Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.
Speaking at a conference about humanity's prospects for survival in Amherst, MA, April 17, 2017
Avram Noam Chomsky
December 7, 1928
|Children||3, including Aviva|
|Education||University of Pennsylvania (BA, MA, PhD)|
Harvard Society of Fellows (1951–1955)
|Thesis||Transformational Analysis (1955)|
|Discipline||Linguistics, analytic philosophy, cognitive science, political criticism|
Born to Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. At age 16 he began undergraduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1951 to 1955 was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows, where he developed the theory of transformational grammar for which he earned his doctorate in 1955. That year he began teaching at MIT – in 1957 emerging as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which played a major role in remodeling the study of language – while from 1958 to 1959 he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. He is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. Chomsky also played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being particularly critical of the work of B. F. Skinner.
An outspoken opponent of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, which he saw as an act of American imperialism, in 1967 Chomsky rose to national attention for his anti-war essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and placed on President Richard Nixon's Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also became involved in the Linguistics Wars. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky later articulated the propaganda model of media criticism in Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. His defense of freedom of speech – including Holocaust denial – generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the 1980s. Following his retirement from MIT, he has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy movement. Since 2017 Chomsky has taught at the University of Arizona.
One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberalism and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and mainstream news media. His ideas have proved highly significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements, but have also drawn criticism, with some accusing Chomsky of anti-Americanism.
Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His father was the Ukrainian-born William "Zev" Chomsky, an Ashkenazi Jew who fled to the United States in 1913. Having studied at Johns Hopkins University, William went on to become school principal of the Congregation Mikveh Israel religious school, and in 1924 was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia. His wife was the Belarusian-born Elsie Simonofsky (1903–1972), a teacher and activist William had met while working at Mikveh Israel.
Noam was the Chomskys' first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years later, in 1934. The brothers were close, though David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive. Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and regularly discussing the political theories of Zionism; the family was particularly influenced by the Left Zionist writings of Ahad Ha'am. As a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.
Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum; he was exposed to far-left politics through other members of the family, a number of whom were socialists involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. He was substantially influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day. Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He later described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident", because it let him become critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism.
Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere. It was there, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War. At age 12 Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented teaching methods. During the same time period he attended the Hebrew High School at Gratz College. From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics.
In 1945, aged 16, Chomsky began a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic. Living at home, he funded his undergraduate degree by teaching Hebrew. Frustrated with his experiences at the university, he considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Mandatory Palestine, but his intellectual curiosity was reawakened by conversations with the Russian-born linguist Zellig Harris, whom he first met in a political circle in 1947. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject. Chomsky's B.A. honors thesis was titled "Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew", and involved applying Harris's methods to the language. Chomsky revised this thesis for his M.A., which he received from Penn in 1951; it was subsequently published as a book. He also developed his interest in philosophy while at university, in particular under the tutelage of Nelson Goodman.
From 1951 to 1955 Chomsky was a member the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, where he undertook research on what became his doctoral dissertation. Having been encouraged by Goodman to apply, Chomsky was attracted to Harvard in part because the philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine was based there. Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. L. Austin of the University of Oxford, strongly influenced Chomsky. In 1952 Chomsky published his first academic article, "Systems of Syntactic Analysis", which appeared not in a journal of linguistics but in The Journal of Symbolic Logic. Highly critical of the established behaviorist currents in linguistics, in 1954 he presented his ideas at lectures at the University of Chicago and Yale University. He had not been registered as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, but in 1955 he submitted a thesis setting out his ideas on transformational grammar; he was awarded a Ph.D. for it, and it was privately distributed among specialists on microfilm before being published in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory. Possessing a Ph.D. nullified his requirement to enter national service in the armed forces, which was otherwise due to begin in 1955. Harvard professor George Armitage Miller was impressed by Chomsky's Ph.D. thesis, and the two collaborated on several technical papers in mathematical linguistics.
In 1947 Chomsky began a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since they were toddlers, and they married in 1949. After Chomsky was made a Fellow at Harvard, the couple moved to an apartment in the Allston area of Boston, remaining there until 1965, when they relocated to the suburb of Lexington. In 1953 the couple took a Harvard travel grant to visit Europe, traveling from the United Kingdom through France and Switzerland and into Italy. On that trip they also spent six weeks in Israel at Hashomer Hatzair's HaZore'a Kibbutz. Although enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism he encountered in Israel, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend he found pervading the kibbutz's leftist community.
On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of the Yiddish anarchist journal Fraye Arbeter Shtime ("The Free Voice of Labor"), becoming enamored with the ideas of contributor Rudolf Rocker, whose work introduced him to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism. Other political thinkers whose work Chomsky read included the anarchists Mikhail Bakunin[a] and Diego Abad de Santillán, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight Macdonald, and works by Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Korsch, and Rosa Luxemburg. His readings convinced him of the desirability of an anarcho-syndicalist society, and he became fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes set up during the Spanish Civil War, which were documented in Orwell's Homage to Catalonia (1938). He avidly read the leftist journal Politics, which furthered his interest in anarchism, as well as the periodical Living Marxism, published by council communist Paul Mattick. Although rejecting its Marxist basis, Chomsky was heavily influenced by council communism, voraciously reading articles in Living Marxism by Antonie Pannekoek. He was also greatly interested in the Marlenite ideas of the Leninist League, an anti-Stalinist Marxist–Leninist group, sharing their views that the Second World War was orchestrated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union's "state capitalists" to crush Europe's proletariat.
