Foundation for Economic Education
The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is a libertarian economic think-tank dedicated to the "economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society." FEE publishes books and hosts seminars and lectures.
|Founded||March 7, 1946|
|Founder||Leonard E. Read|
IRS 501(c)(3) tax exempt
|Method||literature, lecture, conferences, online courses, multimedia, academic scholarship|
|President Lawrence W. Reed, Chief Operating Officer Richard N. Lorenc|
(FYE March 2017)
Founded in 1946 by Leonard E. Read, Henry Hazlitt, David Goodrich, Donaldson Brown, Leo Wolman, Fred R. Fairchild, Claude E. Robinson, and Jasper Crane, the foundation is the oldest free-market think tank in the United States. Read served as president from 1946 until his death in 1983.
Perry E. Gresham followed his friend Read as president in 1983. The presidency of FEE from 1983 to 1984 was held by John Sparks Sr., from 1984 to 1985 by Bob Love, from 1985 to 1988 by a series of acting presidents, then from 1988 to 1992 by Bruce Evans. After retiring from Grove City College where he taught economics, Hans Sennholz served as president from 1992 to 1997. Donald J. Boudreaux served as president from 1997 to 2001, before moving on to chair the Department of Economics at George Mason University.  Economist, investment analyst, professor and author Mark Skousen served as president from 2001 to 2002. Author and professor Richard Ebeling served as president from 2003 to 2008. Since 2008, the current president is economist, author, and professor Lawrence W. Reed.
FEE first occupied "two rooms in the Equitable Building at 737 Seventh Avenue in Manhattan" in 1946. Soon after, the organization moved to the mansion on the Hillside estate in Irvington, New York, which Read purchased from Gordon Harris, a son of the president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The Foundation would remain there for 68 years. In 2014, FEE sold its Irvington headquarters as a part of the transfer of operations to Atlanta, Georgia.
During his extended graduate studies at Columbia University, Murray Rothbard was influenced by FEE economist Baldy Harper. Rothbard credited FEE with creating a "crucial open center" for a libertarian movement. Friedrich Hayek saw FEE as part of the inspiration for the formation of the Mont Pelerin Society in 1947. Beyond inspiration, FEE provided a financial subsidy to the Mont Pelerin Society. Hayek encouraged Antony Fisher to found the Institute of Economic Affairs after visiting FEE in 1952.  Ludwig von Mises had a "long-term association with the Foundation for Economic Education."
FEE describes its mission as to "inspire, educate and connect future leaders with the economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society." FEE offers a variety of programs for high school students, undergraduates, and graduate students. Since 1946 FEE has also sponsored public lectures by various thinkers, including Ludwig von Mises, F.A. Hayek, Henry Hazlitt, Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, Vernon Smith, Walter Williams, F.A. "Baldy" Harper, and William F. Buckley Jr.
In 1945 du Pont executive Jasper Crane, along with Alfred Kohlberg, started a capital campaign for the organization. After contributions from J. Howard Pew, Inland Steel, Quaker Oats, and Sears enough funding was available for FEE to purchase and take up publishing The Freeman magazine in 1954.
In 2016 FEE ended publication of The Freeman.
FEE publishes books, articles, and pamphlets both on paper and digitally that the foundation considers classic works on liberty. These include the notable publications I, Pencil: My Family Tree by Read, The Law by Bastiat, Anything That's Peaceful by Read, Planned Chaos by Mises, Industry-Wide Bargaining by Wolman, Up from Poverty: Reflections on the Ills of Public Assistance by Sennholz, and The Virtue of Liberty by Machan.
As of 2017 the Foundation for Economic Education had assets of $8,917,599.
|Funding details as of 2017:
- Internal Revenue Service 2012.
- "Statement of Financial Position" (PDF). Foundation for Economic Education. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- Horwitz 2013 " ..a thorough introduction to the economic, ethical, and legal principles of a free society."; Foundation for Economic Education 2013 "FEE’s mission is to inspire, educate and connect future leaders with the economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society."; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Horwitz 2013 " ..a thorough introduction to the economic, ethical, and legal principles of a free society."; Foundation for Economic Education 2016 "FEE is a non-political, non-profit, tax-exempt educational foundation and accepts no taxpayer money." and "FEE's mission is inspire, educate, and connect young adults with the economic, ethical, and legal principles of a free society."; Singleton 2001 "a small market-oriented group that works with students and academics"; Hayek 2014 "I believe that what the Foundation for Economic Education, with Leonard Read at its head, and all co-fighters and friends are committed to is nothing more nor less than the defense of our civilization against intellectual error."; Internal Revenue Service 2015 "Educational Organization"; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 115; Hamowy 2008, p. 217; Perelman 2007, p. 64; Schneider 2009, p. 47; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 285 "… going so far as to help Mises publish his Magnum Opus Human Action …"; Olson 2009; Lichtman 2008, p. 160; Shiflett & 2015-07-28, p. 176; McGann 2015 (think tank)
- Burns 2005, p. 84; Rothbard 2006, p. 451.
- Dochuk 2010, p. 116.
- Heller 2009, p. 197.
