Italia Viva (English: Italy Alive, IV) is a liberal political party in Italy founded in September 2019.[6] The party is led by Matteo Renzi, a former Prime Minister of Italy and former secretary of the Democratic Party (PD).[7]

Italia Viva
LeaderMatteo Renzi
CoordinatorsTeresa Bellanova
Ettore Rosato
Founded18 September 2019
Split fromDemocratic Party
IdeologyLiberalism[1][2]
Social liberalism[3]
Pro-Europeanism[4]
Political positionCentre[5]
Colours     Fuchsia
Chamber of Deputies[a]
29 / 630
Senate[b]
17 / 315
European Parliament
1 / 73
Regional Presidents
0 / 20
Regional Councils
18 / 897
Website
www.italiaviva.it

  1. ^ Including one deputy of the Moderates.
  2. ^ Including one senator of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). The parliamentary group is named "Italia Viva–PSI".

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

Matteo Renzi, a devout Catholic,[8] a former scout leader of AGESCI[9] and a centrist,[10] started his political career in the Italian People's Party (PPI), a Christian-democratic outfit, and was elected president of the Province of Florence in 2004. Through Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy party he joined the Democratic Party in 2007[11] and was elected Mayor of Florence in 2009. A frequent critic of his party's leadership, especially under Pier Luigi Bersani, Renzi made his name as il Rottamatore, in English the Scrapper[12] or the Demolisher[13] (of old leaders and ideas), for his advocacy of complete change in the party, as well as a reformer and a modernizer.[14][15][16] His followers were known as Renziani.

Speculations over the formation of a separate party by Renzi date back to 2012, when he was defeated by Bersani in the run-off of the centre-left primary election.[17] Rumors stopped when Renzi was elected secretary of the PD in December 2013 and was sworn in as Prime Minister in February 2014.[18] He led the party to huge electoral success in the 2014 European Parliament election (40.8%), but badly lost the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum (59.1% to 40.9%), which caused his resignation as Prime Minister.

After the PD's defeat in the 2018 general election,[19] in which the PD only gained 18.7% of vote, forcing Renzi to resign as secretary,[20][21] rumours came back.[22] In March 2019 Nicola Zingaretti, a social democrat and a prominent member of the left-wing, with solid roots in the Italian Communist Party, won the leadership election by a landslide, defeating Maurizio Martina (Renzi's former deputy secretary) and Roberto Giachetti (supported by most Renziani).[23] Zingaretti focused his campaign on a clear contrast with Renzi's policies and his electoral victory was seen by many commentators as a defeat for the former Prime Minister, opening the way to a new party.[24][25]

In August 2019 tensions grew within the coalition supporting the Giuseppe Conte's first government, leading to the issuing of a motion of no-confidence by the League.[26] Despite having opposed it in the past, Renzi advocated the formation of a new government between the PD and the populist Five Star Movement (M5S).[27] After days of tensions within the PD, on 28 August, Zingaretti announced his favourable position regarding a new government with the M5S, led by Conte.[28] The Conte II Cabinet was sworn in on 5 September,[29] and Renzi was seen by many political analysts and journalists as the real kingmaker of the new parliamentary majority.[30]

FoundationEdit

On 16 September, in an interview to la Repubblica, Renzi announced his intention to leave the PD, and create new parliamentary groups.[31] On the same day, interviewed by Bruno Vespa during the late-night TV talk-show Porta a Porta, he officially launched Italia Viva.[32] In the interview he confirmed also the support to Conte's government.[33] Renzi was initially followed by 24 deputies and 12 senators from the PD, notably including Maria Elena Boschi, Roberto Giachetti, Teresa Bellanova (Minister of Agriculture) and Elena Bonetti (Minister of Family and Equal Opportunities).[34][35] Three more senators, Donatella Conzatti, Riccardo Nencini and Gelsomina Vono, joined respectively from Forza Italia (FI), Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and M5S,[36][37][38] while one deputy, Gabriele Toccafondi, joined from Popular Civic List (CP).[39] In October, Renata Polverini, a FI's bigwig and former president of Lazio, announced her exit from the party and the subsequent entry into Italia Viva.[40][41]

The split was condemned by the PD's leadership: Zingaretti described it as a "mistake",[42] while Dario Franceschini as a "big problem".[43][44] Beppe Grillo, founder of the M5S, described Renzi's actions as "an act of narcissism".[45] Prime Minister Conte declared his perplexity too, saying that Renzi "should have informed [him] before the birth of the government".[46] Additionally, Il Foglio revealed that internet domains italiaviva.eu and italiaviva.org were created on 9 August 2019, hinting that the split had been prepared in advance.[47] The following day la Repubblica revealed that the domains were bought by Alessandro Risso, a former member of Christian Democracy and the PPI from Piedmont.[48] However, Risso explained that his moves had nothing to do with Renzi, whom he opposed.[49]

