Human coronavirus OC43

[1]Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a member of the species Betacoronavirus 1 which infects humans and cattle.[2][3] The infecting coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid receptor.[4] Along with Human coronavirus 229E, it is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold.[5][6] It has, like other coronaviruses from genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, an additional shorter spike-like surface protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[7][2]

Human coronavirus OC43
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Species: Betacoronavirus 1
Subspecies: Human coronavirus OC43

VirologyEdit

Four HCoV-OC43 genotypes (A to D), have been identified with genotype D most likely arising from recombination. The complete genome sequencing of two genotype C and D strains and bootscan analysis shows recombination events between genotypes B and C in the generation of genotype D. Of 29 strains identified, none belong to the more ancient genotype A. Molecular clock analysis using spike and nucleocapsid genes dates the most recent common ancestor of all genotypes to the 1950s. Genotype B and C date to the 1980s. Genotype B to the 1990s, and genotype C to the late 1990s to early 2000s.[contradictory] The recombinant genotype D strains were detected as early as 2004.[5]

PathogenesisEdit

Along with HCoV-229E, a species in the Alphacoronavirus genus, HCoV-OC43 are among the known viruses that cause the common cold. Both viruses can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals such as those undergoing chemotherapy and those with HIV-AIDS.[8][9][10]

EpidemiologyEdit

Coronaviruses have a worldwide distribution, causing 10–15% of common cold cases. Infections show a seasonal pattern with most cases occurring in the winter months.[11][12]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lee, Paul. Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 in Hong Kong (Thesis). The University of Hong Kong Libraries.
  2. ^ a b "Taxonomy browser (Betacoronavirus 1)". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  3. ^ Lim, Yvonne Xinyi; Ng, Yan Ling; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang (2016-07-25). "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus–Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. PMC 5456285. PMID 28933406. See Table 1.
  4. ^ Li, Fang (2016-09-29). "Structure, Function, and Evolution of Coronavirus Spike Proteins". Annual Review of Virology. 3 (1): 237–261. doi:10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042301. ISSN 2327-056X. PMC 5457962. PMID 27578435. BCoV S1-NTD does not recognize galactose as galectins do. Instead, it recognizes 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) (30, 43). The same sugar receptor is also recognized by human coronavirus OC43 (43, 99). OC43 and BCoV are closely related genetically, and OC43 might have resulted from zoonotic spillover of BCoV (100, 101).
  5. ^ a b Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lee, Paul; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lee, Rodney A.; So, Lok-Yee; Lau, Y.-L.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2011). "Molecular Epidemiology of Human Coronavirus OC43 Reveals Evolution of Different Genotypes over Time and Recent Emergence of a Novel Genotype due to Natural Recombination". Journal of Virology. 85 (21): 11325–37. doi:10.1128/JVI.05512-11. PMC 3194943. PMID 21849456.
  6. ^ E. R. Gaunt,1 A. Hardie,2 E. C. J. Claas,3 P. Simmonds,1 and K. E. Templeton. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method down-pointing small open triangle. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 August; 48(8): 2940–2947.
  7. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–1820. doi:10.3390/v2081803. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. In all members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, a haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene, which encodes a glycoprotein with neuraminate O-acetyl-esterase activity and the active site FGDS, is present downstream to ORF1ab and upstream to S gene (Figure 1).
  8. ^ Wevers, Brigitte A.; Van Der Hoek, Lia (2009). "Recently Discovered Human Coronaviruses". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 29 (4): 715–24. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2009.07.007. PMID 19892230.
  9. ^ Mahony, James B. (2007). "Coronaviruses". In Murray, Patrick R.; Baron, Ellen Jo; Jorgensen, James H.; Landry, Marie Louise; Pfaller, Michael A. (eds.). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (9th ed.). Washington D.C.: ASM Press. pp. 1414–23. ISBN 978-1-55581-371-0.
  10. ^ Pyrc, K.; Berkhout, B.; Van Der Hoek, L. (2007). "Antiviral Strategies Against Human Coronaviruses". Infectious Disorders Drug Targets. 7 (1): 59–66. doi:10.2174/187152607780090757. PMID 17346212.
  11. ^ Van Der Hoek, L (2007). "Human coronaviruses: What do they cause?". Antiviral Therapyapy. 12 (4 Pt B): 651–8. PMID 17944272.
  12. ^ Wat, Dennis (2004). "The common cold: A review of the literature". European Journal of Internal Medicine. 15 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2004.01.006. PMID 15172021.

External linksEdit