVID-19, a man who died in Chimtal District, in Balkh Province.[35][36] By the end of the day, the number of cases increased to 40, after six new cases were reported. These included the first two cases in Farah Province and the first case in Ghor Province. Three new cases were also reported in Herat. 18 new cases in one day marked the biggest increase of positive cases in a single day at the time.[37][38] On 23 March, two new cases were reported in the provinces of Logar and Samangan.[39] On 24 March, 32 new cases were reported, making the total number of cases 74.[40] All of the new cases were reported in Herat.[41]

25 to 31 March – OutbreakEdit

On 25 March, five new positive cases were reported, as well as the second death in the country. The total climbed up to 79.[42] The figure later rose to 84 positive cases. The first case was also announced in Nimruz Province. The second recovery was also reported.[43][44]

On 26 March, two deaths were announced. The total death toll increased to four.[45] Ten new positive cases were also reported; eight were in Herat Province and two were in Nimruz Province.[46]

On 27 March, 16 new cases were announced by the Ministry of Health. This included 11 new cases in Herat Province, three in Farah Province and one in Ghor Province. The total number of cases reached 110. The third recovery in the country was also reported.[47] By 29 March, there was a total of 120 positive cases.[48] On 30 March, 25 new cases were announced, meaning that the total number of cases increased to 145. The first cases were recorded in Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Paktia and Sar-e Pol provinces. Two new recoveries were also reported.[49] On 31 March, the Ministry of Health reported four new cases from 60 tests. Two of the cases were reported in Kandahar, while one new case each was recorded in Daykundi and Nimruz provinces.[50] 22 other positive cases were later announced as positive with twelve in Herat, six in Kabul, and one new case each in Baghlan (the first in the province), Ghazni and Paktia provinces. By the end of March, the number of positive cases had reached 196.[51]

April 2020Edit

1 to 9 AprilEdit

On 1 April, 43 new cases were announced. The total number of coronavirus cases rose to 239. Health officials reported that over 100 staff members at hospitals in Herat Province are suspected cases.[52][53]

On the morning of 2 April, six new cases were reported: 5 in Kabul Province and one in Daykundi Province. The total number of cases reached 245.[54] In the evening, the figure reached 273, after 15 new cases were confirmed in Herat Province, as well as another death. The 13 other new cases were located in Baghlan, Kabul, Kandahar and Paktia provinces.[55]

On 3 April, the number of confirmed cases reached 281. 20 new cases were from Herat, 14 in Kabul, and one new case each in the provinces of Ghor, Nangarhar, and Nimroz.[56] In the evening, the Ministry of Public Health announced 299 total cases. Herat Province had 206 cases, whilst Kabul Province had the second-highest number of cases (43). The cases in Herat Province entail 144 men and 60 women, as well as four fatalities and five recoveries. New cases were also reported in Balkh, Ghazni, Logar, and Samangan provinces. The first cases were recorded in Faryab and Kunduz provinces.[57][58]

On 4 April, the Ministry of Public Health announced that the total had reached 337. The seventh fatality in the country was also reported, whilst two more patients recovered. The 38 new cases were located in 9 provinces. Herat and Kabul had ten new cases each. Kandahar had eight, Paktia had three, Balkh and Samangan had two, whilst Kapisa and Zabul provinces had one new case each. Takhar Province reported their first case. The cases in Herat Province rose to 216, while in Kabul Province it rose to 53 cases.[59]

On 5 April, the Ministry of Public Health confirmed 30 new cases, which brought the total number of cases to 367. Herat had 16 new cases, Kabul had six, Nimruz had three, Faryab and Kunduz both had two, and Daykundi only had one new case. 5 new recoveries were reported, meaning that the total number of recoveries in Afghanistan reached 17.[60]

On 6 April, the death toll increased to 11, as a doctor from a private hospital in Kabul was reported as the eleventh fatality in the country. The Health Ministry also reported the eighteenth recovery. Out of 2737 suspected cases, only 367 had tested positive.[61] However, in the evening it was reported that 27 new cases in Herat Province were recorded from 140 tests. 21 were men, while 6 were women. Overall, 56 new cases were confirmed positive. Kabul had 12 new cases, Kandahar had 10, Balkh had 5, and Nangarhar had 2 new cases confirmed. The total increased to 423.[62]

On 7 April, two new cases were reported in Kandahar Province.[63] On 8 April, the 14th death and 20th recovery were announced. A doctor had died at a clinic in Kabul, which was later closed. The first cases were reported in Helmand and Wardak provinces.[64] On 9 April, 40 new cases were reported, as well as the 15th fatality, and 32 recoveries. 14 new cases were recorded in Nimruz, ten in Kabul, seven in Kandahar, four in Paktia, two each in Balkh and Bamyan (the first cases in the province), and a single new case in Logar Province.[65] With 257 cases, four of the 15 Afghan fatalities had been reported in Herat Province. Despite this, no new cases in Herat Province were recorded on 9 April, due to a lack of testing kits.[66][67] The Ministry revealed that the deaths recorded up until 9 April entailed four in Balkh and Herat, three in Kabul, two in Nangarhar, and one each in Daykundi and Takhar provinces.[65]

10 to 19 AprilEdit

On 10 April, 37 new cases were tested positive, including the first case in Parwan Province. 16 new cases were recorded in Kabul, Herat had eight, whilst Daykundi, Kandahar, Logar, Takhar all had two new cases. The Ministry of Public Health also announced that Bamiyan had a single new case.[68] By 10 April, at least 20 employees at the Arg (Presidential Palace) had contracted COVID-19 in Kabul.[69]

Another 34 cases were announced by the Ministry of Public Health in the evening. Herat and Kabul both had eight new cases, Kandahar had five, Nimruz and Wardak had four, Balkh had two, whilst Badghis, Baghlan, and Ghor all had a single new case each. The total number of cases reached 555, after an increase of 71 new cases, which was the highest number of cases reported in a single day in Afghanistan. Three new fatalities were also reported, including two men in Kabul.[70]

On 11 April, 52 new cases were recorded, meaning that the total number of cases reached 607. Kabul had 28 new cases, Kandahar had eight, Herat had seven, Balkh had four, Bamyan had two, whilst Helmand, Nangarhar, and Paktia all had a single new case each.[71] On 12 April, three new fatalities were announced by the health ministry, as the number of recoveries reached 38. 58 new cases were recorded across six provinces. Kandahar had 28 new cases, Kabul had 13, Helmand had seven, Nimruz had six, Takhar had three, and Kunduz reported a single case. Herat announced no new case in the province for the second time that week, due to a lack of testing kits.[67] The number of cases in Herat Province reached 280, whilst in Kabul the number of cases had risen to 146. The number of cases in Kandahar had rapidly increased to 75.[72]

On 13 April, 49 new cases were recorded by the health ministry across six provinces. Kabul had 18 new cases, followed by Kandahar with 15, Balkh had six, Ghazni and Herat both had four, and Nangarhar reported two new positive cases. As the number of cases increased to 714, the 40th recovery was also announced, as well as two further deaths, meaning that the death toll had reached 23.[73]

It was reported on 14 April that Surobi District, in Kabul Province, had 31 of Kabul's cases, which included doctors and police officers.[74] On 14 April, 70 new cases were tested positive across 11 provinces. Kabul had 31 new cases, Herat had 22, Ghazni and Kandahar both had three new cases, Nangarhar, Nimruz and Wardak had two cases, whilst Baghlan and Faryab had one new case each. The first two cases were recorded in Kunar Province, as well as the first case in Urozgan Province. In Herat, the number of cases had increased to 306.[75] The number of cases in Kabul had reached 209, with 11 recoveries and six fatalities. The total number of cases in the country reached 784, with 43 recoveries and 25 deaths.[76] On 15 April, 56 new cases were recorded, meaning that the number of cases increased to 840. 37 new cases were reported in Kabul. 11 new recoveries and 5 fatalities were announced by the health ministry.[77]

On 16 April, the Ministry of Public Health announced 66 new cases from 465 tests, as well as 45 new recoveries. The total number of cases reached 906, whilst the number of recoveries increased to 99. Kabul had 26 new cases, Kandahar had 15, Balkh had six, Herat and Kunduz both had five, Helmand had four, and Kunar and Nangarhar both had one case each. The first three cases were recorded in Laghman Province.[78] Herat had 43 of the new recoveries, whilst Ghor and Kandahar had one new recovery each.[79]

On 17 April, the health ministry recorded 27 new cases and 13 new recoveries.[80] Kabul had 12 new cases, Paktia had seven, Logar had four, Herat had two, whilst Bamyan and Daykundi had one new case each.[81] On 18 April, a 65-year-old man became the sixth fatality in Balkh, as well as the 31st fatality overall in Afghanistan, as the health ministry reported that three patients had died in the past 24 hours.[82][80] 63 new cases were recorded in eight provinces, including the first case in Jowzjan Province. Kabul had 31 new cases, Balkh had 16, Kunar had six, Herat had four, and Baghlan had three. Faryab and Laghman reported one new case each. Two other fatalities were recorded that day, including the owner of a private hospital in Kabul and a surgeon in Jowzjan, as well as 15 new recoveries. The total number of recoveries reached 131, as the number of cases increased to 996.[83][84] On 19 April, three more fatalities were recorded, with two in Kabul and one in Kandahar. 35 new cases were confirmed by the health ministry, meaning that the total number of cases reached 1,031. Kabul had 15 new cases, Laghman had nine, Herat has six, Kunar had four, and Nangarhar reported a single new case. By 19 April, 110 health workers (90 men and 20 women) had tested positive and four had died. The number of recoveries increased to 135.[85] The number of COVID-19 cases in the Arg had doubled to 40.[86]

20 to 30 AprilEdit

On 20 April, 66 new cases were confirmed from 311 tests. Kabul reported 52 new cases, Laghman had five, Baghlan and Nangarhar had four, and Paktia had one new case. 15 new recoveries were also recorded. The number of cases reached 1,092, as the number of recoveries reached 150.[87] On 21 April, 84 new cases were confirmed by the health ministry. Kabul had 28 new cases, Kandahar had 22, Nangarhar had six, Nimruz had five, Helmand and Kapisa had four, Herat and Kunar had three, Ghazni and Zabul had two, whilst Bamyan, Farah, Laghman, Paktia and Parwan all recorded a single new case. The number of fatalities reached 40, as the number of recoveries reached 166.[88]

