South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% (US$2.9 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2015.
|Amjad B. Hussain |
|Establishment||8 December 1985|
|5,099,611 km2 (1,968,971 sq mi) (7th)|
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
|336.1/km2 (870.5/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|US$9.9 trillion  (3rd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|US$ 2.9 trillion (5th)|
|Time zone||(UTC+4:30 to +6)|
SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration. It launched the South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006. SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union.
The idea of co-operation in South Asia was discussed in at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference held in New Delhi on April 1947; the Baguio Conference in the Philippines on May 1950; and the Colombo Powers Conference held in Sri Lanka in April 1954.
In the ending years of the 1970s, the seven inner South Asian nations that included Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka agreed upon the creation of a trade bloc and to provide a platform for the people of South Asia to work together in a spirit of friendship, trust, and understanding. President Ziaur Rahman later addressed official letters to the leaders of the countries of the South Asia, presenting his vision for the future of the region and the compelling arguments for region. During his visit to India in December 1977, Rahman discussed the issue of regional cooperation with the Indian Prime Minister, Morarji Desai. In the inaugural speech to the Colombo Plan Consultative Committee which met in Kathmandu also in 1977, King Birendra of Nepal gave a call for close regional cooperation among South Asian countries in sharing river waters. After the USSR's intervention in Afghanistan, the efforts to establish the union was accelerated in 1979 and the resulting rapid deterioration of South Asian security situation. Responding to Rahman and Birendra's convention, the officials of the foreign ministries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. The Bangladeshi proposal was promptly endorsed by Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives but India and Pakistan were sceptical initially. The Indian concern was the proposal’s reference to the security matters in South Asia and feared that Rahman's proposal for a regional organisation might provide an opportunity for new smaller neighbours to renationalise all bilateral issues and to join with each other to form an opposition against India. Pakistan assumed that it might be an Indian strategy to organise the other South Asian countries against Pakistan and ensure a regional market for Indian products, thereby consolidating and further strengthening India’s economic dominance in the region.
However, after a series of diplomatic consultations headed by Bangladesh between South Asian U.N. representatives at the UN headquarters in New York, from September 1979 to 1980, it was agreed that Bangladesh would prepare the draft of a working paper for discussion among the foreign secretaries of South Asian countries. The foreign secretaries of the inner seven countries again delegated a Committee of the Whole in Colombo on September 1981, which identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of co-operation were added in the following years.
In 1983, the international conference held in Dhaka by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the foreign ministers of the inner seven countries adopted the Declaration on South Asian Association Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and formally launched the Integrated Programme of Action (IPA) initially in five agreed areas of cooperation namely, Agriculture; Rural Development; Telecommunications; Meteorology; and Health and Population Activities.
Officially, the union was established in Dhaka with Kathmandu being union's secretariat-general. The first SAARC summit was held in Dhaka on 7–8 December 1985 and hosted by the President of Bangladesh Hussain Ershad. The declaration signed by King of Bhutan Jigme Singye Wangchuk, President of Pakistan Zia-ul-Haq, Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi, King of Nepal Birendra Shah, President of Sri Lanka JR Jayewardene, and President of Maldives Maumoon Gayoom.
Members and observersEdit
SAARC was founded by seven states in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan began negotiating their accession to SAARC and formally applied for membership on the same year. The issue of Afghanistan joining SAARC generated a great deal of debate in each member state, including concerns about the definition of South Asian identity because Afghanistan is a Central Asian country.
The SAARC member states imposed a stipulation for Afghanistan to hold a general election; the non-partisan elections were held in late 2005. Despite initial reluctance and internal debates, Afghanistan joined SAARC as its eighth member state in April 2007.
On 2 August 2006, the foreign ministers of the SAARC countries agreed in principle to grant observer status to three applicants; the US and South Korea (both made requests in April 2006), as well as the European Union (requested in July 2006). On 4 March 2007, Iran requested observer status, followed shortly by Mauritius.
Potential future membersEdit
Myanmar has expressed interest in upgrading its status from an observer to a full member of SAARC. Russia has applied for observer status membership of SAARC. Turkey applied for observer status membership of SAARC in 2012. South Africa has participated in meetings.