Early career: 1955–66
Chomsky befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson, the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position there in 1955. At MIT Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project and half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy. He had been recruited to MIT by Jerome Wiesner, an influential scientist who was also involved in getting the US's nuclear missile program established. Chomsky described MIT as "a pretty free and open place, open to experimentation and without rigid requirements. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work." In 1957 MIT promoted him to the position of associate professor, and from 1957 to 1958 he was also employed by Columbia University as a visiting professor. That same year, Chomsky's first child, a daughter named Aviva, was born, and he published his first book on linguistics, Syntactic Structures, a work that radically opposed the dominant Harris–Bloomfield trend in the field. The response to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, and his work proved divisive and caused "significant upheaval" in the discipline. The linguist John Lyons later asserted that it "revolutionized the scientific study of language". From 1958 to 1959 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
In 1959 Chomsky published a review of B. F. Skinner's 1957 book Verbal Behavior in the academic journal Language, in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior. The review argued that Skinner ignored the role of human creativity in linguistics and helped to establish Chomsky as an intellectual. With Halle, Chomsky proceeded to found MIT's Graduate Program in linguistics. In 1961 he was awarded tenure and became a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. Chomsky went on to be appointed plenary speaker at the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, held in 1962 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which established him as the de facto spokesperson of American linguistics. He continued to publish his linguistic ideas throughout the decade, including in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1966), Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (1966), and Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought (1966). Along with Halle, he also edited the Studies in Language series of books for Harper and Row, and extended the theory of generative grammar to phonology in The Sound Pattern of English (1968).
Chomsky continued to receive academic recognition and honors for his work, in 1966 visiting a variety of Californian institutions, first as the Linguistics Society of America Professor at the University of California, and then as the Beckman Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. His Beckman lectures were assembled and published as Language and Mind in 1968. Military scientists were also interested in Chomsky's linguistics. Former Air Force Colonel Anthony Debons said, "much of the research conducted at MIT by Chomsky and his colleagues [has] direct application to the efforts undertaken by military scientists to develop ... languages for computer operations in military command and control systems." Between 1963 and 1965 Chomsky was a consultant for a military-sponsored project "to establish natural language as an operational language for command and control." One of Chomsky's students who also worked on this project, Barbara Partee, has said this research was justified to the military on the basis that "in the event of a nuclear war, the generals would be underground with some computers trying to manage things, and that it would probably be easier to teach computers to understand English than to teach the generals to program." Other subsequent difficulties with the theories led to various debates between Chomsky and his critics that came to be known as the "Linguistics Wars", although they revolved largely around philosophical issues rather than linguistics per se.
Anti-Vietnam War activism and rise to prominence: 1967–75
Chomsky on the Vietnam War
In 1962 Chomsky became involved in active protest against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, speaking on the subject at small gatherings in churches and homes. In 1967 he entered the public debate on U.S. foreign policy. In February he published an essay in The New York Review of Books titled "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", in which he criticized the country's involvement in the conflict; the essay was based on a talk he had given to Harvard's Foundation for Jewish Campus Life. He expanded on his argument for his first political book, American Power and the New Mandarins. Published in 1969, it soon established him at the forefront of American dissent. He followed this with further political books, including At War with Asia (1971), The Backroom Boys (1973), For Reasons of State (1973), and Peace in the Middle East? (1975), published by Pantheon Books.
Chomsky came to be associated with the American New Left movement, although he thought little of prominent New Left intellectuals Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm, and preferred the company of activists to intellectuals. Although The New York Review of Books did publish contributions from Chomsky and other leftists from 1967 to 1973, an editorial change then put a stop to it, and he was largely ignored by the rest of the mainstream press in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Chomsky also became involved in left-wing activism. Refusing to pay half his taxes, he publicly supported students who refused the draft and was arrested for being part of an antiwar teach-in outside the Pentagon. During this time, along with Mitchell Goodman, Denise Levertov, William Sloane Coffin, and Dwight Macdonald, Chomsky also founded the antiwar collective RESIST. Although he questioned the objectives of the 1968 student protests, Chomsky gave many lectures to student activist groups; he and his colleague Louis Kampf also began running undergraduate courses on politics at MIT independently of the conservative-dominated political science department. In 1970 he visited Hanoi to give a lecture at the Hanoi University of Science and Technology; on this trip he also toured Laos to visit the refugee camps the war had created, and in 1973 he was among those leading a committee to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the War Resisters League.
During this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the Vietnam War and, as Chomsky has said, "a good deal of [nuclear] missile guidance technology was developed right on the MIT campus". Chomsky has added, "[MIT was] about 90% Pentagon-funded at that time. And I personally was right in the middle of it. I was in a military lab ... the Research Laboratory for Electronics." By 1969 student activists were actively campaigning to stop war research at MIT. Chomsky was sympathetic to them but also thought it best to keep such research on campus and proposed that it be restricted to what he called "systems of a purely defensive and deterrent character".
Six of MIT's antiwar student activists were sentenced to prison. Chomsky has said MIT's students suffered things that "should not have happened" but also that MIT has "quite a good record on civil liberties".
Because of his antiwar activism, Chomsky was arrested on multiple occasions and included on President Richard Nixon's political opponent master list. Chomsky was aware of the potential repercussions of his civil disobedience and his wife began studying for her own Ph.D. in linguistics in order to support the family in the event of Chomsky's imprisonment or loss of employment. MIT resisted some pressure to fire Chomsky due to his prominence in linguistics. His work in this area continued to gain international recognition; in 1967 he received honorary doctorates from both the University of London and the University of Chicago. In 1970 Loyola University and Swarthmore College also awarded him honorary D.H.L.'s, as did Bard College in 1971, Delhi University in 1972, and the University of Massachusetts in 1973.