On 22 April, two new fatalities were announced, as well as 14 new recoveries. The health ministry confirmed 106 new cases. Kandahar had 53 new cases, Herat had 21, Kunduz had 15, Jowzjan had 10, Kabul and Nangarhar had six, Nimruz had five, Kapisa and Logar had four, Kunar and Paktia had three, Ghazni had two, whilst Parwan and Takhar recorded a single new case. Paktika and Panjshir provinces recorded their first two cases.[89][90]

On 23 April, 63 new cases were confirmed. Out of 95 cases (including some from the previous evening), Kandahar had 53 new cases, Balkh had 21, Kabul had 11, Takhar had 10, Nangarhar and Panjshir had five in Nangarhar, Herat had three, Farah had two, whilst Daykundi, Laghman, Nimruz and Parwan recorded a single case each. Five recoveries in Herat and four recoveries in Kandahar were announced by the health ministry. The total number of recovered cases reached 188. A new fatality was recorded in Kandahar, as the total number of deaths in Afghanistan increased to 43. In the evening, Balkh announced 21 new cases and a single new case in Nimruz. A suspected patient in Kabul died before he was tested positive.[91]

On 24 April, 112 new cases were reported by the health ministry. Out of 133 cases (with some from the previous evening), Herat had 25, Balkh had 21, Kandahar had 20, Kabul and Paktia had 16, Nimruz and Samangan had seven, Kapisa, Logar and Zabul had three, Bamyan, Ghor and Urozgan had two, whilst Baghlan, Helmand, Parwan and Wardak all recorded a single new case. Four new fatalities were also reported over 24 hours. One of them was Assadullah Fazli, who had previously served as the head of the Kunar public health directorate. The number of recoveries had reached 206.[92] On 25 April, the number of fatalities increased to 50. Out of three new fatalities, two were in Ghazni and one was in Herat. 68 of 242 tests were positive. Ghazni had 13, Paktia had 11, Paktika had nine, Balkh had eight, Badghis and Kabul had six, Herat and Nangarhar had four, Khost and Laghman had three, and one case was recorded in Baghlan. The number of recoveries had reached 207.[93]

On 26 April, 172 new cases were tested positive from 600 samples across 18 provinces. Balkh had 34, Herat had 33, Kabul had 27, Kandahar had 21, Baghlan and Paktia had eight, Kunduz had seven, Ghor and Sar e-Pol had five, Faryab, Nimruz and Samangan had four, Khost, Laghman and Nangarhar had three, Helmand had two, whilst Paktika and Panjshir recorded a single new case each. Seven new fatalities were confirmed by the health ministry. The number of recoveries reached 220.[94] On 27 April, 125 new cases were tested positive from 361 samples across 18 provinces. Herat had 21, Kabul had 15, Balkh had 10, Logar had nine, Jowzjan had eight, Lagman, Paktia and Panjshir had seven, Ghazni and Takhar had six, Nangarhar had five, Helmand, Kunar and Wardak had two, whilst Badakhshan, Badghis and Kapisa recorded a single new case each. One new fatality was reported. The number of recoveries reached 228.[95]

On 28 April, 111 new cases were tested positive. The number of confirmed cases reached 1,939. The number of fatalities reached 60, as the number of recoveries reached 252. On 29 April, 232 cases were tested positive from 581 samples across 23 provinces. The number of confirmed cases reached 2,171. Kandahar had 45, Balkh had 41, Kabul had 20, Ghazni had 12, Logar and Paktia had 10, Panjshir and Samangan had nine, Takhar had eight, Kunduz had seven, Baghlan and Nangarhar had five, Badghis and Wardak had four, Laghman had three, Paktika and Parwan had two, whist Faryab and Sar e-Pol recorded a single new case each. Four new fatalities were reported, with two in Herat and one in Kabul. The number of recoveries reached 260.[96]

On 30 April, 164 new cases were tested positive. The number of cases increased to 2,335. 50 new recoveries and four new fatalities were announced by the health ministry. The number of recoveries reached 310.[97] 228 health workers had been infected.[98]

May 2020Edit

1 to 9 MayEdit

On 1 May, the health ministry reported 179 new cases from 591 samples across 12 provinces, bringing the total to 2,469. The number of recoveries reached 331 as the death toll reached 72. 249 health workers had been infected.[98]

On 2 May, the health ministry announced 235 new cases. The number of recoveries reached 345. 13 new fatalities were recorded across Afghanistan, meaning that the death toll reached 85.[99]

On 3 May, the health ministry announced 190 new cases. Five new fatalities were recorded, which included two in Paktia. Herat, Kabul and Wardak reported a single new fatality each. The death toll reached 90 as the number of recoveries reached 397.[100]

On 4 May, the health ministry announced 330 new cases, which is the highest[needs update] number of cases reported in a single day in Afghanistan. Five new fatalities were recorded, which included two in Logar. Baghlan, Laghman and Nangarhar reported a single new fatality each. The death toll reached 95 as the number of recoveries reached 421.[101]

On 5 May, the health ministry announced 31 new recoveries and nine fatalities. The first case was recorded in Nuristan Province, the last province to report a COVID-19 case. The number of recoveries reached 458 as the death toll reached 104.[102]

On 7 May, it was reported that the health minister, Dr. Ferozuddin Feroz, had tested positive and was isolating at home.[103] The health ministry reported 215 new cases. Four new recoveries were recorded in Herat. Two fatalities were reported.[104]

On 8 May, the health ministry reported 253 new cases from 520 samples. 29 new recoveries and six new fatalities were reported. The death toll reached 115, as the total recoveries reached 502.[105]

On 9 May, the health ministry reported 361 new cases. Six prisoners had been infected in Nangarhar. Four new fatalities were reported, bringing the death toll to 120. 65 patients were discharged after fully recovering.[106]

10 to 19 MayEdit

On 10 May, the health ministry reported 285 new cases. 161 people tested positive from 365 tests in Kabul. Deputy Minister of Health, Wahid Majrooh, announced that only a certain number of patients had been admitted to the center at Darul Aman Palace for various reasons, which included security issues. Majrooh also announced that the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan was still high. Two new fatalities were recorded. 16 new recoveries were recorded.[107]

On 11 May, the health ministry reported 281 new cases, bringing the total number of cases to 4,963. Five new fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 127, as the number of recoveries increased to 610.[108]

On 12 May, the health ministry reported 259 new cases from 619 tests, bringing the total to 5,226. Five new fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 132, as the number of recoveries reached 648.[109]

On 13 May, the health ministry reported 413 new cases from 1,008 tests, bringing the total to 5,639. Four new fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 136, as the number of recoveries reached 691.[110] By 13 May, 19,732 tests had been carried out.[110]

On 14 May, the health ministry reported 414 new cases from 1,122 tests, bringing the total to 6,053. 17 new fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 153, as the number of recoveries increased to 745.[111]

On 15 May, the health ministry reported 349 new cases, bringing the total to 6,402. 15 new fatalities and 32 new recoveries were recorded. The death toll reached 168, as the number of recoveries reached 745.[112]

On 16 May, 262 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total positive cases to 6,664. Two fatalities and seven recoveries were recorded. The death toll reached 169, as the number of recoveries reached 784.[113] On 16 May, doctors at Pul-e-Charki prison and the Kabul detention center announced that 50 prisoners and staff had tested positive from 600 suspected cases.[114]

On 17 May, 408 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 7,072. Three fatalities and 23 recoveries were recorded. The death toll reached 173, as the number of recoveries increased to 801.[115]

On 18 May, 581 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 7,653. Five fatalities and 45 recoveries were reported. The death toll reached 178, as the number of recoveries reached 850.[116]

On 19 May, 492 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 8,145. 10 fatalities and 80 recoveries were recorded. The death toll reached 187, as the number of recoveries reached 930.[117]

20 to 31 MayEdit

On 20 May, 531 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 8,676. Six fatalities and eight recoveries were reported. The death toll reached 938, as the number of recoveries reached 938.[118]

On 21 May, 542 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 9,216. 12 fatalities and 58 recoveries were reported. The death toll reached 205, as the number of recoveries reached 993.[119]

On 22 May, 782 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 9,998. 11 fatalities and 44 recoveries were reported. The death toll reached 216, as the number of recoveries reached 1,040.[120]

On 25 May, 658 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 11,831. One new fatality was recorded, taking the death toll to 220. 31 new recoveries were recorded in Balkh. The number of recoveries increased to 1,128.[121]

On 26 May, 625 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 12,456. The death toll reached 227, as the number of recoveries reached 1,138.[122]

On 27 May, 580 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 13,036. The death toll reached 235, as the number of recoveries reached 1,209.[123]

On 28 May, 623 new positive cases were announced from 985 tests, bringing the total to 13,659. 11 fatalities were reported. 50 new recoveries were announced.[124]

On 29 May, 866 new positive cases were announced from 1,425 tests. 16 provinces reported new cases. 44 recoveries and three fatalities were recorded.[125]

On 30 May, 680 new positive caes were announced from 1,112 tests. 25 recoveries and eight fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 257, as the number of recoveries reached 1,328.[126]

On 31 May, 545 new positive cases were announced from 1,168 tests, bringing the total to 15,750. 100 recoveries and eight fatalities were recorded. The number of new cases in Kabul decreased for the first time in two weeks.[127]

June 2020Edit

1 to 9 JuneEdit

On 1 June, 759 new positive cases were announced, bringing the total to 16,509. Five fatalities and 22 recoveries were reported. The death toll reached 270, as the number of recoveries reached 1,450.[128]

On 2 June, 758 new positive cases were announced from 1,323 tests, bringing the total to 17,267. 78 recoveries and 24 fatalities were recorded. The death toll reached 270, as the number of recoveries reached 1,450.[129]

