COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access, abbreviated as COVAX, is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by the GAVI vaccine alliance, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and the World Health Organization (WHO), alongside key delivery partner UNICEF. It is one of the four pillars of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator, an initiative begun in April 2020 by the WHO, the European Commission, and the government of France as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.[1] UNICEF is the key delivery partner, leveraging its experience as the largest single vaccine buyer in the world and working on the procurement of COVID-19 vaccine doses, as well logistics, country readiness and in-country delivery.

US Officials deliver COVID-19 vaccines to Ghana as part of the COVAX program in 2021. Ghana was the first recipient of vaccines through COVAX.

By 19 October 2020, 184 countries had joined COVAX.[2]

COVAX began distributing vaccines in February 2021. Though COVAX promised 100 million doses by the end of March,[3][4] this goal was not reached until 6 July.[5] By mid-August 2021, COVAX delivered 200 million vaccine doses to nearly 140 countries instead of the 600 million doses initially projected. The continued shortage of COVID-19 vaccines delivered through COVAX is blamed on "vaccine nationalism" by richer nations, and the diversion of 400 million Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine doses, produced under license by the Serum Institute of India (SII), for domestic use in India.[6] As of April 2022, more than 1.4 billion doses were delivered, when the largest recipients were Bangladesh (183 mil. of doses), Pakistan (112 mil.) and Indonesia (104 million).[7]

HistoryEdit

In April 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Commission, and the government of France founded the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator, an initiative begun as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) is one of its four pillars. It is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by the GAVI vaccine alliance, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and the WHO, alongside key delivery partner UNICEF. COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.[1]

Vaccine candidatesEdit

As of 23 December 2021, the WHO had approved Oxford–AstraZeneca, Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, Sinopharm BIBP, CoronaVac, Janssen, Covaxin, and Novavax vaccines for emergency use.[8][9][10] These vaccines can be distributed as part of COVAX per decision in May 2021.[11][12]

Many of the countries benefitting from COVAX have "limited regulatory capacity" and depend on WHO's authorisations. By early 2021, WHO was reviewing 11 potential COVID-19 vaccines for its Emergency Use Listing (EUL).[13] The first vaccine WHO authorised for its EUL on 31 December 2020 was the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine—an RNA vaccine developed by the German company BioNTech in cooperation with the American company Pfizer sold under the brand name Comirnaty.[14][15][16]

On 24 August 2020 WHO stated that COVAX had nine CEPI-supported vaccine candidates and nine candidates undergoing trials, giving it the largest selection of COVID-19 vaccinations in the world.[17] By December 2020, COVAX had finalized negotiations with other manufacturers that gave it access to two billion vaccine doses.[18]

Distribution (recipients)Edit

Involvement by country
  •   AMC donor
  •   Member of the European Union (AMC donor)
  •   Self-financing participant
  •   Self-financing participant and AMC donor
  •   AMC recipient
  •   AMC recipient and donor
  •   Not involved
 
Donations of Moderna vaccines from the United States are unloaded in Bhutan in 2021

COVAX provides vaccines to the developing world.[19] A total of 92 low- and middle-income countries are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX mechanism[20] through the COVAX Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (AMC) financing instrument.[20][21] COVAX AMC is funded by donor contributions.[21] COVAX AMC funds the COVAX Facility, the vaccine procurement platform.[21]

On 3 February 2021, GAVI, the WHO, and UNICEF published the country-by-country distribution of the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines forecast for first half of 2021.[22] The early projection includes 336 million doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine as well as 1.2 million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine to the 145 COVAX facility participants.[23][24] It is expected that health care workers and the most vulnerable will receive the first doses, which are anticipated to reach approximately 3.3% of the total population of each participating country by the end of the first half of 2021.[24]

In February 2021, the WHO and Chubb Limited announced the roll out of a no-fault compensation scheme for COVID-19 vaccinations for low and middle-income countries which would be financed initially through Gavi COVAX AMC donor funding.[25]

On 24 February 2021, Ghana became the first country in the world to receive vaccines through COVAX when 600,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were delivered to Accra.[19][26] On 2 March, COVID-19 vaccines were being distributed in Ghana by Zipline drones.[27] This method allows reaching remote areas (which are underserved by traditional logistics).[28]