In 1971 Chomsky gave the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lectures at the University of Cambridge, which were published as Problems of Knowledge and Freedom later that year. He also delivered the Whidden Lectures at McMaster University, the Huizinga Lecture at Leiden University in the Netherlands, the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University, and the Kant Lectures at Stanford University. Also in 1971 he partook in a televised debate with French philosopher Michel Foucault on Dutch television, titled Human Nature: Justice versus Power. While largely agreeing with Foucault's ideas, Chomsky criticized postmodernism and French philosophy generally, arguing that the obscure language used by postmodern leftist philosophers did little to aid the working classes. Chomsky continued to publish extensively on linguistics, producing Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972), an enlarged edition of Language and Mind (1972), and Reflections on Language (1975). In 1974 he became a corresponding fellow of the British Academy.
Edward Herman and the Faurisson affair: 1976–80
In the late 1970s and 1980s, Chomsky's linguistic publications expanded and clarified his earlier work, addressing his critics and updating his grammatical theory. His political talks often generated considerable controversy, particularly when he criticized the Israeli government and military. In the early 1970s Chomsky began collaborating with Edward S. Herman, who had also published critiques of the U.S. war in Vietnam. Together they wrote Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda, a book that criticized U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia and the mainstream media's failure to cover it. Warner Modular published it in 1973, but its parent company, Warner Communications, disapproved of the book's contents and ordered all copies destroyed.
While mainstream publishing options proved elusive, Chomsky found support from Michael Albert's South End Press, an activist-oriented publishing company. In 1979 Chomsky and Herman revised Counter-Revolutionary Violence and South End Press published it as the two-volume The Political Economy of Human Rights. The book compares U.S. media reactions to the Cambodian genocide and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. It argues that because Indonesia was a U.S. ally, U.S. media ignored the East Timorese situation while focusing on events in Cambodia, a U.S. enemy.[b] Taking a particular interest in the situation in East Timor, Chomsky testified on the subject in front of the United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization in both 1978 and 1979, and attended a Lisbon conference on the occupation in 1979. The next year, the Marxist academic Steven Lukes wrote an article for the Times Higher Education Supplement accusing Chomsky of betraying his anarchist ideals and acting as an apologist for Cambodian leader Pol Pot. Laura J. Summers and Robin Woodsworth Carlsen replied to the article, arguing that Lukes completely misunderstood Chomsky and Herman's work. The controversy damaged Chomsky's reputation, and he maintains that his critics deliberately printed lies about him to defame him.
Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism and totalitarianism more generally, but his commitment to freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Faurisson to advocate a position widely characterized as Holocaust denial. Without Chomsky's knowledge, his plea for Faurisson's freedom of speech was published as the preface to the latter's 1980 book Mémoire en défense contre ceux qui m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire. Chomsky was widely condemned for defending Faurisson, and France's mainstream press accused Chomsky of being a Holocaust denier himself, refusing to publish his rebuttals to their accusations. Critiquing Chomsky's position, sociologist Werner Cohn later published an analysis of the affair titled Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and the Holocaust Deniers. The Faurisson affair had a lasting, damaging effect on Chomsky's career, and Chomsky did not visit France—where the translation of his political writings was delayed until the 2000s —for almost 30 years.
Reaganite era and work on the media: 1980–90
The election of Republican Ronald Reagan to the U.S. presidency in 1980 began a period of increased military intervention in Central America. In 1985, during Nicaragua's Contra War – in which the U.S. supported the contra militia against the Sandinista government – Chomsky traveled to Managua to meet with workers' organizations and refugees of the conflict, giving public lectures on politics and linguistics. Many of these lectures were published in 1987 as On Power and Ideology: The Managua Lectures. In 1983 he published The Fateful Triangle, an examination of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the place of the U.S. within it, arguing that the U.S. had continually used the conflict for its own ends. In 1988, Chomsky visited the Palestinian territories to witness the impact of Israeli occupation.
In 1988 Chomsky and Herman published Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, in which they outlined their propaganda model for understanding mainstream media. They argued that even in countries without official censorship, the news is censored through four filters that have great impact on what stories are reported and how they are presented. The book, inspired by Alex Carey,[c] was adapted into a 1992 film, Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, directed by Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick. In 1989 Chomsky published Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies, in which he critiqued what he sees as the pseudo-democratic nature of Western capitalist states. By the 1980s a number of Chomsky's students had become leading linguistic specialists in their own right, revising and expanding on Chomsky's ideas of generative grammar.
Increased political activism and retirement from MIT: 1990–2017
In the 1990s Chomsky embraced political activism to a greater degree than before. Retaining his commitment to the cause of East Timorese independence, in 1995 he visited Australia to talk on the issue at the behest of the East Timorese Relief Association and the National Council for East Timorese Resistance. The lectures he gave on the subject were published as Powers and Prospects in 1996. As a result of the international publicity Chomsky generated, his biographer Wolfgang Sperlich opined that he did more to aid the cause of East Timorese independence than anyone but the investigative journalist John Pilger. After East Timor attained independence from Indonesia in 1999, the Australian-led International Force for East Timor arrived as a peacekeeping force; Chomsky was critical of this, believing it was designed to secure Australian access to East Timor's oil and gas reserves under the Timor Gap Treaty.