On 3 June, Ariana News reported that government officials were not following social distancing guidelines during meetings. They also reported that only some fatalities were officially recorded, as some COVID-19 positive and suspicious deaths were not reported.[130] In Kunduz Province, local officials announced that Fahim Qarluq, the district governor of Qalay-i-Zal and the provincial police chief, General Rashid Bashir, had died of COVID-19.[131]

20 to 30 JuneEdit

On 22 June, Pajhwok Afghan News announced that 32 ventilators were smuggled to Pakistan.[132] On 26 June, Afghan actor Faqir Nabi died of COVID-19 in a hospital in Kabul.[133]

July 2020Edit

On 3 July, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani's special envoy on economic and trade development, Mohammad Yousef Ghazanfar, died from COVID-19 making him the most senior Afghan official known to have died from the disease.[134]

August 2020Edit

On 2 August, one case was confirmed from 19 tests. Officials said a lower number of people were tested during Eid al-Adha. The number of total cases was 36,710. The death toll reached 1,284, as the total recoveries reached 25,509.[135]

On 5 August, an official survey conducted in Afghanistan reported that approximately a third of the country's population, or roughly 10 million people had contracted COVID-19. The Ministry of Public Health announced that the survey was based on antibody tests with technical support from the World Health Organisation. 11,500 people from all 34 provinces participated in the survey.[5][6]

September 2020Edit

On 19 September, Ahmad Jawad Osmani, the Acting Minister of Public Health, said that the Ministry of Health has got enough financial resources to tackle a second wave of infections, after visiting Herat.[136]

October 2020Edit

On 13 October, Abdul Hakim Tamanna, Head of the Herat Health Department, reported that 156 students and teachers in Herat Province had tested positive in the past week from 386 tests. He said that 35 to 60 students learn in a single room due to a lack of facilities and the failure to heed social distancing guidelines.[137]

November 2020Edit

On 29 November, Public Health Acting Minister Jawad Osmani warned of a second wave of COVID-19 infections in Afghanistan. Osmani stated that around 1240 people had been infected within the past week. The infections had increased by 10 percent and the fatalities had increased by 3 percent.[138]

December 2020Edit

According to the Public Health Ministry, as of 19 December, there has been a total of 50,536 cases in the country. Of those, a third were in Kabul. However, due to the lack of easily-accessible testing facilities, the Ministry estimated the actual number of positive cases to be much higher.[139]

January 2021Edit

On 4 January 2021, the health ministry called on the public to limit their travels over the next four weeks.[140] On 25 January, Tahir Qadiry announced that 500,000 vaccines would be given to Afghanistan from India.[141][142] On 27 January, it was announced[by whom?] that Afghanistan received $112 million from the World Health Organization's COVAX program, which covers 20 per cent of the population.[143][144]

February 2021Edit

On 7 February, the Government of Afghanistan announced plans to vaccinate 60 percent of the population as the first 500,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccine arrived in Kabul from India. 150,000 health workers will be vaccinated first, followed by adults with health problems.[145] On 23 February, Afghanistan officially launched its coronavirus vaccination program at the Arg.[146]

March 2021Edit

By 1 March, at least 8,200 health workers had been vaccinated against COVID-19 in Afghanistan.[147] On 8 March, Afghanistan received 468,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses from COVAX.[148] On 30 March 2021, seven people were infected with a coronavirus variant.[149][which?]

April 2021Edit

By 7 April, 100,000 people in Afghanistan had received their COVID-19 vaccination.[150]

May 2021Edit

In May, Afghanistan entered the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.[151]

June 2021Edit

On 12 June, UNAMA announced that an additional 468,000 doses of the AstraZeneca will be provided to Afghanistan.[152]

July 2021Edit

UNDARK reported that the Afghanistan conflict "hindered the country's Covid response", especially in Kandahar.[153][unreliable source?]

August 2021Edit

According to a report by Shamshad News, the Taliban banned use of COVID-19 vaccines in the Paktia regional hospital.[154][unreliable source?]

Following the Fall of Kabul on 15 August (marking the collapse of the previous government of Afghanistan[155][clarification needed]) the WHO and medical experts[who?] feared a potential "rapid and uncontrolled spread of COVID-19".[156][157][unreliable source?] The week after the fall of Kabul, COVID-19 tests decreased by 77% and COVID-19 vaccinations decreased by 80% compared to the week before.[158][159]

September 2021Edit

On 3 September, Suhail Shaheen, a spokesman for the Taliban, stated that China will "increase its humanitarian assistance, especially for treatment of COVID-19".[160]

October 2021Edit

Starting from 9 October, Taliban officials and United States of America representatives held talks in Doha, Qatar. According to Afghanistan's acting foreign minister Mullah Amir Khan Muttaqi, the US would offer COVID-19 vaccines to the Afghan people.[161][relevant?]

As of 30 October, nearly 40,000 people in Afghanistan received COVID-19 vaccines per day.[162]

November 2021Edit

The United Nations Development Programme, with an agreement with The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, provided[clarification needed] $15 million[clarification needed] to prevent the collapse of Afghanistan's health system, paying for medicines, health supplies, and healthcare workers' salaries.[163][relevant?]

December 2021Edit

On 3 December, the "Ministry of Public Health (MoPH)"[clarification needed] stated that there were no cases of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant so far in Afghanistan, but urged international assistance.[164][clarification needed]

On 8 December, about 800,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccine arrived in Afghanistan, with 200,000 to arrive[needs update] the next day.[165][166] Wang Yu[who?] also said that China has "announced another three million doses of vaccine to Afghanistan".[165]

On 11 December, India sent "1.6 metric tonne of life-saving medicines"[which?] to Afghanistan, the first assistance it gave since the fall of Kabul.[167]

Abdul Bari Omar, the Afghan deputy minister of health services, said that pregnant women and children could take COVID-19 vaccines.[165]

Other casesEdit

Pakistan identified two positive cases at the Torkham border, on 12 March 2020. It was reported that one Afghan citizen with coronavirus was returned from Torkham to Afghanistan. The second case at the border was a Pakistani embassy employee from Kabul.[168] On 15 March, Pakistan deported 10 Afghans at Torkham after they developed flu-like symptoms.[169]

On 24 March 2020, the Resolute Support Mission reported that 4 coalition service members had tested positive.[170] Also on 24 March, a 51-year-old Afghan national in Medina, Saudi Arabia was announced as the first casualty from the coronavirus in that country. The Afghan had died on 23 March.[171][172]

Prevention measuresEdit

Testing and health facilitiesEdit

March 2020Edit

Up until 10 March, the Afghan government had spent $15 million in response to the outbreak and a total of 142 suspected cases had been tested, with only five being positive for COVID-19.[22] Tests were sent to the Netherlands to ensure testing accuracy. Isolation centers were also set up across the country.[173] Up until 14 March, the Afghan government had spent $25 million to tackle the outbreak, which included $7 million of aid packages. A total of 50,000 testing kits had been supplied by the Afghan government.[174] On 14 March, the Ministry of Public Health had tested 181 suspected cases. The samples of the suspected cases were from Herat, Samangan, Kapisa, Balkh, Daykundi, Parwan and Paktia provinces.[24][25] By 18 March, the Ministry of Public Health had registered at least 340 suspected cases of coronavirus in 23 provinces of the country since the start of the outbreak.[175] On 18 March, the government had set up five quarantine centers in Herat and Nimruz.[176]

On 20 March, the Ministry of Public Health said that no private labs or hospitals are allowed to undertake the checking of suspected or positive patients. The Ministry of Public Health announced that they intended to increase the capacity of laboratories for testing coronavirus samples in Herat and Balkh provinces. it was announced that a new laboratory in Herat is under construction, after the only laboratory in the country was in Kabul, meaning that it took longer to diagnose people who took tests.[177] The Health Ministry later restricted the policy on testing, testing only people with a high fever. It was reported that returnees from Iran had visited the Afghan-Japan Communicable Disease Hospital, which treats COVID-19 patients in Kabul, but were not tested. By 27 March, only 600 tests on returnees from Iran had been carried out.[178] The Ministry reported that in total, over 1000 tests had been carried out by 28 March.[179][180]

On 30 March, the Minister of Public Health, Ferozuddin Feroz, announced the plan to increase the capacity of health facilities in Afghanistan to 1000 tests a day by the end of the week. A center previously used to treat animals is operating as a testing facility, performing around 100 tests in 24 hours. By the end of March 2020, Afghanistan's COVID-19 testing centers had the capacity of 600 tests a day. 400 of them were in Kabul, 100 in Herat, and 100 in Nangarhar.[49]

April 2020Edit

On 4 April, the Ministry of Public Health opened a testing center in Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh Province, with the capacity of testing 30 cases a day. The capacity of the center was expected to increase to 200 cases per day within a week.[181] Also on that day, a 300-bed temporary hospital was opened in Herat Province, designated for COVID-19 patients. A local businessman had decided to convert a hotel into a hospital and treatment center for COVID-19 patients. The new hospital is the second center for COVID-19 patients in the province and the capacity of the new hospital will increase to 1000 beds, if needed. Suspected cases in Herat Province will also be admitted to the hospital. Around 200 doctors and nurses were hired at the hospital and received training on the COVID-19 treatment.[58] On 7 April, a testing facility in Kandahar opened, which also caters for the provinces of Helmand, Urozgan, and Zabul.[182] On 8 April, the Ministry of Public Health announced that there are only 300 ventilators in Afghanistan.[183]

On 12 April, it was announced at the new testing center in Herat, that testing was suspended for twice in a week due to a lack of kits, resulting in no new cases reported from Herat on 9 and 12 April. The new testing facility only has the capacity of 140 tests a day and has to cater for Badghis, Farah, Ghor, and Nimruz provinces.[67] Meanwhile, in Balkh, a new hospital was opened in Mazar-i-Sharif, which can treat up to 200 patients. Despite this, there are only 15 ventilators. This is the sixth COVID-19 designated hospital after two in Herat and Kabul, and another one in Nangarhar. In contrast to Herat's testing capacity, the testing facility in Balkh has a capacity of 50 tests a day.[184] In Kandahar Province, there is also a 350-bed hospital in the Aino Mena district of Kandahar.[185]