On 1 March 2021, frontline workers and public officials from the Ivory Coast became the first persons to be inoculated with COVID-19 vaccines shipped from the COVAX Facility. More than 500,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India were shipped to the city of Abidjan the week before. The vaccines were flown in by UNICEF from Mumbai.[29]

On 5 March 2021, Moldova received 14,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the first European country to do so. The country had already been donated 21,600 doses of the same vaccine by Romania some days earlier.[30]

On 25 March 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina received 24,300 Pfizer–BioNTech and 26,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the second European country to do so.[31] The country had already been, in total, donated over 20,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine by Serbia and Slovenia some weeks earlier.[32][33]

On 8 June 2021, Uruguay released health data from their vaccination efforts through the COVAX program. Almost 800,000 individuals or 52% of the adult population received two doses of the Coronavac or Pfizer vaccines. The government also studied the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine among 162,047 health workers and people over 80 years old. Both vaccine types reduced hospitalisations and deaths by over 90%, and infection rates by more than 60%. Because of accessible healthcare and available COVAX vaccine supplies, the small Latin nation was able to ward off a serious COVID-19 spike in May 2021.[34]

On 1 August 2021, the Venezuelan government announced it will receive 6.2 million doses of coronavirus vaccines through the COVAX initiative. Part of the payment to the GAVI alliance was first blocked due to economic sanctions. Venezuela is a self-financing participant of COVAX. According to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), Venezuela will receive China's Sinopharm BIBP vaccine and CoronaVac. The country previously obtained the AstraZeneca vaccine through the program, but Venezuelan health officials did not approve the product for domestic use.[35]