Chomsky retired from MIT in 2002, although as an emeritus he continued to conduct research and seminars on campus. After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Chomsky was widely interviewed; Seven Stories Press collated and published these interviews that October. Chomsky argued that the ensuing War on Terror was not a new development but a continuation of U.S. foreign policy and concomitant rhetoric since at least the Reagan era. In 2003 he published Hegemony or Survival, in which he articulated what he called the United States' "imperial grand strategy" and critiqued the Iraq War and other aspects of the War on Terror. Chomsky toured internationally with greater regularity during this period. He gave the D.T. Lakdawala Memorial Lecture in New Delhi in 2001, and in 2003 visited Cuba at the invitation of the Latin American Association of Social Scientists. In 2002 Chomsky visited Turkey to attend the trial of a publisher who had been accused of treason for printing one of Chomsky's books; Chomsky insisted on being a co-defendant and amid international media attention the Security Courts dropped the charge on the first day. During that trip Chomsky visited Kurdish areas of Turkey and spoke out in favor of the Kurds' human rights. A supporter of the World Social Forum, he attended their conferences in Brazil in both 2002 and 2003, also attending the Forum event in India.
Chomsky supported the Occupy movement, delivering talks at encampments and producing two works that chronicled its influence, first Occupy (2012), a pamphlet, and then Occupy: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity (2013). His analysis included a critique that attributed Occupy's growth to a perceived abandonment of the interests of the white working class by the Democratic Party. In March 2014 Chomsky joined the advisory council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, an organization which advocates the global abolition of nuclear weapons, as a senior fellow. The 2016 documentary Requiem for the American Dream summarized his views on capitalism and economic inequality through a "75-minute teach-in".
University of Arizona: 2017–present
In spring 2017 Chomsky taught a short-term politics course at the University of Arizona in Tucson. In August 2017 he was hired as a part-time professor in the linguistics department there, with his duties including teaching and public seminars. His salary is covered by philanthropic donations.
The basis of Chomsky's linguistic theory lies in biolinguistics, the linguistic school that holds that the principles underpinning the structure of language are biologically preset in the human mind and hence genetically inherited. As such, he argues that all humans share the same underlying linguistic structure, irrespective of sociocultural differences. In adopting this position, Chomsky rejects the radical behaviorist psychology of B. F. Skinner, who viewed behavior (including talking and thinking) as a completely learned product of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Accordingly, Chomsky argues that language is a unique evolutionary development of the human species and distinguished from modes of communication used by any other animal species. Chomsky's nativist, internalist view of language is consistent with the philosophical school of "rationalism", and contrasts with the anti-nativist, externalist view of language that is consistent with the philosophical school of "empiricism".
Since the 1960s, Chomsky has maintained that syntactic knowledge is at least partially inborn, implying that children need only learn certain parochial features of their native (or L1) languages. He based his argument on observations about human language acquisition, noting that there is an enormous gap between the linguistic stimuli to which children are exposed and the rich linguistic knowledge they attain (the "poverty of the stimulus" argument). For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and finite subset of the allowable syntactic variants within their first language, they somehow acquire the highly organized and systematic ability to understand and produce an infinite number of sentences, including ones that have never before been uttered, in that language. To explain this, Chomsky reasoned that the primary linguistic data (PLD) must be supplemented by an innate linguistic capacity. Furthermore, while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks the language acquisition device (LAD), and suggested that one of linguists' tasks should be to determine what the LAD is and what constraints it imposes on the range of possible human languages. The universal features that result from these constraints would constitute "universal grammar".
Transformational generative grammar
Beginning with his Syntactic Structures (1957), a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955), Chomsky challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar.
Chomsky's theory posits that language consists of both deep structures and surface structures. Surface structure "faces out" and is represented by spoken utterances, while deep structure "faces inward" and expresses the underlying relations between words and conceptual meaning. Transformational grammar is a generative grammar (which dictates that the syntax, or word order, of surface structures adheres to certain principles and parameters) that consists of a limited series of rules, expressed in mathematical notation, that transform deep structures into well-formed surface structures. Transformational grammar thus relates meaning and sound.
The Chomsky hierarchy, sometimes called the Chomsky-Schützenberger hierarchy, is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars. It imposes a logical structure across different language classes and provides a basis for understanding the relationship between grammars (devices that determine the valid sentences within languages). In order of increasing expressive power it includes regular (or Type-3) grammars, context-free (or Type-2) grammars, context-sensitive (or Type-1) grammars, and recursively enumerable (or Type-0) grammars. Each class is a strict subset of the class above it – i.e., each successive class can generate a broader set of formal languages (infinite sets of strings composed from finite sets of symbols, or alphabets) than the one below. The Chomsky hierarchy is relevant in theoretical computer science, especially programming language theory, compiler construction, and automata theory.
Since the 1990s Chomsky's research has focused on what he calls the Minimalist Program (MP), in which he departs from much of his past research and instead attempts to simplify language into a system that relates meaning and sound using the minimum possible faculties, given certain external conditions independently imposed on us. Chomsky dispenses with concepts such as "deep structure" and "surface structure" and instead places emphasis on the plasticity of the brain's neural circuits, with which come an infinite number of concepts, or "logical forms". When exposed to linguistic data, the brain of a hearer-speaker proceeds to associate sound and meaning, and the rules of grammar we observe are in fact only the consequences, or side effects, of the way language works. Thus, while much of Chomsky's prior research has focused on the rules of language, he now focuses on the mechanisms that the brain uses to apply these rules and regulate speech.