On 15 April, it was reported in Herat, that around 40 patients were reported to be at hospital, meaning that around 260 patients were isolated at home at their own request. The patients in isolation are still in contact with doctors.[75] On 16 April, the Afghan-Japan Hospital in Kabul stopped accepting samples for COVID-19 testing for two days, due to a surge in requests, despite having the capacity to test 300 samples a day. It was reported that some people had waited for results for almost two weeks.[186] On 18 April, it was reported that there was a lack of testing kits in Balkh, which led to a stop in testing.[82] On 17 April, Balkh's testing centers announced that they needed health equipment for doctors.[187] It was also announced that there was a lack of RNA testing kits, but the World Health Organization (WHO) had some supplied testing kits for Afghanistan.[188] An opening ceremony was held at Darul Aman Palace, where a new COVID-19 isolation and treatment center has 200 beds.[189] Due to 30 suspected deaths in Surobi District, Kabul Province, a new treatment facility with 20 beds was built. By 18 April, the Government of Afghanistan had given $15 million to the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), after the $100 million from the World Bank had not arrived at this point. The plan for an isolation center with 10,000 beds was announced, as well as an overall 100,000 beds across centers in Afghanistan. Up until 18 April, 5,800 samples had been tested.[80]

By 20 April, over 6,000 tests had been carried out.[190] On 20 April, 5,000 new testing kits arrived in Afghanistan. It was also reported that 11 of the 16 RNA testing kits had been used.[191] By 21 April, around 5,300 tests had been carried out.[192] By 24 April, 7,425 samples had been tested.[193] The health ministry announced that the problem with the RNA testing kits had been resolved.[92] By 25 April, 8,090 tests had been carried out.[93] By 26 April, there were testing centers in 22 police districts in Kabul run by volunteer health workers.[194] 8,694 tests had been carried out.[94] On 27 April, the government approved the purchase of 500 new ventilators, as well as a $4 million funding for the construction and renovation of COVID-19 facilities. $164 million was spent altogether, which also included testing kits.[195] By 27 April, 9,000 tests had been carried out.[95] By 29 April, 10,022 tests had been carried out. PCR testing started at the Afghan-Japan hospital in Kabul.[96] By 30 April, 10,593 tests had been carried out.[97]

May 2020Edit

By 1 May, 11,068 tests had been carried out.[98] By 4 May, 13,076 tests had been carried out.[101] By 5 May, 13,777 tests had been carried out.[102] By 7 May, 15,000 tests had been carried out.[104] In May 2020, it was reported that a pediatric ward was opened as an isolation center in a hospital that was destroyed in 2019 by the Taliban in Zabul Province.[196] On 8 May, the health ministry announced that there was 3,230 available beds across all 34 provinces. By 8 May, 15,560 tests had been carried out.[105] By 11 May, 18,098 tests had been carried out.[108] By 12 May, 18,724 tests had been carried out.[109] On 14 May, the health ministry announced that the testing capacity had been increased to 1,100 test a day. By 14 May, 20,854 tests had been carried out.[111] By 15 May, 21,969 tests had been carried out.[112] As the number of prisoners and staff at Pul-e-Charki prison in Kabul reached, doctors announced that the 250-bed quarantine center would be expanded to 1,000 beds if there were more cases.[114] By 16 May, 22,639 tests had been carried out.[197] By 17 May, 23,497 tests had been carried out.[115] By 18 May, 24,697 tests had been carried out.[116] By 19 May, 25,700 tests had been carried out.[117] By 20 May, 26,707 tests had been carried out.[118] By 21 May, 27,889 tests had been carried out.[119] By 22 May, 29,417 tests had been carried out.[120] By 25 May, 32,870 tests had been carried out.[121] By 26 May, 33,864 tests had been carried out.[122]

By 27 May, 34,936 tests had been carried out. The health ministry announced that it was running out of medical supplies.[123] By 28 May, 35,921 tests had been carried out.[124] By 29 May, 37,348 tests had been carried out.[125] By 30 May, 38,460 tests had been carried out.[126] By 31 May, 39,628 tests had been carried out.[127] On 31 May, President Ashraf Ghani appointed Ahmad Jawad Osmani as the acting minister of public health, replacing Ferozuddin Feroz.[198]

June 2020Edit

On 1 June, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) announced that Afghanistan was facing a humanitarian disaster as the number of cases rose by 684% in May. The health ministry announced that they had the capacity to test 2,000 samples a day, despite receiving between 10,000 and 20,000 samples per day.[199] By 1 June, 40,950 tests had been carried out.[128] By 2 June, 42,273 tests had been carried out.[129] On 3 June, 13 doctors resigned from the "Covid-1" hospital in Herat that was treating more than 100 COVID-19 patients.[200] On 4 June, Ahmad Jawad Osmani announced reforms in the health sector.[198] 570 health workers had been infected in Herat Province.[201] On 16 June, testing stopped in Herat and Balkh due to a lack of equipment. In Kabul, health workers said that 22 mobile testing centers were facing a lack of kits. Private hospitals began charging for tests and sent samples to government laboratories.[202]

On 22 June, it was reported that 40 of the 314 ventilators in Afghan public hospitals were not functional.[132] On 28 June, patients at government hospitals claimed a shortage of oxygen, which was rejected by officials.[203]

July 2020Edit

On 31 July 2020, the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction said that an additional eight million Afghans will fall into poverty due to the pandemic, exacerbating the poverty rate from 55 percent to 80 percent. This increase will likely overwhelm the country's medical care system and cause food shortages according to the report.[204]

Afghanistan has applied 5,948,889 doses of vaccines until now. If we assume that every citizen needs to take 2 doses, those vaccines would cover only 7.8% of the Afghanistan's citizens.[citation needed]

During the last week reports, Afghanistan had 5,823 doses of COVID-19 vaccines administrated each day. As a result, it will take 1,307 more days in order to administer[205] more vaccines for 10% other population.

The data above is not based on people who have been vaccinated, but based on doses administrated.[citation needed]

Lockdown measuresEdit

On 14 March, President Ashraf Ghani, told the public to avoid large public gatherings and to pay attention to hygiene to prevent the spread of the disease.[25] On 18 March, the Ministry of Interior Affairs banned all large gatherings, including the closure of venues that attract large crowds such as entertainment places, sports grounds, swimming pools, fitness clubs and wedding halls.[177]

On 22 March, Public Health Minister Ferozuddin Feroz urged the government to order the lockdown of the city of Herat at a press conference in Kabul.[33] Members of the Wolesi Jirga of Afghanistan's parliament decided to hold a general session once a week to avoid the spread of COVID-19.[206] The spokesperson of the Health Ministry, Wahidullah Mayar, announced that 449 suspected cases had been tested across 28 provinces up until 22 March. Most suspected cases were from Herat and Kabul.[207]

On 24 March, in Jalalabad, Nangarhar Province, the local authorities placed strict measures in the provincial capital, limiting the movement of citizens until 1 April.[208][209] On 25 March, the Afghan Government began to limit the movement of residents in Farah, Herat and Nimruz provinces, after Herat emerged as a major source of internal transmissions in Afghanistan. In Herat, praying in mosques was suspended to prevent any possible spread of the virus. Residents of Farah and Zaranj could only go out for necessary activities.[210][211][212]

On 26 March, the government announced the release of 10,000 prisoners that were aged over 55 to slow the spread of COVID-19 in the country. This also consisted of mainly women, youths and the critically ill.[213] Based on President Ashraf Ghani's decree, the prisoners would be released over the 10 following days. The release of prisoners did not include members of Islamist militant groups.[214][215] Also on that day, Afghan authorities extended the lockdown to Kabul, Kandahar, and Logar provinces.[216] Also on 26 March, the mayor of Mazar-i-Sharif said that in addition to closing restaurants in the city, disinfection of public places is also taking place.[217]

On 27 March, it was announced that the Afghan cabinet had decided that the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, would undergo lockdown from 28 March for three weeks. The lockdown will ensure that residents stay at home, avoiding all non-essential travel and gatherings. Residents would also need to provide valid reasons if they decide to leave their homes. All restaurants, hotels, sauna, cafes, public bathing centers, shrines, gyms, parks and other stores will remain closed for 3 weeks, except for grocery stores and banks.[218] It was also announced that all sport venues, shrines and other public gathering places would remain closed for the duration of lockdown in Kabul.[219] Public transport carrying more than 5 passengers will also be banned. Large educational institutes and wedding halls will be transformed into isolation centers to quarantine those who return from Iran for two weeks. A total of 70 military teams will patrol Kabul to identify people with symptoms.[220] On 4 April, officials from Balkh Province reported that Mazar-i-Sharif is under partial lockdown as public places were closed.[181]

By 9 April, over 1,500 police officers had been deployed in Kabul.[221] The lockdown measures in Kabul Province were made stricter on 12 April. All main highways were closed, as the lockdown was extended for a further two weeks. The Ministry of Interior Affairs announced that there would be consequences for anyone that violates the lockdown.[222] On 17 April, the lockdown in Kabul Province was extended by three weeks until 9 May.[223][224] On 10 May, Balkh eased the lockdown in Mazar-i-Sharif.[225] On 21 May, the lockdown in Kabul was eased.[226] On 22 May, President Ashraf Ghani announced that Kabul would ease restrictions on business and travel after Eid al-Fitr holidays.[227]

International funding and local aidEdit

InternationalEdit

On 14 March 2020, Beijing (China) announced that they would give aid to Afghanistan. The World Bank, Asian Development Bank and World Health Organization also announced that they would provide help.[174] The Chinese medical aid arrived on 2 April, after aid from the United Arab Emirates was received on the previous day. However, it was reported later that the quality of the medical equipment from China was not up to standard and put Afghanistan's Coronavirus fight at risk.[228]
It was also announced on that day that Uzbekistan would provide aid for five of the northern provinces of Afghanistan.[229][54][230] On 20 April, Turkey sent aid to Afghanistan.[231] On 23 April, a second shipment of medical equipment arrived from China.[232]