Interim Distribution Forecast as of 3 February 2021 (doses)[24]
AMC: Advance Market Commitment; SFP: Self-Financing Participants
Participant SFP/AMC AstraZeneca
SII
AstraZeneca
SK Bioscience
Pfizer–BioNTech Total
  India AMC 97,164,000 - - 97,164,000
  Pakistan AMC 17,160,000 - - 17,160,000
  Nigeria AMC 16,008,000 - - 16,008,000
  Indonesia AMC - 13,708,800 - 13,708,800
  Bangladesh AMC 12,792,000 - - 12,792,000
  Brazil SFP - 10,672,800 - 10,672,800
  Ethiopia AMC 8,928,000 - - 8,928,000
  Congo, Dem. Rep. AMC 6,948,000 - - 6,948,000
  Mexico SFP - 6,472,800 - 6,472,800
  Philippines AMC - 5,500,800 117,000 5,617,800
  Egypt AMC - 5,138,400 - 5,138,400
  Vietnam AMC - 4,886,400 - 4,886,400
  Myanmar AMC 4,224,000 - - 4,224,000
  Iran SFP - 4,216,800 - 4,216,800
  Kenya AMC 4,176,000 - - 4,176,000
  Uganda AMC 3,552,000 - - 3,552,000
  Sudan AMC 3,396,000 - - 3,396,000
  South Africa SFP - 2,976,000 117,000 3,093,000
  Afghanistan AMC 3,024,000 - - 3,024,000
  South Korea SFP - 2,596,800 117,000 2,713,800
  Colombia SFP - 2,553,600 117,000 2,670,600
  Uzbekistan AMC 2,640,000 - - 2,640,000
  Angola AMC 2,544,000 - - 2,544,000
  Mozambique AMC 2,424,000 - - 2,424,000
  Ghana AMC 2,412,000 - - 2,412,000
  Ukraine AMC - 2,215,200 117,000 2,332,200
  Yemen AMC 2,316,000 - - 2,316,000
  Argentina SFP - 2,275,200 - 2,275,200
    Nepal AMC 2,256,000 - - 2,256,000
  Algeria AMC - 2,200,800 - 2,200,800
  Cameroon AMC 2,052,000 - - 2,052,000
  Cote d'Ivoire AMC 2,040,000 - - 2,040,000
  Iraq SFP - 2,018,400 - 2,018,400
  North Korea AMC 1,992,000 - - 1,992,000
  Canada SFP - 1,903,200 - 1,903,200
  Morocco AMC - 1,881,600 - 1,881,600
  Niger AMC 1,872,000 - - 1,872,000
  Peru SFP - 1,653,600 117,000 1,770,600
  Saudi Arabia SFP - 1,747,200 - 1,747,200
  Sri Lanka AMC 1,692,000 - - 1,692,000
  Malaysia SFP - 1,624,800 - 1,624,800
  Burkina Faso AMC 1,620,000 - - 1,620,000
  Mali AMC 1,572,000 - - 1,572,000
  Malawi AMC 1,476,000 - - 1,476,000
  Zambia AMC 1,428,000 - - 1,428,000
  Venezuela SFP - 1,425,600 - 1,425,600
Non-UN Member States N/A - 1,303,200 - 1,303,200
  Cambodia AMC 1,296,000 - - 1,296,000
  Senegal AMC 1,296,000 - - 1,296,000
  Chad AMC 1,272,000 - - 1,272,000
  Somalia AMC 1,224,000 - - 1,224,000
  Zimbabwe AMC 1,152,000 - - 1,152,000
  Guinea AMC 1,020,000 - - 1,020,000
  Syrian Arab Republic AMC 1,020,000 - - 1,020,000
  Bolivia AMC 900,000 - 92,430 992,430
  Chile SFP - 957,600 - 957,600
  Benin AMC 936,000 - - 936,000
  Rwanda AMC 996,000 - 102,960 1,098,960
  Ecuador SFP - 885,600 - 885,600
  Haiti AMC 876,000 - - 876,000
  South Sudan AMC 864,000 - - 864,000
  Guatemala SFP - 847,200 - 847,200
  Tajikistan AMC 732,000 - - 732,000
  Tunisia AMC - 592,800 93,600 686,400
  Papua New Guinea AMC 684,000 - - 684,000
  Togo AMC 636,000 - - 636,000
  Sierra Leone AMC 612,000 - - 612,000
  Laos AMC 564,000 - - 564,000
  Dominican Republic SFP - 542,400 - 542,400
  Jordan SFP - 511,200 - 511,200
  Azerbaijan SFP - 506,400 - 506,400
  Kyrgyz Republic AMC 504,000 - - 504,000
  Nicaragua AMC 504,000 - - 504,000
  Honduras AMC - 496,800 - 496,800
  Congo, Rep. AMC 420,000 - - 420,000
  Liberia AMC 384,000 - - 384,000
  El Salvador AMC - 324,000 51,480 375,480
  Central African Republic AMC 372,000 - - 372,000
  Mauritania AMC 360,000 - - 360,000
  Paraguay SFP - 357,600 - 357,600
  Serbia SFP - 345,600 - 345,600
  Libya SFP - 343,200 - 343,200
  Lebanon SFP - 340,800 - 340,800
  Singapore SFP - 288,000 - 288,000
  Palestine AMC - 240,000 37,440 277,440
  Costa Rica SFP - 254,400 - 254,400
  Oman SFP - 254,400 - 254,400
  New Zealand SFP - 249,600 - 249,600
  Panama SFP - 216,000 - 216,000
  Georgia SFP - 184,800 29,250 214,050
  Mongolia AMC - 163,200 25,740 188,940
  Moldova AMC - 156,000 24,570 180,570
  Gambia, The AMC 180,000 - - 180,000
  Bosnia and Herzegovina SFP - 153,600 23,400 177,000
  Uruguay SFP - 172,800 - 172,800
  Lesotho AMC 156,000 - - 156,000
  Armenia SFP - 146,400 - 146,400
  Jamaica SFP - 146,400 - 146,400
  Guinea-Bissau AMC 144,000 - - 144,000
  Qatar SFP - 144,000 - 144,000
  Albania SFP - 141,600 - 141,600
  Namibia SFP - 127,200 - 127,200
  Botswana SFP - 117,600 - 117,600
  Bhutan AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
  Cabo Verde AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
  Comoros AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
  Djibouti AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
  Eswatini AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
  Solomon Islands AMC 108,000 - - 108,000
  North Macedonia SFP - 103,200 - 103,200
  Maldives AMC 108,000 - 5,850 113,850
  Bahamas SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Bahrain SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Barbados SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Belize SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Brunei Darussalam SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Fiji AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
  Guyana AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
  Kosovo AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
  Mauritius SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Timor-Leste AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
  Trinidad and Tobago SFP - 100,800 - 100,800
  Vanuatu AMC - 100,800 - 100,800
  Sao Tome and Principe AMC 96,000 - - 96,000
  Montenegro SFP - 84,000 - 84,000
  Samoa AMC - 79,200 - 79,200
  Suriname SFP - 79,200 - 79,200
  St. Lucia AMC - 74,400 - 74,400
  Kiribati AMC - 48,000 - 48,000
  Micronesia, Fed. Sts. AMC - 48,000 - 48,000
  Grenada AMC - 45,600 - 45,600
  St. Vincent and the Grenadines AMC - 45,600 - 45,600
  Tonga AMC - 43,200 - 43,200
  Antigua and Barbuda SFP - 40,800 - 40,800
  Dominica AMC - 28,800 - 28,800
  Andorra SFP - 26,400 - 26,400
  Marshall Islands AMC - 24,000 - 24,000
  St. Kitts and Nevis SFP - 21,600 - 21,600
  Monaco SFP - 7,200 - 7,200
  Nauru SFP - 7,200 - 7,200
  Tuvalu AMC - 4,800 - 4,800
TOTAL - 227,664,000 91,200,000 1,200,420 320,064,420