Chomsky has built a "reputation as a political dissident".[d] His political views have changed little since his childhood, when he was influenced by the emphasis on political activism that was ingrained in Jewish working-class tradition. He usually identifies as an anarcho-syndicalist or a libertarian socialist. He views these positions not as precise political theories but as ideals that he thinks best meet human needs: liberty, community, and freedom of association. Unlike some other socialists, such as Marxists, Chomsky believes that politics lies outside the remit of science, but he still roots his ideas about an ideal society in empirical data and empirically justified theories.
In Chomsky's view, the truth about political realities is systematically distorted or suppressed through elite corporate interests, who use corporate media, advertising, and think tanks to promote their own propaganda. His work seeks to reveal such manipulations and the truth they obscure. He believes that "common sense" is all that is required to break through the web of falsehood and see the truth, if it (common sense) is employed using both critical thinking and an awareness of the role that self-interest and self-deception play both on oneself and on others. He believes it is the moral responsibility of intellectuals to tell the truth about the world, but that few do so because they fear losing prestige and funding. He argues that, as such an intellectual, it is his duty to use his privilege, resources, and training to aid popular democracy movements in their struggles.
Although he had joined protest marches and organized activist groups, he identifies his primary political outlet as education, offering free lessons and lectures to encourage wider political consciousness. His political writings have covered a wide range of topics, but have several core themes. He is a member of the Industrial Workers of the World international union, and sits on the interim consultative committee of the International Organization for a Participatory Society.
United States foreign policy
Chomsky has been a prominent critic of what he views as U.S. imperialism. His published work has focused heavily on criticizing the actions of the United States. Chomsky believes that the basic principle of the foreign policy of the United States is the establishment of "open societies" that are economically and politically controlled by the U.S. and where U.S.-based businesses can prosper. He argues that the U.S. seeks to suppress any movements within these countries that are not compliant with U.S. interests and to ensure that U.S.-friendly governments are placed in power. When discussing current events, he emphasizes their place within a wider historical perspective. He believes that official, sanctioned historical accounts of U.S. and British extraterritorial operations have consistently whitewashed these nations' actions in order to present them as having benevolent motives in either spreading democracy or, in older instances, spreading Christianity; criticizing these accounts, he seeks to correct them. Prominent examples he regularly cites are the actions of the British Empire in India and Africa and the actions of the U.S. in Vietnam, the Philippines, Latin America, and the Middle East.
Chomsky has said he focuses on criticizing the U.S. over other countries because, during his lifetime, the country has militarily and economically dominated the world, and because its liberal democratic electoral system allows the citizenry to influence government policy. His hope is that, by spreading awareness of the impact U.S. foreign policies have on the populations affected by them, he can sway the populations of the U.S. and other countries into opposing the policies. He urges people to criticize their governments' motivations, decisions, and actions; to accept responsibility for their own thoughts and actions, and to apply the same standards to others as to themselves.
Chomsky has been critical of U.S. involvement in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, arguing that it has consistently blocked a peaceful settlement. Chomsky also criticizes the U.S.'s close ties with Saudi Arabia and involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, highlighting that Saudi Arabia has "one of the most grotesque human rights records in the world".
In his youth, Chomsky developed a dislike of capitalism and the pursuit of material wealth. At the same time, he developed a disdain for authoritarian attempts to establish a socialist society, as represented by the Marxist–Leninist policies of the Soviet Union. Rather than accepting the common view among U.S. economists that a spectrum exists between total state ownership of the economy and total private ownership, he instead suggests that a spectrum should be understood between total democratic control of the economy and total autocratic control (whether state or private). He argues that Western capitalist countries are not really democratic, because, in his view, a truly democratic society is one in which all persons have a say in public economic policy. He has stated his opposition to ruling elites, among them institutions like the IMF, World Bank, and GATT.
Chomsky highlights that, since the 1970s, the U.S. has become increasingly economically unequal as a result of the repeal of various financial regulations and the rescinding of the Bretton Woods financial control agreements. He characterizes the U.S. as a de facto one-party state, viewing both the Republican Party and Democratic Party as manifestations of a single "Business Party" controlled by corporate and financial interests. Chomsky highlights that, within Western capitalist liberal democracies, at least 80% of the population has no control over economic decisions, which are instead in the hands of a management class and ultimately controlled by a small, wealthy elite.
Noting that this economic system is firmly entrenched and difficult to dismantle, Chomsky believes that change is possible through the organized cooperation of large numbers of people who understand the problem and know how they want to reorganize the economy more equitably. Acknowledging that corporate domination of media and government stifles any significant change to this system, he sees reason for optimism, citing the historical examples of the social rejection of slavery as immoral, the advances in women's rights, and the forcing of government to justify invasions to illustrate how change is possible. He views violent revolution to overthrow a government as a last resort to be avoided if possible, citing the example of historical revolutions where the population's welfare has worsened as a result of upheaval.
Chomsky sees libertarian socialist and anarcho-syndicalist ideas as the descendants of the classical liberal ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, arguing that his ideological position revolves around "nourishing the libertarian and creative character of the human being". He envisions an anarcho-syndicalist future with direct worker control of the means of production and government by workers' councils, who would select representatives to meet together at general assemblies. He believes that there will be no need for political parties. By controlling their productive life, he believes that individuals can gain job satisfaction and a sense of fulfillment and purpose. He argues that unpleasant and unpopular jobs could be fully automated, carried out by workers who are specially remunerated, or shared among everyone.