Italia Viva's backbone was largely based on the "Committees of Civil Action" of Back to the Future, launched by Renzi during the 2018 Leopolda convention in Florence[50] and seen by some people as the initial step of a new party.[51] Ettore Rosato, the organizer of the committees, and Bellanova were appointed party's coordinators.[52]

On 19 October, during the Leopolda annual convention, the logo of IV was unveiled. It featured a stylized seagull and was chosen by supporters in an online vote.[53][54]

IdeologyEdit

Italia Viva is considered a liberal and "reformist" party.[55] Its "Charter of Values", presented in October 2019, referred to republican and anti-fascist values expressed in the Constitution of Italy, as well as in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[56] The movement also emphasized the principle of gender equality, the relaunch of globalization and a strong opposition to all forms of protectionism and souverainism.[57] It also supported a more incisive European political and economic integration, with the direct election of the President of the European Commission and the introduction of transnational lists.[58]

Renzi described his movement as a "young, innovative and feminist house, where new ideas for Italy and Europe are launched."[59]

As often stressed by Renzi himself, Italia Viva has been compared to Emmanuel Macron's La République En Marche! (REM).[60][61]

LeadershipEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Matteo Renzi's triumphant return". POLITICO. 5 September 2019.
  2. ^ "Matteo Renzi's new centrist party Italia Viva faces a struggle for relevance". www.newstatesman.com.
  3. ^ "Italie: Matteo Renzi fausse compagnie au Parti démocrate". www.lefigaro.fr. 17 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Der "Eindringling" geht". www.sueddeutsche.de. 17 September 2019.
  5. ^ Rome, Miles Johnson in. "Italy's former PM Matteo Renzi forms breakaway centrist party". The Irish Times.
  6. ^ Amante, Angelo; Ciociola, Andrea (17 September 2019). "Former Italy PM Renzi leads breakaway from PD, still backs government". Reuters. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Renzi: "Il nome del nuovo partito sarà Italia viva. In Parlamento siamo più di 40"". Repubblica.it. 17 September 2019.
  8. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (3 June 2014). "Italy's young leader captures politics of Pope Francis - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Matteo story: Renzi, lo scout che studiava da sindaco". La Nazione (in Italian). 21 September 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  10. ^ Foster, Peter; Squires, Nick; Vogt, Andrea (3 December 2016). "Europe holds its breath as Italy heads to the polls for critical referendum". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  11. ^ "avisoaperto.it". avisoaperto.it. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  12. ^ "Profile: Italian PM Matteo Renzi". 1 June 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  13. ^ Yardley, Jim (16 February 2014). "A Berlusconi Reminder as Italy Faces Another Unelected Premier". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  14. ^ "La guerra fra generazioni è stata un errore Ma basta De Coubertin, proviamo a vincere". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 17 July 2014.[dead link]
  15. ^ "Per Renzi è solo l' inizio "Il nuovo partito siamo noi"". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 17 July 2014.[dead link]
  16. ^ "Il centrosinistra sarà credibile se smetterà di essere conservatore". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 17 July 2014.[dead link]
  17. ^ Aresu, Alessandro; Andrea Garnero (December 2012). "Why Italy matters?" (PDF). Los Pazio della Politica. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  18. ^ "39 Year Old Matteo Renzi becomes, at 39, Youngest Italian Prime Minister". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  19. ^ Sala, Alessandro (3 April 2018). "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI". Corriere della Sera.
  20. ^ "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". Repubblica.it. 4 March 2018.
  21. ^ "Renzi: "Lascerò dopo nuovo governo. Pd all'opposizione". Ma è scontro nel partito: "Via subito". Orfini: "Percorso previsto dallo statuto"". Repubblica.it. 5 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Direzione Pd, Martina: "Governino Lega e M5s". Renzi assente: "Mi dimetto ma non mollo"". Repubblica.it. 12 March 2018.