Participants (donors)Edit

COVAX is principally funded by Western countries.[19] As of 19 February 2021, 30 countries have signed commitment agreements to the COVAX Facility as well as the European Union (apart from the individual member states). Although more than $6 billion was pledged, not all of the funding has been delivered yet. In April, the initiative wrote that it had not yet received its target of $3.2 billion for 2021.[36]

Although mainly funded by governments ("Official Development Assistance"), the COVAX scheme is also funded by private-sector and philanthropic contributions, and recipient countries may share some costs for vaccines and delivery.[21]

In May 2021, UNICEF made an urgent appeal to industrialised nations to pool their excess COVID-19 vaccine capacity to make up for a 125-million-dose gap in the COVAX program. Only a limited amount of vaccines are distributed efficiently, and the shortfall of vaccines in South America and parts of Asia are due to a lack of expedient donations by richer nations. International organisations have pointed at Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Maldives as well as Argentina and Brazil, and some parts of the Caribbean as problem areas, where vaccines are in short supply. UNICEF has also been critical towards proposed donations of Moderna and Pfizer vaccines since these are not slated for delivery until the second half of 2021, or early 2022.[37]

COVAX-AMC donors as of 27 April 2022[38]

(million USD)
Donor Contributions
  United States of America 4,000.0
  Germany 1,653.9
  Japan 1,500.0
  United Kingdom 735.2
  Canada 669.2
  Sweden 549.2
  European Commission 542.9
  Italy 442.7
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 236.3
  France 229.0
  South Korea 210.0
  Norway 197.7
  Australia 159.1
   Switzerland 157.5
  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 150.0
  Spain 127.2
  Netherlands 108.7
  China 100.0
  Brazil 86.7
  Kuwait 50.0
Reed Hastings and Patty Quillin 30.0
Mastercard 28.3
  New Zealand 22.5
  Finland 19.3
  Denmark 18.2
Gates Philanthropy Partners 18.0
  Ireland 15.5
  Belgium 13.6
  Qatar 10.0
Shell 10.0
Twilio 10.0
  Austria 8.5
  Iceland 8.0
Google.org 7.5
WHO Foundation - Go Give One Campaign 6.0
  Luxembourg 5.7
KSRelief 5.3
  Singapore 5.0
Cisco 5.0
Procter & Gamble 5.0
TikTok 5.0
Wise 5.0
Visa Foundation 4.5
Soccer Aid 4.2
Thistledown Foundation 3.9
  Bahrain 2.5
Gamers without Borders / Ksrelief 2.3
Vaccine Forward Initiative 2.2
UBS Optimus Foundation 2.1
  Greece 1.8
Portuguese Private Sector 1.8
Asia Philanthropy Circle 1.5
  Philippines 1.1
  Oman 1.0
  Portugal 1.0
  Vietnam 1.0
Analog Devices Foundation 1.0
Stanley Black & Decker 1.0
Others 246.1
Total 12,445.7