Chomsky criticizing Israel, 2012
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Chomsky has long endorsed the left binationalist program in Israel and Palestine, seeking to create a democratic state in the Levant that is home to both Jews and Arabs. Nevertheless, given the realpolitik of the situation, Chomsky has also considered a two-state solution on the condition that the nation-states exist on equal terms. As a result of his criticisms of Israel, Chomsky was barred from entering Israel in 2010.
News media and propaganda
Chomsky's political writings have largely focused on the two concepts of ideology and power, or the media and state policy. One of Chomsky's best-known works, Manufacturing Consent, dissects the media's role in reinforcing and acquiescing to state policies across the political spectrum while marginalizing contrary perspectives. Chomsky asserts that this version of censorship, from government-guided "free market" forces, is more subtle and difficult to undermine than was the equivalent propaganda system in the Soviet Union. As he argues, the mainstream press is corporate-owned and thus reflects corporate priorities and interests. Acknowledging that many American journalists are dedicated and well-meaning, he argues that the mass media's choice of topics and issues, the unquestioned premises on which that coverage rests, and the range of opinions expressed are all constrained to reinforce the state's ideology. He states that, although the mass media will criticize individual politicians and political parties, it will not undermine the wider state-corporate nexus of which it is a part. As evidence, he highlights that the U.S. mass media does not employ any socialist journalists or political commentators. He also points to examples of important news stories that the U.S. mainstream media has ignored because reporting on them would reflect badly upon the U.S. state, including the murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton with possible FBI involvement, the massacres perpetrated in Nicaragua by the U.S.-funded contras, and the constant reporting on Israeli deaths while ignoring the far larger number of Palestinian deaths in the conflict between those two nations. To remedy this situation, Chomsky calls for grassroots democratic control and involvement of the media.
Chomsky considers most conspiracy theories to be fruitless, distracting substitutes for thinking about policy formation in an institutional framework, where individual manipulation is secondary to broader social imperatives. While not dismissing them outright, he considers them unproductive to challenging power in a substantial way. In response to the labeling of his own ideas as "conspiracy theory", Chomsky has said that it is very rational for the media to manipulate information in order to sell it, like any other business. He asks whether General Motors would be accused of conspiracy if it deliberately selected what it would use or discard to sell their product.
Zoltán Gendler Szabó, 2004
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Chomsky has also been active in a number of philosophical fields, including the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of science. In these fields he has been highly critical of many other philosophers, in particular those operating within the field of cognitive science.
Chomsky endeavors to keep his family life, linguistic scholarship, and political activism strictly separate from one another, calling himself "scrupulous at keeping my politics out of the classroom". An intensely private person, he is uninterested in appearances and the fame that his work has brought him. McGilvray suggests that Chomsky was never motivated by a desire for fame, but that he was impelled to tell what he perceived as the truth and a desire to aid others in doing so. He also has little interest in modern art and music. He reads four or five newspapers daily; in the U.S., he subscribes to The Boston Globe, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, and The Christian Science Monitor.
Chomsky is non-religious, although he has expressed approval of forms of religion such as liberation theology. He is known for the use of irony in his writings and has attracted controversy for calling established political and academic figures "corrupt", "fascist", and "fraudulent". Chomsky's colleague Steven Pinker has said that he "portrays people who disagree with him as stupid or evil, using withering scorn in his rhetoric", and that this contributes to the extreme reactions that he generates from his critics. Chomsky avoids attending academic conferences, including left-oriented ones such as the Socialist Scholars Conference, preferring to speak to activist groups or hold university seminars for mass audiences. He acknowledges that his income and the security it accords him means that he lives a privileged life compared to the majority of the world's population; nevertheless, he characterizes himself as a "worker", albeit one who uses his intellect as his employable skill.
Chomsky's approach to academic freedom has led him to support MIT academics whose actions he deplores. In 1969, when Chomsky heard that Walt Rostow, a major architect of the Vietnam war, wanted to return to work at MIT, Chomsky threatened "to protest publicly" if Rostow was denied a position at MIT. In 1989, when Pentagon adviser John Deutch applied to be president of MIT, Chomsky supported his candidacy. Later, when Deutch became head of the CIA, The New York Times quoted Chomsky as saying, "He has more honesty and integrity than anyone I've ever met. ... If somebody's got to be running the C.I.A., I'm glad it's him."
Chomsky was married to Carol Doris Chomsky (Schatz) from 1949 until her death in 2008. They had three children together: Aviva (b. 1957), Diane (b. 1960), and Harry (b. 1967). In 2014 Chomsky married Valeria Wasserman.
Reception and influence
Chomsky's legacy is as both a "leader in the field" of linguistics and "a figure of enlightenment and inspiration" for political dissenters. Despite his academic success, his political viewpoints and activism have resulted in him being distrusted by the mainstream media apparatus, and he is regarded as being "on the outer margin of acceptability."
McGilvray observes that Chomsky inaugurated the "cognitive revolution" in linguistics, and that he is largely responsible for establishing the field as a formal, natural science, moving it away from the procedural form of structural linguistics dominant during the mid-20th century. As such, some have called Chomsky "the father of modern linguistics".[e][f][g][h] Linguist John Lyons further remarked that within a few decades of publication, Chomskyan linguistics had become "the most dynamic and influential" school of thought in the field. By the 1970s his work had also come to exert a considerable influence on philosophy, and a Minnesota State University poll found Syntactic Structures to be considered the single most important work in cognitive science. In addition, his work in automata theory and the Chomsky hierarchy have become well known in computer science, and he is much cited in computational linguistics.
