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Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

Sore throat
Pharyngitis.jpg
Viral pharyngitis, the most common cause of a sore throat.
SpecialtyOtorhinolaryngology

It is usually caused by pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). It can also result from trauma.

About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period.[1]

Contents

DefinitionEdit

A sore throat is pain anywhere in the throat.[2]

Differential diagnosisEdit

A sore throat is usually from irritation or inflammation. The most common cause (80%) is acute viral pharyngitis, a viral infection of the throat.[2] Other causes include other infections (such as streptococcal pharyngitis), trauma, and tumors.[2] Gastroesophageal (acid) reflux disease can cause stomach acid to back up into the throat and also cause the throat to become sore.[3] In children streptococcal pharyngitis is the cause of 37% of sore throats.[4]

ManagementEdit

Pain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help in the management of pain.[5][6] The use of corticosteroids seems to increase the likelihood of resolution and reduce the level of pain.[7][8] Antibiotics shorten the duration of pain symptoms by an average of about one day.[9]

There is an old wives tale that having a hot drink can help with common cold and influenza symptoms, including sore throat, but there is only limited evidence to support this idea.[10] If the sore throat is unrelated to a cold and is caused by for example tonsillitis, a cold drink may be helpful.[11]

There are also other medication like lozenges which can help people to cope with a sore throat.

Without active treatment, symptoms usually last two to seven days.[12]

EpidemiologyEdit

In the United States there are about 2.4 million emergency department visits with throat-related complaints per year.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jones, Roger (2004). Oxford Textbook of Primary Medical Care. Oxford University Press. p. 674. ISBN 9780198567820.
  2. ^ a b c d Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. Chapter 30. ISBN 978-0-323-05472-0.
  3. ^ "Sore Throat and Other Throat Problems-Topic Overview".
  4. ^ Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM (September 2010). "Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 126 (3): e557–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2648. PMID 20696723.
  5. ^ Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P (October 2000). "How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?". Br J Gen Pract. 50 (459): 817–20. PMC 1313826. PMID 11127175.
  6. ^ Hayward, G; Thompson, MJ; Perera, R; Glasziou, PP; Del Mar, CB; Heneghan, CJ (Oct 17, 2012). Thompson, Matthew J (ed.). "Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD008268. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008268.pub2. PMID 23076943.
  7. ^ Hayward, Gail; Thompson, Matthew J; Perera, Rafael; Glasziou, Paul P; Del Mar, Chris B; Heneghan, Carl J (2012-10-17). "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD008268. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008268.pub2. PMID 23076943.
  8. ^ Sadeghirad, Behnam; Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Papola, Davide; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Vandvik, Per Olav; Merglen, Arnaud; Guyatt, Gordon H; Agoritsas, Thomas (20 September 2017). "Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials". BMJ. 358: j3887. doi:10.1136/bmj.j3887. PMC 5605780. PMID 28931508.
  9. ^ Spinks, Anneliese; Glasziou, Paul P.; Del Mar, Chris B. (2013-11-05), "Antibiotics for sore throat", The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (11), pp. CD000023, doi:10.1002/14651858.cd000023.pub4, PMID 24190439
  10. ^ "Hot drinks ease cold and flu". National Health Service. 10 December 2008.
  11. ^ Bathala S, Eccles R (March 2013). "A review on the mechanism of sore throat in tonsillitis". J Laryngol Otol (Review). 127 (3): 227–32. doi:10.1017/S0022215112003003. PMID 23317998.
  12. ^ Thompson, M; Vodicka, TA; Blair, PS; Buckley, DI; Heneghan, C; Hay, AD; TARGET Programme, Team (Dec 11, 2013). "Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 347: f7027. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7027. PMC 3898587. PMID 24335668.

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