CanadaEdit

Canada pledged $220 million worth of vaccines on 25 September 2020 to join as a self-financing contributor to COVAX. On 14 June, Canada doubled its pledge to add an additional 13 million doses of AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, and NovaVax vaccines. This was in addition to the over 80 million available to purchase through financial contribution.[citation needed]

ChinaEdit

China joined COVAX on 9 October 2020.[39] The Sinopharm BIBP vaccine and CoronaVac (by Sinovac Biotech) are Chinese-developed vaccines approved by the WHO for distribution through COVAX.[40] By July 2021, GAVI had signed advanced purchase agreements for 170 million doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, 350 million doses of CoronaVac, and 414 million doses of SCB-2019, another vaccine in Phase III trials.[41][42] On Aug. 8, 2021, China pledges US$100 million towards equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines for lower-income countries, brings the total raised for the Covax to nearly US$10 billion [43] Further, China's Leader Xi Jinping pledges 2 billion vaccines globally through year's end. According to AP News, China has already delivered 770 million doses to foreign countries since September 2020 (as of Aug 6, 2021) [44]

IndiaEdit

India joined COVAX through a membership with the GAVI alliance.[45] The Serum Institute of India is the main producer for the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, up to 700 million doses were expected for 2021. After initial deliveries to North Africa, West Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East in March and April 2021, India began to limit vaccine exports until the end of 2021, due to high domestic demand.[46][47][48] Based on the high infection rates in India, COVAX was projected to deliver only 145 million doses instead of 240 million by May 2021. Vaccine production was also negatively affected because of a ban by the U.S. on the export of key raw materials.[49] In September 2021, the Government of India announced the resumption of vaccines exports from October 2021 onwards since it had quadrupled its production and only excess supplies would be exported.[50]

European UnionEdit

As of November 2020, the European Union (EU) and EU members have pledged €870 million to COVAX.[51] The European Commission (EC) brought the EU into COVAX on 31 August 2020 and pledged €400 million in guarantees,[52] but did not state how this money would be paid out or its conditions.[53] The EC pledged a further €100 million from the 11th European Development Fund to COVAX via a grant to GAVI on 12 November. Individual EU member states have also made additional pledges; France donated an additional €100 million, Spain an additional €50 million, and Finland an additional €2 million.[51]

According to the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany has joined COVAX through the European Union and has pledged €300 million for the treatment of COVID-19 in developing nations bringing the total EU contribution to over €2.2 billion.[54]

On the consilium site, Team Europe reported a €2.47 billion donation.[55]

United KingdomEdit

The United Kingdom has provided £548 million to Covax.[56] The United Kingdom was the biggest single donor to COVAX-AMC until being overtaken by the European Union and the United States.[57]

United StatesEdit

 
Vaccines donated by the United States are transported in Ecuador in 2021

As part of its America First policy,[58] the Trump administration stated that it would not join COVAX because of its association with the WHO,[59][60] from which it had begun a year-long withdrawal process on 6 July 2020.[61]

After Joe Biden was elected president in the 2020 election, he announced that the United States would remain in the WHO and would join COVAX on 20 January 2021. This reversal of American policy (announced by Anthony Fauci, Chief Medical Advisor to the President) was welcomed globally.[62][63] On 19 February, the US pledged $4 billion, making it the single largest contributor to the fund.[64]

On 16 July 2021, the African Union (AU)/African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT), COVAX and the United States government announced the donation of 25 million Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines to 49 African countries. Afreximbank put in place a US$2 billion Advance Procurement Commitment (APC) Guarantee to obtain 400 million more doses of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, providing a total of 620 million doses to Africa by the end of 2021. The vaccines will be in part sourced from licensed production in South Africa,[65] and distributed by COVAX with the goal to vaccinate 60% of the population.[66]

United Arab EmiratesEdit

Since the UAE started producing Hayat-Vax in late March 2021, a rebranded version of the Chinese Sinopharm BIBP vaccine through a joint venture between Sinopharm and Group 42, the country has donated vaccine doses to several African countries.[67][68][69]