Chomsky's work contributed substantially to the decline of behaviorist psychology; in addition, some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results. Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University, was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability.
The 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine and Physiology, Niels Kaj Jerne, used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, equating "components of a generative grammar ... with various features of protein structures". The title of Jerne's Stockholm Nobel Lecture was "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System". His theory of generative grammar has also carried over into music theory and analysis.
Despite their respect for his intellectual contributions, a number of linguists and philosophers have been very critical of Chomsky's approach to language.[how?] These critics include Christina Behme, Cedric Boeckx, Margaret Boden, Rudolph Botha, Vyvyan Evans, Nicholas Evans, Daniel Everett, Adele Goldberg, Anna Kinsella, Chris Knight, Stephen Levinson, Bruce Nevin, Geoffrey K. Pullum, Barbara Scholtz, Pieter Seuren and Michael Tomasello.
Chomsky biographer Wolfgang B. Sperlich characterizes the linguist and activist as "one of the most notable contemporary champions of the people", while journalist John Pilger described him as a "genuine people's hero; an inspiration for struggles all over the world for that basic decency known as freedom. To a lot of people in the margins – activists and movements – he's unfailingly supportive." Arundhati Roy has called him "one of the greatest, most radical public thinkers of our time", and Edward Said thought him to be "one of the most significant challengers of unjust power and delusions". Fred Halliday has said that by the start of the 21st century, Chomsky had become a "guru" for the world's anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements. The propaganda model of media criticism that he and Herman developed has been widely accepted in radical media critiques and adopted to some level in mainstream criticism of the media, also exerting a significant influence on the growth of alternative media, including radio, publishers, and the Internet, which in turn have helped to disseminate his work.
Sperlich also notes that Chomsky has been vilified by corporate interests, particularly in the mainstream press. University departments devoted to history and political science rarely include Chomsky's work on their syllabi for undergraduate reading. Critics have argued that despite publishing widely on social and political issues, Chomsky has no expertise in these areas; to this he has responded that such issues are not as complex as many social scientists claim and that almost everyone is able to comprehend them regardless of whether they have been academically trained to do so.
His far-reaching criticisms of U.S. foreign policy and the legitimacy of U.S. power have raised controversy.[i] A document obtained pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request from the U.S. government revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) monitored Chomsky's activities and for years denied doing so. The CIA also destroyed its files on Chomsky at some point in time, possibly in violation of federal law. He has often received undercover police protection at MIT and when speaking on the Middle East, although he has refused uniformed police protection. German newspaper Der Spiegel described him as "the Ayatollah of anti-American hatred", while conservative commentator David Horowitz termed him "the most devious, the most dishonest and ... the most treacherous intellect in America", one whose work was infused with an "anti-American dementia" and which evidences Chomsky's "pathological hatred of his own country". Writing in Commentary magazine, the journalist Jonathan Kay described Chomsky as "a hard-boiled anti-American monomaniac who simply refuses to believe anything that any American leader says".
Chomsky's criticism of Israel has led to his being called a traitor to the Jewish people and an anti-Semite. Criticizing Chomsky's defense of the right of individuals to engage in Holocaust denial on the grounds that freedom of speech must be extended to all viewpoints, Werner Cohn called Chomsky "the most important patron" of the neo-Nazi movement. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which has been accused of monitoring Chomsky's activities, called him a Holocaust denier himself, describing him as a "dupe of intellectual pride so overweening that he is incapable of making distinctions between totalitarian and democratic societies, between oppressors and victims". In turn, Chomsky has claimed that the ADL is dominated by "Stalinist types" who oppose democracy in Israel. The lawyer Alan Dershowitz has called Chomsky a "false prophet of the left"; Chomsky has called Dershowitz "a complete liar", accusing him of actively misrepresenting his position on issues and being on "a crazed jihad, dedicating much of his life to trying to destroy my reputation". In early 2016 President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey publicly rebuked Chomsky after he signed an open letter condemning Erdoğan for his anti-Kurdish repression and double standards on terrorism. Chomsky accused Erdoğan of hypocrisy, noting that Erdoğan supports al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, the al-Nusra Front. According to McGilvray, many of Chomsky's critics "do not bother quoting his work or quote out of context, distort, and create straw men that cannot be supported by Chomsky's text".
Academic achievements, awards, and honors
In 1970, Chomsky was named one of the "makers of the twentieth century" by the London Times. In early 1969, he delivered the John Locke Lectures at Oxford University; in January 1971, the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture at the University of Cambridge; in 1972, the Nehru Memorial Lecture in New Delhi; in 1975, the Whidden Lectures at McMaster University; in 1977, the Huizinga Lecture in Leiden; in 1978, the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University; in 1979, the Kant Lectures at Stanford University; in 1988, the Massey Lectures at the University of Toronto; in 1997, The Davie Memorial Lecture on Academic Freedom in Cape Town; in 2011, the Rickman Godlee Lecture at University College, London; and many others.
In the United States, he is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Linguistic Society of America, the American Philosophical Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Abroad, he is a member of the Utrecht Society of Arts and Sciences, the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, a corresponding fellow of the British Academy, an honorary member of the British Psychological Society, and a foreign member of the Department of Social Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. In addition, he is a recipient of a 1971 Guggenheim Fellowship, the 1984 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology, the 1988 Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences, the 1996 Helmholtz Medal, the 1999 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science, and the Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award. He is also a two-time winner of both the Gustavus Myers Center Award (1986 and 1988) and the NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language (1987 and 1989). He has also received the Rabindranath Tagore Centenary Award from The Asiatic Society.