On 21 March 2020, Afghanistan contributed $1 million to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) emergency fund to help fight COVID-19.[233] On 3 April, the World Bank approved $100.4 million of aid to help Afghanistan.[234] In April 2020, the European Union (EU) announced that they would provide technical support and €117 million for Afghanistan.[223][235] On 6 May, a Qatari foundation (Algharrafa Foundation) and a group of Afghan investors from China sent medical equipment worth over $2 million. Algharrafa provided £1 million aid and announced that they would build a hospital in Farah Province. Altogether, the Afghan investors have given $3 million aid, which includes previous aid packages sent.[236] On 8 May, the World Bank approved a $400 million grant for Afghanistan.[237][238] Kayehan Foundation, based in the Netherlands, sent 200 sets of PPE, masks and 10 medical machines to Jamhuriat Hospital in Kabul.[239]

Since early May 2020, the Taliban have not allowed six food aid trucks from Turkmenistan in Tagab District, which was expected to arrive at Maymana, Faryab Province.[240]

LocalEdit

During the lockdown in Kabul, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock donated food for an emergency group to distribute across the province.[241] In April 2020, Amanullah Kaliwal began to distribute 500 masks a day to the poor for free, which had been sewn at home. In less than a week, 4000 masks had been distributed to the poor in Kabul.[242] On 23 April, it was reported that in western Kabul medical workers had begun volunteering by distributing food and equipment (such as gloves) to poor families. They also provided counseling advice and disinfected roads.[243] During the lockdown, bread was given for free at bakeries across Afghanistan.[244]

Public awareness campaignsEdit

 
A cartoon demonstrating how social distancing reduces the rate of COVID-19 transmission and stop it before it can become an outbreak. To save loved ones and oneself, every citizen should follow it with enthusiasm and make oneself self-isolate.[245]

On 22 March 2020, doctors at Blossom Hospital in Kabul launched a public awareness campaign to help the public understand how to prevent the spread of the virus. This included distributing over 5000 surgical masks to the public.[175]

On 23 March 2020, Cordaid announced that they would distribute soap in communities, handle waste management and supply thermometers to reduce the risk of spread in Afghanistan. They also held community awareness sessions and helped to improve the referral systems of patients to health centers that have a treatment ward for COVID-19.[246]

Clerics and religious scholars enforced a fatwa on 5 April 2020.[247] It was reported on 6 April, that many volunteer groups and community health workers had begun awareness campaigns, such as a door-to-door campaign by a group of women in Parwan Province and a provincial campaign for Faryab Province by local officials. The Ministry of Public Health also began to spread awareness via social media and traditional media.[248] On 12 April, it was announced that a group under the name, Voice of the pulpit and the doctor, would launch a public awareness campaign in Kabul. The group consists of doctors and religious scholars.[249]

Food distribution and disinfection by Bayat GroupEdit

On 14 April 2020, Bayat Group, one of the largest private companies in Afghanistan, launched the Stop The Virus (STV) campaign. The campaign also includes the disinfection of cities.[250] The group also began to distribute food in Herat.[251] By 16 April, the government had spent 27 million afs on awareness campaigns.[235] During Ramandan, they distributed food packages in Khost Province and Maymanah, Faryab.[252][253] On 8 May, Bayat Group and Afghan Wireless Communication Company (AWCC) disinfected areas of Kabul with the health ministry.[254] On 16 May, they distributed food packages to needy families in Daykundi.[255] On 18 May, they distributed food to needy families in Badakhshan.[256] On 19 May, Bayat Group and AWCC disinfected more areas of Kabul and the Children's Health Hospital.[257]

Taliban's cooperationEdit

On 16 March 2020, the Taliban announced that in Balkh Province, they arrested the runaway patient who tested positive for coronavirus and handed him back to health authorities. The Taliban also spread awareness of the coronavirus in insurgent-controlled areas of Afghanistan and supported governmental health workers. They also asked for Afghan returnees from Iran to be tested for COVID-19.[258]

On 27 March 2020, the Taliban started a public awareness campaign in Jowzjan Province. On 29 March, the Taliban launched a COVID-19 public awareness campaign in Logar Province.[259] The Taliban offered safe passage to health workers that are treating coronavirus patients in Afghanistan. Furthermore, the Taliban enforced lockdowns in affected districts. People who were suspected of having COVID-19 were quarantined.[260]

Mask and PPE productionEdit

On 26 February 2020, a mask-production plant in Herat Province (the epicenter of the outbreak in Afghanistan) opened. The plant produces over 60,000 masks on a daily basis. The Ministry of Public Health announced that this would be important in slowing the spread of COVID-19 and would also help decrease the surge in prices for surgical masks.[261] On 14 April, a factory opened in Kabul, which is the first in Afghanistan that produces personal protective equipment (PPE). It produces 10,000 masks per day.[74][242]

VaccinationEdit

Afghanistan has applied 5,948,889 doses of vaccines until now. If we assume that every citizen needs to take 2 doses, those vaccines would cover only 7.8% of the Afghanistan's citizens.

During the last week reports, Afghanistan had 5,823 doses of COVID-19 vaccines administrated each day. As a result, it will take 1,307 more days in order to administer[262] more vaccines for 10% other population.

The data above is not based on people who have been vaccinated, but based on doses administrated.

ImpactsEdit

Cultural events and religionEdit

 
The Blue Mosque was closed during the lockdown in Mazar-i-Sharif.

The annual Nowruz festival in Mazar-i-Sharif and across the whole of Afghanistan was not held in 2020, in order to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.[263][168][264] The Nowruz celebrations in Balkh were canceled after the first case was reported on 14 March.[25] People were also not allowed to enter the Shrine of Hazrat Ali in Mazar-i-Sharif.[265]

Around 500 mosques were closed in Herat in late March 2020. On 5 April, the Ministry of Hajj and Religious Affairs and clerics announced a fatwa, including restrictions on Friday prayers and other prayers in mosques across Afghanistan.[247] On 22 May, the Hajj Ministry told people that they should avoid gatherings on Eid-al-Fitr if they have COVID-19 symptoms.[266]

SportsEdit

The Afghanistan National Olympic Committee (ANOC) announced that all sport events were canceled after 14 March, including a Buzkashi league tournament that was being held in Kabul.[24] Despite the lockdown, Fahim Anwari continued training for the 2020 Summer Olympics at Qargha Lake in Kabul.[267]

MediaEdit

On 2 July 2020, it was announced that Moby Media Group and Bayat Group had reported cases of COVID-19 among its employees. In Baghlan Province, a radio station stopped broadcasting because their editors had tested positive. By 4 June, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) announced that 70 Afghan media employees had tested positive. Radio Nasim, a private FM radio station, struggled to air its programs. Many reporters lost their jobs during the pandemic. Ten media outlets, including TOLOnews and Ariana News, appealed to the Afghan government for help. Fewer ads resulted in falling revenues.[268]

EconomyEdit

Loss of jobs and povertyEdit

In Herat Province, more than 35,000 shops and factories were closed by 16 April 2020, leading to a loss of profits and unemployment. Economic difficulties has resulting in workers and shop owners being unable to pay rents. Construction also stopped in the province.[269] On 17 April, shopkeepers and street vendors across Kabul announced that their incomes had been affected by the lockdown. Breadwinners of families and low-wage vendors have been badly affected in poor communities of Kabul. According to the government, a future program will provide aid.[270] On 18 April, Balkh officials and volunteers announced that over 20,000 displaced people and returnees, as well as over 10,000 vulnerable families in the province, needed assistance due to the loss of jobs, low wages, and unemployment. Food supplies from Uzbekistan had not been distributed to the vulnerable families yet, despite arriving weeks earlier.[230]

Local businessesEdit

On 12 April 2020, the national power company, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), asked the government for a $50 million loan after announcing that they had lost 60% of their revenue due to the outbreak.[271] If the imported electricity from Uzbekistan is not paid, Afghanistan could have power cuts.[272]

On 21 April 2020, the Ministry of Interior Affairs started an investigation on an active restaurant (Seven Stars) in Taimani, during the lockdown in Kabul. The owner of the restaurant attacked a reporter for TOLOnews.[273] On 22 April, the restaurant was closed and the owner was prosecuted.[274] On 23 April, the investigation on Shakila Ibrahim, the owner of Seven Stars, was sent to the Attorney General's Office of Afghanistan. The Afghan Journalist Safety Committee advised the government to take the investigation seriously.[275]

On 7 May 2020, Kam Air announced that during the lockdown it loses over £6 million a week as all 119 local and international flights were stopped. Aviation companies requested tax exemptions from the Ministry of Finance. Tourist companies were also affected.[276]

TradingEdit

On 16 April 2020, nearly 2000 containers set for Afghanistan were stuck at the Port of Karachi in Pakistan.[277] On 3 June, the Afghanistan Chamber of Commerce and Investment (ACCI) announced that there was a decline in exports to other countries trade routes with neighboring countries had been closed.[278] On 20 June, Pakistan's Ministry of Interior announced that the Torkham and Spin Boldak borders would open for six days a week under strict health measures.[279] On 22 June, Pakistan opened its border crossings, allowing exports for the first time in three months.[280] On 15 July, Pakistan allowed Afghan exports to India through the Wagah border, after taking COVID-19 measures.[281] On 17 July, China applauded the resumption of trade relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan after five land crossings had opened. The five land crossings were Torkham, Chaman, Ghulam Khan, Angur Ada and Dand-e-Patan.[282]

EducationEdit

It was announced on 14 March 2020, that all educational institutes in the country would not open until 21 April.[283] However, from 11 April, it was announced that lessons would be taught online via television and radio.[284] On 7 May, the Ministry of Education launched an online website for school students in Dari and Pashto. Acting Minister Mirwais Balkhi announced that all coursework at home would be graded if exams were not held.[285] On 19 June, it was announced that all Afghan schools and universities will remain closed until September.[286] On 22 August, all schools were reopened in Afghanistan.[287]

SocialEdit

On 21 March 2020, wedding halls and hammams were closed and governmental departments with large numbers of employees stopped working.[177] The five week lockdown in the capital, Kabul, affected small businesses, such as local shop owners.[288]