Private donorsEdit

It is possible for private donors to donate to COVAX through the "Go Give One" campaign. The WHO estimates the campaign's cost-effectiveness at one vaccine dose per US$7 donated.[70]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "COVAX explained". gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  2. ^ World Health Organization (15 July 2020). "More than 150 countries engaged in COVID-19 vaccine global access facility". Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  3. ^ Gleeson, Deborah (11 April 2021). "The best hope for fairly distributing COVID-19 vaccines globally is at risk of failing. Here's how to save it". The Conversation. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  4. ^ "Coronavirus: WHO chief criticizes 'shocking' global vaccine divide". BBC. 10 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  5. ^ @gavi (6 July 2021). "100 million doses delivered" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  6. ^ Paun, Carmen (5 August 2021). "Gavi on the defensive over vaccine-equity effort" politico.com. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  7. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccine Market Dashboard". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  8. ^ "Status of COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process" (PDF). Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Covaxin Gets WHO Approval, Finally". 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  10. ^ "WHO lists 9th COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use with aim to increase access to vaccination in lower-income countries". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  11. ^ "WHO gives emergency approval to Sinopharm, first Chinese Covid-19 vaccine". The Daily Star. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  12. ^ "WHO approves China's Sinopharm vaccine for emergency use". euronews. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  13. ^ Widianto, Stanley (29 January 2021). "COVAX to ship enough shots for 3% of poor countries' populations in H1 - WHO". Reuters. Jakarta. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Comirnaty EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  15. ^ "WHO issues its first emergency use validation for a COVID-19 vaccine and emphasizes need for equitable global access". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 31 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing". World Health Organization (WHO). 8 January 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  17. ^ World Health Organization (24 August 2020). "172 countries and multiple candidate vaccines engaged in COVID-19 vaccine Global Access Facility" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  18. ^ World Health Organization (18 December 2020). "COVAX Announces additional deals to access promising COVID-19 vaccine candidates; plans global rollout starting Q1 2021" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  19. ^ a b c Gabriele Steinhauser, Ghana Is First Nation to Get Free Covid-19 Vaccines Under Covax Plan, Wall Street Journal (24 February 2021).
  20. ^ a b 92 low- and middle-income economies eligible to get access to COVID-19 vaccines through Gavi COVAX AMC, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (31 July 2020).
  21. ^ a b c d Seth Berkley. "The Gavi COVAX AMC Explained". Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
  22. ^ Jerving, Sara (3 February 2021). "COVAX releases country-by-country of vaccine distribution figures". Devex. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  23. ^ "COVAX publishes first interim distribution forecast". Gavi. 3 February 2021.
  24. ^ a b c "The Covax Facility: Interim Distribution Forecast – latest as of 3 February 2021" (PDF). COVAX. 3 February 2021.
  25. ^ "World's first COVID-19 vaccination compensation scheme launched". Health Europa. 23 February 2021. Archived from the original on 23 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  26. ^ "Covid: WHO scheme Covax delivers first vaccines". BBC News. 24 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ COVAX vaccines take to the air by drone
  28. ^ Self-flying drones are helping speed deliveries of COVID-19 vaccines
  29. ^ Ducharme, Jamie (1 March 2021). "The First COVID-19 Vaccines Shipped Through COVAX Were Administered in the Ivory Coast". time.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  30. ^ "Moldova becomes first European country to receive COVID-19 vaccines under COVAX scheme". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 5 March 2021.
  31. ^ I.S. (25 March 2021). "U BiH preko COVAX-a došla i pošiljka vakcina AstraZenece" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  32. ^ R.D. (2 March 2021). "Predsjednik Srbije Aleksandar Vučić sletio u Sarajevo s donacijom vakcina" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  33. ^ G.M. (5 March 2021). "Borut Pahor u Predsjedništvu BiH, Slovenija donira 4.800 vakcina našoj zemlji" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  34. ^ D. Saentis (8 June 2021). "Sinovac, Pfizer/BioNtech COVID-19 vaccines prove highly effective in Uruguay -government" Reuters. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  35. ^ "Venezuela to receive COVAX vaccines in coming days, Maduro says" Reuters. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  36. ^ "How can we vaccinate the world? Five challenges facing the UN-backed COVAX programme". UN News. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  37. ^ "UN agencies make urgent appeal for COVAX vaccine doses". CIDRAP (Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy). Retrieved June 2021.