In 2004 Chomsky received the Carl-von-Ossietzky Prize from the city of Oldenburg, Germany, to acknowledge his body of work as a political analyst and media critic. In 2005, Chomsky received an honorary fellowship from the Literary and Historical Society. In February 2008, he received the President's Medal from the Literary and Debating Society of the National University of Ireland, Galway. Since 2009, he has been an honorary member of International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters (IAPTI).
In 2010, Chomsky received the Erich Fromm Prize in Stuttgart, Germany. In April 2010, Chomsky became the third scholar to receive the University of Wisconsin's A.E. Havens Center's Award for Lifetime Contribution to Critical Scholarship. Chomsky has an Erdős number of four.
Chomsky was voted the world's leading public intellectual in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll jointly conducted by American magazine Foreign Policy and British magazine Prospect. In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006, he was voted seventh in the list of "Heroes of our time." Actor Viggo Mortensen and avant-garde guitarist Buckethead dedicated their 2003 album Pandemoniumfromamerica to Chomsky. On January 22, 2010, a special honorary concert for Chomsky was given at Kresge Auditorium at MIT. The concert, attended by Chomsky and dozens of his family and friends, featured music composed by Edward Manukyan and speeches by Chomsky's colleagues, including David Pesetsky of MIT and Gennaro Chierchia, head of the linguistics department at Harvard University.
In May 2007, the Indian university Jamia Millia Islamia named one of its complexes after him. In June 2011, Chomsky was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize, which cited his "unfailing courage, critical analysis of power and promotion of human rights." Also in 2011, Chomsky was inducted into IEEE Intelligent Systems' AI's Hall of Fame for "significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems." In 2013, a newly described species of bee was named after him: Megachile chomskyi. In 2014, he was awarded the Neil and Saras Smith Medal for Linguistics by the British Academy. In 2017 he was one of three recipients awarded the Seán MacBride Peace Prize "for his tireless commitment to peace, his strong critiques to U.S. foreign policy, and his anti-imperialism".
Bibliography and filmography
- "Noam Chomsky writes and acts within a libertarian intellectual tradition which has been nurtured within the United States of America. The writings of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Mikhail Bakunin and Rudolf Rocker established an intellectual pedigree, which Chomsky has explicitly acknowledged, of antipathy towards the state (or any wielders of power), egalitarianism and inhibited prescriptive formulae of how society should be organized."(Harbord 1994:487)
- This Chomsky-Herman thesis has been challenged by Sophal Ear, who "argues that concurrent [media] coverage of human rights violations in right-wing regimes in Chile and South Korea exceeded the coverage given to Cambodia" during the genocide
- "The real importance of Carey's work is that it's the first effort and until now the major effort to bring some of this to public attention. It's had a tremendous influence on the work I've done."(Chomsky 1996:28–29)
- "Noam Chomsky has built his entire reputation as a political dissident on his command of the facts. His writings resemble powerful weapons of empirical data."
- "Mr. Chomsky ... is the father of modern linguistics and remains the field's most influential practitioner."(Fox 1998)
- "Noam Chomsky is an Institute Professor and professor of linguistics emeritus at MIT, widely known as the father of modern linguistics, a philosopher, prolific author, and globally influential political activist."(MIT150: Noam Chomsky 2011)
- "As the founder of modern linguistics, Noam Chomsky, observed, each of the following sequences of words is nonsense ..."(Tymoczko & Henle 2004:101)
- "At 87, Noam Chomsky, the founder of modern linguistics, remains a vital presence in American intellectual life."(Tanenhaus 2016)
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- Official website
- Noam Chomsky University of Arizona homepage includes classes and events
- Noam Chomsky at MIT
- Noam Chomsky on Charlie Rose
- Noam Chomsky: Politics or Science?
- Noam Chomsky: Knowledge and Power. Al Jazeera English, October 2015 (video, 47 mins) – documentary about the life and work of Chomsky
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Noam Chomsky on IMDb
- Appearances on Democracy Now!
- Interview with Noam Chomsky, "Human nature and the origins of language", Radical Anthropology 2008.
- IWW Interview with Noam Chomsky: Worker Occupations And The Future Of Radical Labor. October 9, 2009
- Noam Chomsky interviewed by Alyssa McDonald on New Statesman, September 2010.
- The Real News interviews with Chomsky: 2007–2010 (11 interviews) and June 2014 (3 interviews)
- "Noam Chomsky on Where Artificial Intelligence Went Wrong" – interview in The Atlantic, November 2012
- Noam Chomsky, "A Brief History of Anarchism", In These Times. January 9, 2014.
- "American Socrates". Interviewed by Chris Hedges for Truthdig, June 15, 2014.
- Noam Chomsky calls US 'world's leading terrorist state' RT, November 5, 2014.
- "The World of Our Grandchildren". Jacobin interview with Noam Chomsky, February 13, 2015.
- Noam Chomsky: Electing the President of An Empire. Abby Martin interview with Chomsky, October 24, 2015
- Libcom's 'Noam Chomsky – Reading Guide'
- Decoding Chomsky – Science and Revolutionary Politics by Chris Knight
- Demonstration at Faneuil Hall to protest indictment of the Berrigan brothers: Noam Chomsky speaking with Vern Countryman and George Wald at left and Howard Zinn at the far right, January 1971 (Photo: Jeff Albertson Photograph Collection (PH 57)), Special Collections and University Archives, Library of the University of Massachusetts: Amherst.
- Presentation by Robert F. Barsky on Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent, July 19, 1997