The SAARC Secretariat is supported by following Regional Centres established in the Member States to promote regional co-operation. These Centres are managed by Governing Boards comprising representatives from all the Member States, SAARC Secretary-General and the Ministry of Foreign/External Affairs of the Host Government. The Director of the Centre acts as Member Secretary to the Governing Board which reports to the Programming Committee. After 31 December 2015, there 6 regional centers were stopped by unanimous decision. These are SMRC, SFC, SDC, SCZMC, SIC, SHRDC.
|SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC)||Dhaka||Bangladesh||Official website|
|SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC) STOPPED||Dhaka||Bangladesh|
|SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC) STOPPED||Thimphu||Bhutan|
|SAARC Development Fund (SDF)||Thimphu||Bhutan||Official website|
|SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC) STOPPED||New Delhi||India|
|SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC)||Gandhinagar, Gujarat||India||Official website|
|SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC) STOPPED||Malé||Maldives|
|SAARC Information Centre (SIC) STOPPED||Kathmandu||Nepal|
|SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC)||Kathmandu||Nepal||Official website|
|SAARC Human Resources Development Centre (SHRDC) STOPPED||Islamabad||Pakistan|
|SAARC Energy Centre (SEC)||Islamabad||Pakistan||Official website|
|SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC)||Colombo||Sri Lanka||Official website|
Apex and Recognised BodiesEdit
SAARC has six Apex Bodies, they are-
- SAARC Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SCCI),
- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARCLAW),
- South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA),
- South Asia Foundation (SAF),
- South Asia Initiative to End Violence Against Children (SAIEVAC),
- Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature (FOSWAL)
Amjad Hussain B Sial is the current Secretary General of SAARC.
SAARC also has about 17 recognised bodies.
Lasting peace and prosperity in the Indian subcontinent has been elusive because of the various ongoing conflicts in the region. Political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings which have refrained from interfering in the internal matters of its member states. During the 12th and 13th SAARC summits, extreme emphasis was laid upon greater cooperation between the SAARC members to fight terrorism.
The 19th SAARC summit scheduled to be held in Pakistan was called off as India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Afghanistan decided to boycott it. It was for the first time that four countries boycotted a SAARC summit, leading to its cancellation.
South Asian Free Trade AreaEdit
SAFTA was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and the Economic Union. In 1995, the Sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18–19 December 1995) agreed on the need to strive for the realisation of SAFTA and to this end an Inter-Governmental Expert Group (IGEG) was set up in 1996 to identify the necessary steps for progressing to a free trade area. The Tenth SAARC Summit (Colombo, 29–31 July 1998) decided to set up a Committee of Experts (COE) to draft a comprehensive treaty framework for creating a free trade area within the region, taking into consideration the asymmetries in development within the region and bearing in mind the need to fix realistic and achievable targets.
The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 during Twelfth SAARC Summit held in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006, and the Trade Liberalisation Programme commenced from 1 July 2006. Under this agreement, SAARC members will bring their duties down to 20 percent by 2009. Following the Agreement coming into force the SAFTA Ministerial Council (SMC) has been established comprising the Commerce Ministers of the Member States. In 2012 the SAARC exports increased substantially to US$354.6 billion from US$206.7 billion in 2009. Imports too increased from US$330 billion to US$602 billion over the same period. But the intra-SAARC trade amounts to just a little over 1% of SAARC's GDP. In contrast, in ASEAN (which is actually smaller than SAARC in terms of the size of the economy) the intra-bloc trade stands at 10% of its GDP.
SAFTA was envisaged to gradually move towards South Asian Economic Union, but the current intra-regional trade and investment relation are not encouraging and it may be difficult to achieve this target. The SAARC intra-regional trade stands at just five per cent on the share of intra-regional trade in overall trade in South Asia. Similarly, foreign direct investment is also dismal. The intra-regional FDI flow stands at around four per cent of the total foreign investment.
The Asian Development Bank has estimated that inter-regional trade in SAARC region possessed potential of shooting up agricultural exports by $14 billion per year from existing level of $8 billion to $22 billion.The study by Asian Development Bank states that against the potential average SAARC intra-regional trade of $22 billion per year, the actual trade in South Asia has been only around $8 billion. The uncaptured potential for intra-regional trade is therefore $14 billion per year, i.e. 68%.
SAARC Visa Exemption SchemeEdit
The SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme was launched in 1992. The leaders at the Fourth Summit (Islamabad, 29–31 December 1988), while realising the importance of having people to people contacts, among the peoples of SAARC countries, decided that certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a Special Travel document, which would exempt them from visas within the region. As directed by the Summit, the Council of Ministers regularly kept under review the list of entitled categories. Currently, the list included 24 categories of entitled persons, which include Dignitaries, Judges of higher courts, Parliamentarians, Senior Officials, Businessmen, Journalists, Sportsmen etc. The Visa Stickers are issued by the respective Member States to the entitled categories of that particular country. The validity of the Visa Sticker is generally for one year. The implementation is reviewed regularly by the Immigration Authorities of SAARC Member States.
The Twelfth Summit approved the SAARC Award to support individuals and organisations within the region. The main aims of the SAARC Award are:
- To encourage individuals and organisations based in South Asia to undertake programmes and activities that complement the efforts of SAARC
- To encourage individuals and organisations in South Asia contributing to bettering the conditions of women and children
- To honour outstanding contributions and achievements of individuals and organisations within the region in the fields of peace, development, poverty alleviation, environment protection and regional cooperation
- To honour any other contributions and achievement not covered above of individuals and organisations in the region.