Ghor ProtestEdit

On 9 May 2020, six protesters were killed in Chaghcharan, Ghor Province while protesting against the unfair food aid distribution that was given by Qatar during the pandemic.[289][290] The protesters attacked security forces and government property. Three of the protesters were shot by police and tanks were later placed in the city. The Afghanistan Journalists' Centre announced that local volunteer radio presenter Ahmadkhan Nawid was killed. Two policemen were also killed. The Ministry of Interior Affairs announced that ten police officers and nine civilians were injured.[291] Amnesty International launched an investigation on the use of police.[244]

ImmigrationEdit

 
The Islam Qala border

During March 2020, over 30,000 Afghan immigrants were reported to have returned from Iran, via Islam Qala port, after the outbreak in the country. This marked the highest rate of returning immigrants from Iran in over a decade.[292][293]

Effects on travelEdit

Travel restrictionsEdit

After the three suspected cases in Herat, Afghanistan later temporarily closed its border with Iran on 23 February 2020.[294] On 19 June, in order to rescue for Afghan citizens, the Government of Afghanistan re-opened its border with Iran, which had been closed briefly to all air and ground travel.[295]

In March 2020, the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation restricted most international flights by Afghan airlines due to the global pandemic. Ariana Afghan Airlines and Kam Air suspended all flights, except from flights to Pakistan and Dubai.[296] On 1 April, the Government of Afghanistan suspended flights between Kabul and Herat.[297] On 19 June, aviation and ground transportation, travel and borders to other countries, would also remain closed until the decrease of COVID-19 cases.[298][299] On 24 June, Afghanistan resumed international air travel.[300]

On 21 October 2020, at least 12 people were killed during a rampage at the soccer stadium in eastern Afghanistan. Around 10,000 people were at the stadium waiting for token that could enable them to apply for the visa to Pakistan. Many of the applicants were seeking visa for medical care. The incident came after the Pakistani Consulate in Jalalabad resumed operations after being closed for 8 months due to COVID-19 travel restrictions.[301]

Pakistan's responseEdit

In response to Afghanistan's and Iran's cases, Pakistan closed its border at Chaman with Afghanistan for at least three weeks, starting on 2 March 2020, as both countries confirmed rising number of cases over the weeks.[302][303][304] On 13 March, all land borders with Pakistan were closed.[305] It was also announced that Pakistan would completely seal its land border with Afghanistan from 16 March for at least two weeks.[306] On 21 March, Pakistan reopened its border with Afghanistan.[307]

 
The Torkham border crossing

On 4 April, Pakistan announced that the Chaman and Torkham borders[308] will open between 6 and 9 April for stranded Afghans[309] to return to their country at the request of the Afghan government.[310][311]

StatisticsEdit

OverviewEdit

The table below shows the confirmed COVID-19 cases in each Province of Afghanistan. By 5 May 2020, all 34 provinces had at least one confirmed positive case of COVID-19.[77][78][87][88][312][82][181][187][58][72]

 
Map of the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Afghanistan as of 17 January 2021.
  Confirmed cases 1–199
  Confirmed cases 200–499
  Confirmed cases 500–999
  Confirmed cases 1000–4999
  Confirmed cases ≥5000
COVID-19 in Afghanistan by Province as of 20 April 2021[3][4]
Province Cases Deaths Recoveries Tests
Badakhshan Province 648 24 565 3,451
Badghis Province 843 16 810 2,933
Baghlan Province 1,110 37 1,008 6,217
Balkh Province 3,431 180 3,058 18,872
Bamyan Province 990 18 907 3,809
Daykundi Province 938 20 917 3,217
Farah Province 613 45 545 1,408
Faryab Province 463 30 374 4,602
Ghazni Province 907 76 782 3,024
Ghor Province 669 17 571 1,824
Helmand Province 472 37 358 4,468
Herat Province 9,343 439 8,840 28,350
Jowzjan Province 248 12 210 837
Kabul Province 18,896[a] 816 16,967 208,634
Kandahar Province 2,872 64 2,565 23,837
Kapisa Province 619 24 583 3,362
Khost Province 672 77 589 1,441
Kunar Province 755 46 669 2,971
Kunduz Province 1,008 55 870 5,336
Laghman Province 865 16 772 3,229
Logar Province 731 34 663 3,134
Nangarhar Province 3,325 179 2,581 13,680
Nimruz Province 711 26 645 5,162
Nuristan Province 168 2 133 985
Paktia Province 1,511 50 1,415 5,054
Paktika Province 322 15 294 1,183
Panjshir Province 411 19 325 2,205
Parwan Province 868 31 772 4,565
Samangan Province 351 18 314 752
Sar-e Pol Province 235 6 228 1,244
Takhar Province 2,108 72 1,992 7,450
Urozgan Province 182 6 142 1,899
Wardak Province 563 29 500 3,719
Zabul Province 367 21 308 2,068
Total (34 Provinces) 58,212 2,557 52,272 384,922