  23. ^ Angela Giuffrida (3 March 2019). "Nicola Zingaretti elected as leader of Italy's Democratic party". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Zingaretti segretario. Il renzismo archiviato: "Voltiamo pagina"". Il Fatto Quotidiano.
  25. ^ "Primarie PD – Zingaretti: "Ora voltiamo pagina, pronti al riscatto di chi soffre per ingiustizie" (video)". 4 March 2019.
  26. ^ Horowitz, Jason (20 August 2019). "Italy's Government Collapses, Turning Chaos Into Crisis". The New York Times.
  27. ^ "Renzi contro Gentiloni: "Ha provato a far saltare l'accordo con i 5Stelle". Zingaretti: "Accuse offensive"". Repubblica.it. 23 August 2019.
  28. ^ Conte wins crucial support for likely new Italian coalition
  29. ^ "Conte Bis, lunedì alle 11 dibattito fiducia alla Camera". Adnkronos (in Italian). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  30. ^ "Crisi, tutti contro Salvini. Adinolfi: "Zingaretti-M5S? Nel Pd comanda Renzi"". Affaritaliani.it.
  31. ^ "Renzi lascia il Pd: "Uscire dal partito sarà un bene per tutti. Anche per Conte"". rep.repubblica.it.
  32. ^ Politica, Redazione (17 September 2019). "Renzi: "Il nome della nuova sfida che stiamo per lanciare sarà Italia viva"". Corriere della Sera.
  33. ^ "Matteo Renzi lascia il Pd e fonda nuovo partito: telefona a Conte e annuncia l'addio al Pd, Le ragioni della svolta in una intervista a Repubblica". Repubblica.it. 16 September 2019.
  34. ^ "Strappo Pd, Renzi: con me 40 parlamentari, 25 a Camera e 15 a Senato". Tgcom24.
  35. ^ "Nuovo partito di Renzi, ecco chi lo segue / Elena Bonetti". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  36. ^ "Partito Renzi, Donatella Conzatti da Forza Italia a Italia Viva - Corriere.it". 18 September 2019.
  37. ^ "Senato, Nencini il salvatore di Renzi. Con lui potrà fare il gruppo autonomo". Affaritaliani.it.
  38. ^ "La senatrice M5s Vono passa da M5s a Italia Viva di Renzi - Politica". Agenzia ANSA. 26 September 2019.
  39. ^ "Nuovo partito di Renzi, ecco chi lo segue / Gabriele Toccafondi". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  40. ^ "Polverini for Renzi". www.ilfoglio.it.
  41. ^ "Renata Polverini si autosospende dal gruppo di Forza Italia". 4 October 2019.
  42. ^ "Scissione di Renzi dal Pd, Zingaretti: "Errore, mi dispiace". Cuperlo: "M'hanno lasciato solo. Mi piacerebbe che Civati tornasse"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 17 September 2019.
  43. ^ "Franceschini, Renzi? It's a big problem - Ultima Ora". Agenzia ANSA. 17 September 2019.
  44. ^ "Former Italy PM Renzi leads breakaway from PD, still backs government". Reuters. 17 September 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  45. ^ "Beppe Grillo sul suo blog dice la sua su Renzi - Corriere.it". 17 September 2019.
  46. ^ "Doveva dirlo prima. La "perplessità" di Conte sulla scissione di Renzi". L'HuffPost (in Italian). 17 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  47. ^ "Il sito di Italia Viva registrato già il 9 agosto". www.ilfoglio.it (in Italian). Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  48. ^ "I siti di Italia viva li ho registrati io ad agosto, ma con Renzi non c'entro nulla". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 18 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  49. ^ "Italia Viva, Renzi… ed io – Associazione Popolari".
  50. ^ "I Comitati "Ritorno al futuro", vicini a Renzi, a quota 400 in tutta Italia, 32 nel Lazio". www.ilmessaggero.it.
  51. ^ Minzolini, Augusto. "Renzi non crede più nel Pd: sta preparando il suo partito". ilGiornale.it.
  52. ^ "Matteo non prende incarichi e comanda via WhatsApp: la Boschi fa la capogruppo". Il Fatto Quotidiano.
  53. ^ "Ecco il simbolo di Italia Viva: un gabbiano stilizzato". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  54. ^ "Ecco il simbolo di Italia Viva: un gabbiano in volo per il partito di Renzi". Repubblica.it. 19 October 2019.
  55. ^ SABATO, OSVALDO (20 October 2019). "Leopolda, Renzi apre ai moderati delusi: "Noi riformisti e liberali"". La Nazione.
  56. ^ "Carta dei valori". Italia Viva.
  57. ^ "Ora Italia Viva è un partito a tutti gli effetti". Agi.
  58. ^ "Europa, lavoro e umanesimo integrale: anche sui valori la sfida di Renzi a Conte". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  59. ^ Una nuova casa. Innovativa, giovane e femminista.
  60. ^ "Renzi vuole essere il nuovo Macron". www.ilfoglio.it.
  61. ^ "Leopolda 10, Renzi: "Non tartassare partite Iva. Noi come Macron, vogliamo i voti del Pd. Centrodestra finito, delusi FI vengano da noi"". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 20 October 2019.

External linksEdit