The SAARC Award consists of a gold medal, a letter of citation, and cash prize of US $25,000 (₹15 lakhs). Since the institution of the SAARC Award in 2004, it has been awarded only once and the Award was posthumously conferred upon the late President Ziaur Rahman of Bangladesh.
SAARC Literary AwardEdit
The SAARC Literary Award is an annual award conferred by the Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature (FOSWAL) since 2001 which is an apex SAARC body. Shamshur Rahman, Mahasweta Devi, Jayanta Mahapatra, Abhi Subedi, Mark Tully, Sitakant Mahapatra, Uday Prakash, Suman Pokhrel and Abhay K are some of the prominent recipients of this award.
SAARC Youth AwardEdit
The SAARC Youth Award is awarded to outstanding individuals from the SAARC region. The award is notable because of the recognition it gives to the Award winner in the SAARC region. The award is based on specific themes which apply to each year. The award recognises and promotes the commitment and talent of the youth who give back to the world at large through various initiatives such as Inventions, Protection of the Environment and Disaster relief. The recipients who receive this award are ones who have dedicated their lives to their individual causes to improve situations in their own countries as well as paving a path for the SAARC region to follow. The Committee for the SAARC Youth Award selects the best candidate based on his/her merits and their decision is final.
- 1997: Outstanding Social Service in Community Welfare – Mohammed Sukur Salek (Bangladesh)
- 1998: New Inventions and Shanu — Najmul Hasnain Shah (Pakistan)
- 2001: Creative Photography: South Asian Diversity – Mushfiqul Alam (Bangladesh)
- 2002: Outstanding contribution to protect the Environment – Masil Khan (Pakistan)
- 2003: Invention in the Field of Traditional Medicine – Hassan Sher (Pakistan)
- 2004: Outstanding contribution to raising awareness of TB and/or HIV/AIDS – Ajij Prasad Poudyal (Nepal)
- 2006: Promotion of Tourism in South Asia – Syed Zafar Abbas Naqvi (Pakistan)
- 2008: Protecting the Environment in South Asia – Uswatta Liyanage Deepani Jayantha (Sri Lanka)
- 2009: Outstanding contribution to humanitarian works in the aftermath of Natural Disasters – Ravikant Singh (India)
- 2010: Outstanding contribution for the Protection of Environment and mitigation of Climate Change – Anoka Primrose Abeyrathne (Sri Lanka)
SAARC does not have an official anthem like some other regional organisations (e.g. ASEAN). A poem by poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar spurred a search for a better SAARC anthem. Nepal's foreign minister has expressed the need for an SAARC anthem to connect SAARC nations. Nepal at the 18th summit in Kathmandu in November 2014 planned to introduce proposal for an SAARC Anthem in the agenda of summit when heads of all member states meet here.
Secretaries-General of SAARCEdit
|#||Name||Country||Took office||Left office|
|1||Abul Ahsan||Bangladesh||16 January 1985||15 October 1989|
|2||Kant Kishore Bhargava||India||17 October 1989||31 December 1991|
|3||Ibrahim Hussein Zaki||Maldives||1 January 1992||31 December 1993|
|4||Yadav Kant Silwal||Nepal||1 January 1994||31 December 1995|
|5||Naeem U. Hasan||Pakistan||1 January 1996||31 December 1998|
|6||Nihal Rodrigo||Sri Lanka||1 January 1999||10 January 2002|
|7||Q. A. M. A. Rahim||Bangladesh||11 January 2002||28 February 2005|
|8||Chenkyab Dorji||Bhutan||1 March 2005||29 February 2008|
|9||Sheel Kant Sharma||India||1 March 2008||28 February 2011|
|10||Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed||Maldives||1 March 2011||11 March 2012|
|11||Ahmed Saleem||Maldives||12 March 2012||28 February 2014|
|12||Arjun Bahadur Thapa||Nepal||1 March 2014||28 February 2017|
|13||Amjad Hussain B Sial||Pakistan||1 March 2017||Incumbent|
|1st||7–8 December 1985||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Ataur Rahman Khan|
|2nd||16–17 November 1986||India||Bengaluru||Rajiv Gandhi|
|3rd||2–4 November 1987||Nepal||Kathmandu||Marich Man Singh Shrestha|
|4th||29–31 December 1988||Pakistan||Islamabad||Benazir Bhutto|
|5th||21–23 November 1990||Maldives||Malé||Maumoon Abdul Gayoom|
|6th||21 December 1991||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Ranasinghe Premadasa|
|7th||10–11 April 1993||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Khaleda Zia|
|8th||2–4 May 1995||India||New Delhi||P V Narasimha Rao|
|9th||12–14 May 1997||Maldives||Malé||Maumoon Abdul Gayoom|
|10th||29–31 July 1998||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Chandrika Kumaratunga|
|11th||4–6 January 2002||Nepal||Kathmandu||Sher Bahadur Deuba|
|12th||2–6 January 2004||Pakistan||Islamabad||Zafarullah Khan Jamali|
|13th||12–13 November 2005||Bangladesh||Dhaka||Khaleda Zia|
|14th||3–4 April 2007||India||New Delhi||Manmohan Singh|
|15th||1–3 August 2008||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Mahinda Rajapaksa|
|16th||28–29 April 2010||Bhutan||Thimphu||Jigme Thinley|
|17th||10–11 November 2011||Maldives||Addu||Mohammed Nasheed|
|18th||26–27 November 2014||Nepal||Kathmandu||Sushil Koirala|
|19th||9–10 November 2016||Pakistan||Islamabad||Cancelled|
Current leaders of SAARCEdit
- .asia is representative of all of Asia; member states also have their own TLDs.