  38. ^ "Key Outcomes One World Protected - COVAX AMC Summit
    Assured resources for the Gavi COVAX AMC"
    (PDF). Gavi.
  39. ^ Qian, Colin; Nebehay, Stephanie (9 October 2020). "China joins WHO-backed vaccine programme COVAX rejected by Trump". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  40. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (1 June 2021). "WHO approves Sinovac COVID shot in second Chinese milestone". Reuters. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  41. ^ "Chinese drugmakers agree to supply more than half a billion vaccines to COVAX". Reuters. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  42. ^ "China's Clover to supply up to 414 mln COVID-19 doses to COVAX scheme". Reuters. 30 June 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  43. ^ "On Aug. 8, 2021, China pledges US$ 100 million towards equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines for lower-income countries". Gavi.org. 6 August 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  44. ^ "China pledges 2 billion vaccines globally through year's end". APNews. 6 August 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  45. ^ GAVI (The Vaccine Alliance) – India. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  46. ^ Beaumont, Peter (24 March 2021) "Delhi reportedly halts AstraZeneca Covid vaccine exports as cases soar". theguardian.com. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  47. ^ India coronavirus: Can all adults get vaccinated in 2021? bbc.com. Retrieved 23 June 2021
  48. ^ McGregor, Grady (April 7, 2021). "India’s record wave of COVID-19 infections threatens the global vaccine supply". Fortune. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  49. ^ "Why Covid-19 Vaccination in Poorer Nations Has Slowed, Posing Global Risks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  50. ^ Arora, Neha; Das, Krishna N. (20 September 2021). "India to restart COVID vaccine exports to COVAX, neighbours". Reuters.
  51. ^ a b European Commission (12 November 2020). "EU increases its contribution to COVAX to €500 million to secure COVID-19 vaccines for low and middle-income countries" (Press release). Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  52. ^ European Commission (31 August 2020). "Coronavirus Global Response: Commission joins the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility (COVAX)" (Press release). Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  53. ^ Guarascio, Francesco; Nebehay, Stephanie (31 August 2020). "EU offers 400 million euros to WHO-led COVID-19 vaccine initiative". Reuters. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  54. ^ "Corona-Impfstoff weltweit fair verteilen: GAVI kündigt erste Lieferung von Impfdosen über COVAX an". Federal Foreign Office (in German). Federal Republic of Germany. 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  55. ^ "EU's international solidarity during the COVID-19 pandemic". Council of the European Union. 25 May 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  56. ^ "Corona-Covax: How will Covid vaccines be shared with poorer countries? an". BBC News. BBC. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  57. ^ "Key Outcomes: COVAX AMC" (PDF). Gavi.
  58. ^ Williams, Abigail (3 September 2020). "U.S. opts out of WHO-linked global COVID-19 vaccine effort". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  59. ^ Beer, Thomas (1 September 2020). "U.S. Won't Join Global Coronavirus Vaccine Effort Because It's Led By The WHO". Forbes. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  60. ^ Rauhala, Emily; Abutaleb, Yasmeen (1 September 2020). "U.S. says it won't join WHO-linked effort to develop, distribute coronavirus vaccine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  61. ^ Smith, Allan; Perlmutter-Gumbiner, Elyse (7 July 2020). "Trump administration gives formal notice of withdrawal from WHO". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  62. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (21 January 2021). "U.S., staying in WHO, to join COVID vaccine push for poor nations: Fauci". Reuters. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  63. ^ Donato Paolo Mancini (21 January 2021). "US joins global vaccine efforts on Biden's first day". Financial Times.
  64. ^ "Covid vaccines: G7 increase support for Covax scheme". BBC News. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  65. ^ "COVID-19 tracker: EMA warns of a possible link between Johnson & Johnson vax and neurological disorder; EU lagging on vaccine donation pledge" FiercePharma. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  66. ^ "US-donated vaccine deliveries to Africa set to begin, with first deliveries planned to Burkina Faso, Djibouti, and Ethiopia" Gavi.org. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  67. ^ "Western vaccine nationalism opening door for China to lead global recovery". South China Morning Post. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  68. ^ "UAE launches COVID-19 vaccine production with China's Sinopharm". Reuters. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  69. ^ "Covid-19 Africa: What is happening with vaccines?". BBC News. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  70. ^ "Donate $7 for a COVID-19 vaccine to help end pandemic, WHO urges". Reuters. 28 April 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.

External linksEdit