GraphsEdit

Cumulative number of cases, recoveries and deathsEdit

Number of total positive casesEdit

New cases per dayEdit

Deaths per dayEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Including 4 foreign troops and 2 foreign diplomats.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  2. ^ "Afghanistan confirms 1st case of coronavirus". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b "MOPH-COVID-19 Dashboard". covid.moph-dw.org. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Current Cases of COVID-19". tolonews.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b "10 Million Afghans Likely Infected and Recovered From COVID-19: Survey | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Archived from the original on 9 December 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Survey finds at least 10 million Afghans infected with COVID-19". Ariana News. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  8. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  10. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  11. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Future scenarios of the healthcare burden of COVID-19 in low- or middle-income countries". MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis at Imperial College London. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  13. ^ "Coronavirus: Herat emerges as Afghanistan's epicentre". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  14. ^ "From Iran's hot zone, Afghans flee home, spreading virus". MyNorthwest.com. 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  15. ^ "Helping the most vulnerable return home to Afghanistan - Afghanistan". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Coronavirus – Now is not the time to forget Afghanistan and its neighbours". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Coronavirus outbreak fears in Afghanistan amid influx from Iran". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  18. ^ Asher, Saira (9 April 2020). "The porous borders where the virus cannot be controlled". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  19. ^ "3 Suspected Cases of Coronavirus Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  20. ^ "Afghanistan confirms first coronavirus case in province bordering Iran". Reuters. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  21. ^ "Afghanistan's confirmed coronavirus cases rises to four - health ministry spokesman". Reuters. 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  22. ^ a b "5 Positive Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  23. ^ "7 Positive Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  24. ^ a b c "Afghanistan Bans All Sports Events Over Coronavirus Spread". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e "Update: 11 Tested Positive for Coronavirus In Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  26. ^ "First Recovery From COVID-19 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Afghan govt confirms 16 positive COVID-19 cases". outlookindia.com/. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Taliban sound alarm over coronavirus in Afghanistan". The National. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  29. ^ "Patients, at least 1 with coronavirus, break out of Afghan quarantine". Reuters. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  30. ^ "War-ravaged Afghanistan battles a new threat: coronavirus". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  31. ^ "7 Escaped Patients Returned to Herat Hospital". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Nawroz Festival Won't be Celebrated Publically: Govt". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Positive Coronavirus Cases Raise to 34 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Herat Man With COVID-19 Symptoms Dies". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  35. ^ "First Coronavirus Death Confirmed in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  36. ^ "COVID-19: First Deaths In Afghanistan, Kosovo, Romania, North Macedonia". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Govt to Release Inmates Due to COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  38. ^ "6 New COVID-19 Cases, 40 Total in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Afghans not Practicing Social Distancing: Health Ministry". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  40. ^ "32 New Cases of COVID-19 in Afghanistan, Total 74". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Health Minister Predicts Majority Of Afghans Will Get Coronavirus". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Afghanistan: Authorities confirm 79 COVID-19 cases as of March 25 /update 2". GardaWorld. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  43. ^ "45-Year-Old Woman Dies of Coronavirus in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Coronavirus Cases Reach 84: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Health Minister Calls on Afghans to Take Coronavirus Seriously". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  46. ^ "Four Deaths from COVID-19: Local Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Coronavirus Cases Reach 110 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Doctors Ask Residents to Stay at Home amid Kabul Lockdown". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  49. ^ a b "Ministry Increases Testing Capacity for COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  50. ^ "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan: 196". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  51. ^ "196 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  52. ^ "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Raise to 239". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  53. ^ "16 Doctors and Nurses in Herat Infected with COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  54. ^ a b "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan: 245". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  55. ^ "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan: 273". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  56. ^ "Positive cases of Coronavirus rise to 281 – Afghanistan". Ariana News. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  57. ^ "Coronavirus Cases at 299 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  58. ^ a b c "300-Bed Hospital Opened for COVID-19 Patients in Herat". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  59. ^ "Coronavirus Cases Rise to 337 in Afghanistan: Health Ministry". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  60. ^ "Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan: 367". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  61. ^ "Number of COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan: 367". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  62. ^ "56 New COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, Total 423". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  63. ^ "Coronavirus Testing Lab Opens in Kandahar: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  64. ^ "Kabul Clinic Shut Down After Doctor Dies from COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  65. ^ a b "40 New COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, Total 484". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  66. ^ "Herat Residents Ignore Travel Restrictions". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  67. ^ a b c "Herat Lab Lacks COVID-19 Test Kits". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  68. ^ "COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan Reach 521". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  69. ^ "20 at Palace Have Tested Positive for COVID-19: Documents". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  70. ^ "555 COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, 18 Deaths Reported". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  71. ^ "607 Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  72. ^ a b "665 Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  73. ^ "714 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  74. ^ a b "First Personal Protective Equipment Factory Opens in Kabul". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  75. ^ a b "Most Herat COVID-19 Patients Treated at Home, Not Hospital". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  76. ^ "70 New COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Afghanistan, Total 784". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  77. ^ a b "56 New COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Afghanistan, Total 840". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  78. ^ a b "Afghanistan: Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Reach 906". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  79. ^ "Coronavirus cases rise to 906 in Afghanistan". Ariana News. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  80. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Cases Reach 933 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  81. ^ "Afghanistan Coronavirus: 27 new cases, total 933". Ariana News. 18 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  82. ^ a b c "Lack of Kits Halts COVID-19 Testing in Balkh". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  83. ^ "Coronavirus updates: cases rise to 996 in Afghanistan". Ariana News. 19 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  84. ^ "COVID-19 Testing Stopped in Herat Over Lack of Kits". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  85. ^ "35 New COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,031". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  86. ^ "'Coronavirus cases' in Afghan presidential palace". BBC News. 19 April 2020. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  87. ^ a b "66 New COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,092". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  88. ^ a b "Total Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Rises to 1,143". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  89. ^ "106 New Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,281". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  90. ^ "Coronavirus in Afghanistan; cases hike to 1282". Ariana News. 23 April 2020. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  91. ^ "Afghanistan: COVID-19 Cases Reach 1,351". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  92. ^ a b "COVID-19 Cases Reach 1,463 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  93. ^ a b "Afghanistan: COVID-19 Confirmed Cases Reach 1,531". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  94. ^ a b "172 New COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,703". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  95. ^ a b "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Rises to 1,828". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  96. ^ a b "232 New Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 2,171". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  97. ^ a b "2,335 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  98. ^ a b c "179 New Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 2,469". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  99. ^ "235 New COVID-19 Cases Confirmed in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  100. ^ "Confirmed Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Now Close to 3,000". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  101. ^ a b "Total Reported Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan: 3,224". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  102. ^ a b "168 New Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  103. ^ "Black People in Britain Are Twice As Likely to Die of Coronavirus: Live Coverage". The New York Times. 7 May 2020. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  104. ^ a b "3,776 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  105. ^ a b "253 New Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 4,033". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  106. ^ "Afghanistan Coronavirus updates: 361 new cases, total 4402". Ariana News. 10 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  107. ^ "285 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  108. ^ a b "4,963 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  109. ^ a b "259 New Coronavirus Cases Confirmed in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  110. ^ a b "413 New COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, Highest So Far". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  111. ^ a b "Afghanistan: COVID-19 Cases Reach 6,053". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  112. ^ a b "COVID-19 in Afghanistan: 6,402 Positive Cases". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  113. ^ "262 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 6,664". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  114. ^ a b "50 Prisoners, Prison Workers Test Positive for COVID-19: Doctors". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  115. ^ a b "Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Passes 7,000". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  116. ^ a b "581 New COVID-19 Cases, 7,653 Total in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  117. ^ a b "492 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 8,145". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  118. ^ a b "531 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  119. ^ a b "Over 9,000 Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  120. ^ a b "782 New COVID-19 Cases in Afghanistan, Highest So Far". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  121. ^ a b "Afghanistan Reports 658 New COVID-19 Cases". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  122. ^ a b "Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan Exceed 12,000". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  123. ^ a b "580 New Coronavirus Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  124. ^ a b "COVID-19: 623 New Cases and 11 Deaths Reported". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  125. ^ a b "Afghanistan: 866 New Positive COVID-19 Cases". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  126. ^ a b "COVID-19 Cases Over 15,000 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  127. ^ a b "545 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  128. ^ a b "COVID-19 Cases Exceed 16,000 in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  129. ^ a b "758 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  130. ^ "Gov't officials don't follow health guidelines, social distancing". Ariana News. 3 June 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  131. ^ "Officials die of Coronavirus as cases reach 17267 – Afghanistan". Ariana News. 3 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  132. ^ a b "32 Ventilators Smuggled to Pakistan: Report". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  133. ^ "Veteran Afghan Actor Faqeer Nabi, 67, Dies of COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  134. ^ "Afghan Presidential Envoy Dies In Turkey From COVID-19". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  135. ^ "COVID-19 Latest: One of 19 Test Positive in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  136. ^ "Health Minister Warns of Second Wave of COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  137. ^ "150 Herat Students Test Positive for COVID-19 in Past Week". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  138. ^ "Oxygen producing plant inaugurated at Kabul Hospital". Ariana News. 29 November 2020. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  139. ^ "COVID-19 has not left Afghanistan. But in Kabul, people are just ignoring it". Insider. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  140. ^ "Fears Grow in Afghanistan as Mutated COVID Reaches Asia". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  141. ^ "Afghanistan to receive 500,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccines from India soon". mint. 25 January 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  142. ^ "Afghanistan To Receive 5 Lakh Doses Of Covid Vaccines From India Soon". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  143. ^ "COVAX has pledged US$112 million for COVID-19 vaccines for Afghanistan". CNA. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  144. ^ "Afghanistan prepares to vaccinate citizens against coronavirus amid ongoing violence". www.abc.net.au. 27 January 2021. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  145. ^ "First Shipment of COVID-19 Vaccine Arrives in Kabul from India". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  146. ^ "Afghanistan Begins Coronavirus Vaccination". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  147. ^ "Over 8,000 Health Workers Get COVID Vaccination". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  148. ^ "Afghanistan Receives 468,000 Vaccine Doses From COVAX". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  149. ^ "7 Infected With Coronavirus Variant in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  150. ^ "100,000 Afghans Vaccinated for COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  151. ^ Nemat, Arash; Asady, Abdullah (3 August 2021). "The Third Wave of the COVID-19 in Afghanistan: An Update on Challenges and Recommendations". Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 14: 2043–2045. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S325696. ISSN 1178-2390. PMC 8349523. PMID 34376985.