- "CURRICULUM VITAE OFH. E. MR. AMJAD HUSSAIN B. SIAL SECRETARY GENERAL OF SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "World Urbanization Prospects — Population Division — United Nations". un.org.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org.
- "Rest in peace SAARC: The tug of war between India and Pakistan".
- "Charter of SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "History and mission of SAARC". Daily News. Colombo. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Muhammad, Jamshed Iqbal. "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements" (PDF). National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research in Islamabad. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "A Brief on SAARC." South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. No date. See for a complete historical account of SAARC e.g. Michael, Arndt (2013). India's Foreign Policy and Regional Multilateralism (Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 57–112.
- "History and Evolution of SAARC". Jang Media Research Unit. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "About SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "1st Summit Declaration" (PDF). SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
- "Net enrolment rate, primary, both sexes (%) - Data". worldbank.org.
- "Gross enrolment ratio, secondary, both sexes (%) - Data". worldbank.org.
- "South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Afghanistan keen to join SAARC". rediff web services. 28 August 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "Afghanistan inducted as 8th member: 14th Saarc summit begins". Dawn. 4 April 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Sáez, Lawrence (2012). The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): An emerging collaboration architecture. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-136-67108-1.
- "South Asia: Afghanistan Joins World's Largest Regional Grouping." Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 April 2007.
- "Cooperation with Observers". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Sri Lanka, 7 - 30 - 2008: Australia and Myanmar to admit as SAARC observers - Sri Lanka official". ColomboPage.
- "The Island-News". island.lk.
- "Cooperation with Observers". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "SAARC to grant observer status to US, S Korea, EU." Hindustan Times. 2 August 2006.
- Waliur Rahman. "US and S Korea to observe SAARC." BBC News, 11 April 2008.
- "Iran requests for observer status in SAARC". China Daily. 4 March 2007.
- SAARC and Myanmar: Observer Research Foundation
- "Russia, Turkey seek observer status in SAARC". The Economic Times. IANS. 16 February 2014.
- SAARC The Changing Dimensions: UNU-CRIS Working Papers United Nations University, Comparative Regional Integration Studies
- Russia keen to join SAARC as observer, Oneindia News
- "SAARC nations call for transparency in social sector". thaindian.com.
- "Features | Online edition of Daily News - Lakehouse Newspapers". archives.dailynews.lk. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
- "South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation — Apex and Recognised Bodies". saarc-sec.org.
- "SAARCLAW — South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation in Law". saarclaw.org.
- See for this aspect Michael, Arndt (2013). Sovereignty vs. Security: SAARC and its Role in the Regional Security Architecture in South Asia. Harvard Asia Quarterly Summer 2013, Vol. VX, No.2: 37-45
- Jhawar, Shiv (2004). Building a Noble World. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-9749197-0-6.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation — Area of Cooperation". saarc-sec.org.
- "South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation — SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme". saarc-sec.org.
- "South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation — SAARC Award". saarc-sec.org.
-  FOSWAL Website
-  Five Writers honoured at SAARC Litearure Festival, Hindustan Times 11 March 2013
-  Official website of SAARC:Apex and Recognized Bodies
- Mahasweta Devi to get SAARC Literary Award Oneindia.in 30 March 2007
- Hindustan Times, New Delhi, Saturday, 14 February 2015
- Will SAARC have an anthem like ASEAN? Hindustan Times, 3 November 2014
- Indian diplomat's poem spurs search for SAARC anthem IANS 9 January 2014
- Nepal foreign minister expresses need for an anthem to connect SAARC nations Business Standard, 6 June 2014
- "Maldives holiday reviews — Travel Guides — Maldives Traveller". maldivestraveller.mv.
- "Press Releases, 18th SAARC Summit Declaration, November 27, 2014". SAARC. Retrieved 2 December 2015.