  152. ^ "Afghanistan Records 973 New Coronavirus Cases, 67 Deaths". TOLOnews. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  153. ^ "Afghanistan's Covid-19 Response Falters as U.S. Troops Withdraw". Undark Magazine. 28 July 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  154. ^ "Taliban Banned Using of COVID-19 Vaccines in Paktia". www.english.shamshadnews.com. 12 August 2021. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  155. ^ "Taliban sweep into Afghan capital after government collapses". AP NEWS. 15 August 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  156. ^ "Taliban ban on jabs may trigger COVID-19 spike". SciDev.Net. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  157. ^ "WHO concerned about COVID-19 in Afghanistan as jabs slow". Reuters. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  158. ^ Lonas, Lexi (25 August 2021). "COVID-19 vaccinations plummet in Afghanistan following Taliban takeover: UNICEF". TheHill. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  159. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (27 August 2021). "US opens COVID-19 vaccination site for Afghan arrivals". TheHill. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  160. ^ Dorman, John L. "Taliban spokesman says that China will maintain Afghan embassy and 'beef up' relationship". Business Insider. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  161. ^ "Taliban, US discuss opening 'a new page' in their ties". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  162. ^ "Nearly 40,000 people inoculated daily against Covid-19 in Afghanistan". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  163. ^ "Salaries for Afghanistan health workers sends 'message of hope' to millions". UN News. 10 November 2021. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  164. ^ Hamdard, Azizullah (12 December 2021). "New Covid-19 variant Omicron not detected in Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  165. ^ a b c Asifzada, Husna (8 December 2021). "Beijing Pledges 3M Doses Of Covid-19 Vaccine for Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  166. ^ "Afghanistan gets 800,000 Chinese Covid vaccines". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  167. ^ "In a first since Taliban takeover, India sends medicines to Afghanistan". WION. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  168. ^ a b "How Serious is the Coronavirus in Afghanistan?". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  169. ^ "Pakistan deports 10 virus suspects to native Afghanistan". The Express Tribune. Pakistan. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  170. ^ "4 Coalition Personnel Tested Positive for Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  171. ^ "Afghan National Dies of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  172. ^ "Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia reports first death, 205 new cases of COVID-19". gulfnews.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  173. ^ "Afghanistan's confirmed coronavirus cases rises to four - health ministry spokesman". Reuters. 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  174. ^ a b "Govt Will Provide 50k Testing Kits for Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  175. ^ a b "MoI Puts Ban on Public Gatherings over Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  176. ^ "Government Establishes Five Quarantine Centers". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  177. ^ a b c "'God's punishment': Muted Nowruz in Afghanistan over coronavirus". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  178. ^ Mehrdad, Ezzatullah. "How Afghanistan Failed to Contain COVID-19". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  179. ^ "Coronavirus cases surge above 100 in Afghanistan". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  180. ^ "Afghanistan total coronavirus cases increase to 91". menafn.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  181. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Testing Center Opened in Balkh". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  182. ^ "Coronavirus Testing Lab Opens in Kandahar: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  183. ^ "Only '300' Ventilators in Afghanistan to Treat COVID-19: MoPH". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  184. ^ "200-Bed COVID-19 Hospital Opens in Balkh". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  185. ^ Naadem, Bashir Ahmad (23 March 2020). "Take Covid-19 serious, say infected persons in Kandahar". www.pajhwok.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  186. ^ "Facing Giant Backlog, Hospital Stops Testing New COVID-19 Cases". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  187. ^ a b "Balkh Urgently Needs Health Supplies: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  188. ^ "Afghanistan Short of RNA Extraction Kits". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  189. ^ "Afghanistan turns iconic palace into isolation facility". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  190. ^ "COVID-19 Test Kits Urgently Needed in Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  191. ^ "Testing Lab in Kabul Criticized for Delays". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  192. ^ "66 New COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,092". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  193. ^ "Afghanistan: COVID-19 Cases Reach 1,351". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  194. ^ "Medical Workers Test for COVID-19 Across Kabul". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  195. ^ "Govt Approves Purchase of 500 Ventilators to Treat COVID-19: Arg". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  196. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Makoii, Akhtar Mohammad (2 May 2020). "Civil war, poverty and now the virus: Afghanistan stands on the brink". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  197. ^ "262 New COVID-19 Cases Reported in Afghanistan, Total 6,664". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  198. ^ a b "New Acting Health Minister Introduced, Pledges Reforms". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  199. ^ "Afghanistan Faces COVID-19 'Humanitarian Disaster': IRC". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  200. ^ "13 Doctors Resign from COVID-19 Hospital in Herat". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  201. ^ "570 Doctors, Health Workers Infected with COVID-19 in Herat". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  202. ^ "Private Hospitals Unable to Conduct COVID-19 Tests: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  203. ^ "Oxygen Shortage Persists at Govt Hospitals". TOLOnews. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  204. ^ "Coronavirus pushing millions of Afghans into poverty: SIGAR". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  205. ^ . p. 3. {{cite news}}: |first= missing |last= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  206. ^ "Wolesi Jirga to Meet Less Amid Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  207. ^ MEHWAR: 449 Suspected Coronavirus Cases Tested | TOLOnews, archived from the original on 24 March 2020, retrieved 24 March 2020
  208. ^ "Afghan Authorities Close Eastern City Of Jalalabad Due To Coronavirus Fears - Spokesman". UrduPoint. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  209. ^ "Afghanistan: Vendors in Jalalabad more afraid of poverty than coronavirus amid city lockdown". YouTube. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  210. ^ "COVID-19: Govt Limits Residents' Movement in Herat". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  211. ^ "Coronavirus: Herat emerges as Afghanistan's epicentre". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  212. ^ "Afghanistan Locks Down 'Gateway' City Of Coronavirus Outbreak". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  213. ^ "Afghanistan to release up to 10,000 prisoners to slow coronavirus spread". Yahoo! News. AFP. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  214. ^ "Govt to Release Thousands of Prisoners Amid COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  215. ^ "Afghanistan to release 10,000 prisoners to slow spread of coronavirus". Reuters. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  216. ^ "In Bid To Stop Coronavirus Spread, Afghanistan To Release Thousands of Inmates". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  217. ^ "ثبت ۹ رویداد مشکوک ویروس کرونا در بلخ". طلوع‌نیوز (in Persian). Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  218. ^ "Afghanistan Locks Down Capital To Avoid Coronavirus Tide". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  219. ^ "Kabul Lockdown Begins Saturday: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  220. ^ "Coronavirus: Afghanistan approves plan to impose lockdown in Kabul". Devdiscourse. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  221. ^ "Afghans concerned about income amid COVID-19 lockdown". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  222. ^ "Passenger Travel In and Out of Kabul Blocked". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  223. ^ a b "Kabul lockdown extended for 3 more weeks". dtNext.in. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  224. ^ "Govt Extends Kabul Lockdown as Fears Grow". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  225. ^ "Balkh conditionally lifts movement restrictions amid COVID19 outbreak". Ariana News. 10 May 2020. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  226. ^ "Kabul Lockdown Eases Amid Warnings on Crisis". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  227. ^ "Kabul to impose stricter quarantine measures over Eid days". Ariana News. 22 May 2020. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  228. ^ "Substandard Chinese medical equipment threatens Afghanistan's coronavirus fight". Asia News. 20 May 2020. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  229. ^ "China's Medical Supply Shipment Arrives in Kabul". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  230. ^ a b "Lockdown Hits Thousands of Vulnerable Families in Balkh". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  231. ^ "COVID-19: Türkiye yurtdışında nereye, nasıl destek sağlıyor?". Deutsche Welle (in Turkish). 20 April 2020. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  232. ^ "Second Chinese shipment of medical aid arrives in Kabul". Ariana News. 23 April 2020. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  233. ^ "SAARC". www.theprint.in. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  234. ^ "World Bank Approves $100M in Aid for Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  235. ^ a b "Afghan Govt Seeks More Foreign Aid to Fight COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  236. ^ "Qatari Foundation, Afghan Investors Give Aid Worth $2M: MoPH". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  237. ^ "World Bank approves $400 million grant for Afghanistan". Ariana News. 8 May 2020. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  238. ^ "World Bank Approves $400 M for Afghanistan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  239. ^ "Jamhuriat Hospital Receives Health Equipment: Officials". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  240. ^ "'Taliban' Holding Up Turkmen Aid Trucks in Faryab". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  241. ^ "Emergency committee on COVID19 prevention distributes food in Kabul". Ariana News. 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  242. ^ a b "Man Sews 500 Masks A Day, Gives to Poor for Free". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  243. ^ "Volunteer Medical Workers Deliver Food, Advice to Kabul's Poor". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  244. ^ a b "Shootout at Afghanistan food aid event kills six". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  245. ^ "Why social distancing is key in containing the new coronavirus". MNT. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  246. ^ "Countering COVID-19 in Afghanistan. "Let this be a wake-up call" - Afghanistan". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  247. ^ a b "Afghan Clerics Ban Religious, Political Gatherings Amid COVID-19". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  248. ^ "House Visits Raise Afghan COVID-19 Awareness". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  249. ^ "Clerics and Doctors Launch COVID-19 Awareness Campaign". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  250. ^ "Bayat Group launches aggressive public health campaign – Coronavirus". Ariana News. 15 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  251. ^ "Fighting COVID19; Bayat Foundation distributes food to needy in Herat". Ariana News. 24 April 2020. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  252. ^ "Coronavirus: Bayat Foundation donates food supplies in Khost". Ariana News. 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  253. ^ "Bayat Foundation donates food packages to needy families – Faryab". Ariana News. 9 May 2020. Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  254. ^ "Bayat Group, AWCC continue disinfecting Kabul city". Ariana News. 8 May 2020. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  255. ^ "Bayat Foundation donates food packages – Daikundi". Ariana News. 16 May 2020. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  256. ^ "Bayat Foundation donates food supplies to needy families – Badakhshan". Ariana News. 18 May 2020. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  257. ^ "Bayat Group, AWCC disinfect parts of Kabul City". Ariana News. 19 May 2020. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  258. ^ "Taliban sound alarm over coronavirus in Afghanistan". The National. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  259. ^ "Taliban Launches Awareness Campaign on Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  260. ^ "Taliban launches campaign to help Afghanistan fight coronavirus". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  261. ^ "Rapid Mask-Production Begins in Herat Factory". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  262. ^ . p. 3. {{cite news}}: |first= missing |last= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  263. ^ "Coronavirus: Afghanistan scraps annual Nevruz festival". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  264. ^ "Nawroz Festival Won't be Celebrated Publically: Govt". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  265. ^ "مراسم جهنده بالا در مزارشریف شب‌هنگام برگزار شد". طلوع‌نیوز (in Persian). Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  266. ^ "Avoid Eid Gatherings if You Might Be Infectious: Hajj Ministry". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  267. ^ "Afghan Olympic Swimmer Amid COVID-19 Trains in Lake". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  268. ^ Mehrdad, Ezzatullah. "Afghan Media Struggle to Survive the Pandemic". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  269. ^ "Thousands Lose Jobs as Businesses Close in Herat". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  270. ^ "Low Wage Afghan Families Hit Hard by Lockdown". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  271. ^ "Afghan Power Company Faces 60% Fall in Revenue, Seeks Loan". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  272. ^ "Afghans Face Power Cut if Bills to Uzbekistan Not Paid". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  273. ^ "Restaurant Active in Kabul Despite Lockdown: Residents". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  274. ^ "Police Close Restaurant that Defied Lockdown". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  275. ^ "Seven Star Restaurant Owner Under Investigation: MoI". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  276. ^ "Afghan Airline Companies Lose 'Millions,' Seek Tax Exemptions". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  277. ^ "1,900 Afghan-Bound Containers Stuck at Karachi Port". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  278. ^ "Covid-19 impacts; Afghanistan's exports on hold". Ariana News. 3 June 2020. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  279. ^ "Pakistan to Reopen Routes for Afghan Exports". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  280. ^ "Pakistan Opens Crossing Areas to Allow Afghan Goods". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  281. ^ "Afghan Goods Enter India Through Wagah Border". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  282. ^ "China Welcomes Afghanistan-Pakistan Trade Resumption". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  283. ^ "Coronavirus: Afghanistan closes educational institutions". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  284. ^ "School lessons to officially start through media next week". Ariana News. 11 April 2020. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  285. ^ "Ministry of Education launches distance learning website". Ariana News. 7 May 2020. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  286. ^ "Afghanistan, ongoing remote studying". Al Jazeera Media Network. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  287. ^ "Afghanistan Reopens Schools After 5 Months". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  288. ^ "Lockdown Affects Businesses in Kabul". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  289. ^ "At least six killed in protests over food distribution in Afghanistan". Reuters. 9 May 2020. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  290. ^ "Ghor protests take six lives". Ariana News. 9 May 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  291. ^ "Six die in clashes at Afghan food aid protest". BBC News. 9 May 2020. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  292. ^ "30K Afghans Returned from Iran in 3 Days". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  293. ^ "Thousands of Afghans Return from Iran Amid Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  294. ^ "Iran neighbours close their borders as coronavirus toll rises". France 24. 23 February 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  295. ^ "Re-opened borders with Iran". U.S. Embassy in Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  296. ^ "Afghan Airlines Intl Flights 90% Halted: ACAA". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  297. ^ Sharma, Ashutosh. "COVID-19: Indians in Afghanistan seek to be evacuated, doctors stress lack of PPE". The Caravan. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  298. ^ "Allowed and decline borders - Afganistan". Office Holidays LTD. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  299. ^ "Afganistan closed for travel". TripsGuard. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  300. ^ "Afghanistan resumes international flights amid COVID-19". The Nation. 24 June 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  301. ^ Ghazi, Zabihullah; Abed, Fahim (21 October 2020). "Demand for Pakistan Visas Sets Off Deadly Stampede in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  302. ^ "Coronavirus: Pak-Afghan border to remain closed for another week". Dunya News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  303. ^ "Coronavirus: Pakistan extends border closure with Afghanistan for seven days". www.geo.tv. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  304. ^ "Coronavirus Cases Rise to 19 in Pakistan, Partial Closure of Border with Afghanistan to be Extended". News18. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  305. ^ "Pakistan to shut borders, limit international flights over coronavirus -minister". National Post. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  306. ^ "Pakistan set to seal border with Afghanistan, Iran to prevent coronavirus spread". www.geo.tv. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  307. ^ "Pakistan opens border with Afghanistan to allow essential goods to pass through". www.geo.tv. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  308. ^ "Pakistan allows exit of Afghan nationals through Torkham". ARY NEWS. 4 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  309. ^ "COVID-19: Pakistan to open border for stranded Afghans". www.aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  310. ^ Mati (4 April 2020). "Pakistan allows Afghan nationals to return to their Country". Dispatch News Desk. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  311. ^ "Pakistan Allows Afghans to Return Home at Kabul's Request". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  312. ^ "50 New Coronavirus Cases in Afghanistan, Total 1,226". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.