- Read was the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce executive director, from 1938 to 1945.
- of the New York Times
- of B. F. Goodrich
- of General Motors Corporation
- of Columbia University
- of Yale University
- of Opinion Research Corporation
- of duPont
- White 2012 "The oldest free-market American think tank is the foundation for Economic Education, founded in 1946..."; Skousen 2015 "In his eighties, he continued to lecture at the Foundation for Economic Education in IrvingtononHudson, New York (the oldest freemarket think tank, founded in 1946 by Leonard Read), and ..."; Hazlitt 2006 "The original officers were David M. Goodrich, chairman of the Board (he was then also chairman of the board of the B.F. Goodrich Company); Leonard Read, president; myself, vice-president; Fred R. Fairchild, professor of economics at Yale University, secretary; and Claude Robinson, president of the Opinion Research Institute, treasurer. [The] sixteen [original] trustees ... included H.W. Luhnow, president of William Volker & Company; A.C. Mattei, president of Honolulu Oil Corporation; William A. Paton of the University of Michigan; Charles White, president of the Republic Steel Corporation; Leo Wolman, professor of economics at Columbia; Donaldson Brown, former vice-president of General Motors; Jasper Crane, former vice-president of Du Pont; B.E. Hutchinson, chairman of the finance committee of Chrysler Corporation; Bill Matthews, publisher of the Arizona Star; W.C. Mullendore, president of the Southern California Edison Company."; Dochuk 2010, p. 114 "The job of economic education must be undertaken now while those who appreciate the value of liberty are still in a position to support it."; Schneider 2009, p. 47; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 387; Backhouse 2005; Backhouse 2009; Kashyap & Wilcox 1993, p. 384; Farrell 2011; Hülsmann 2007; Plehwe 2006, p. 31; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 243; Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 19; Hamowy 2008, p. 335; Perelman 2007, p. 64; Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 27; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 156; Boyack 2011; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Sennholz 1993, p. 185.
- Reed 2012.
- Wilcox 2000, p. 151.
- Boudreaux 2011.
- Skousen 2010.
- Ebeling 2009.
- Farrell 2011.
- Dodsworth 1995, p. 2 "In those anxious moments, Thomas I. Parkinson, president of Equitable Life Assurance Company, came to the rescue. He provided Fee with two rooms in the Equitable Building at 737 Seventh Avenue in Manhattan. On the 30th floor, with a magnificent view over the city, Leonard Read set about conducting the affairs of his new organization."; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Spikes & Leone 2009, p. 26 " Hillside was sold in 1922 to Gordon Harris, a son of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad president. ... was purchased in 1946 by Leonard Read and remains the headquarters of Read's Foundation for Economic Education."; Dodsworth 1995; Phillips-Fein 2010; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Farrell 2011 "In early May 2010, FEE opened a branch office in downtown Atlanta."; Olson 2014; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Gordon 2010, p. 12-14 (Rothbard was influenced by Harper at Columbia University); Hazlitt 2006, p. 1 (Harper's title of economist)
- Gordon 2010, p. 14.
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 86; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, pp. 15, 19, 21, 53, 156, 190, 196, 243, 281, 284, 293, 387, 397, 410; Plehwe 2006, p. 31.
- Hamowy 2008, p. 492; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 15.
- Mirowski & Plehwe, 2009 & p. 387.
- Vaughn 1998 "long-term association with the Foundation for Economic Education..."
- Foundation for Economic Education 2016.
- Ashford 2011; Giannotta 2011; Foley 2010; Olson 2009; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 116; Hamowy 2008, p. 335; Olson 2009.
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 52; Hamowy 2008, p. 217; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 285; Olson 2009.
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 43; Olson 2009.
- Hamowy 2008, p. 492; Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 21.
- Mirowski & Plehwe 2009, p. 21.
- Smith 2006.
- Williams 2006.
- Hamowy 2008, p. 492.
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 40.
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. ii; Hamowy 2008, p. 62; Schneider 2009, p. 47; Lichtman 2008, p. 160.
- ISSN 0016-0652; OCLC 1570149
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 115; Hamowy 2008, p. 62; Schneider 2009, p. 47; Lichtman 2008, p. 160.
- Olson 2016; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Phillips-Fein 2009, p. 52; Hamowy 2008, p. 62; Olson 2009; Shiflett & 2015-07-28, p. 176; [[#CITEREF|]].
- Read 1958.
- Bastiat 1950.
- Read 1998.
- Mises 1947.
- Wolman 1948.
- Sennholz 1997.
- Machan 1994.
- Ashford, Nigel (December 22, 2011). "FEE College Summer Seminars". Kosmos. Arlington, VA. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Backhouse, Roger E. (2005). "The rise of free market economics: Economists and the role of the state since 1970". History of Political Economy: 355–392.
- —— (2009). "Economists and the Rise of Neo-liberalism". Renewal: A Journal of Labour Politics: 1–9.
- Bastiat, Frédéric (1950). The Law (PDF). Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. OCLC 405451.
- Boyack, Connor (2011). Latter-Day Liberty: A Gospel Approach to Government and Politics. Connor Boyack. ISBN 978-1-59955-934-6.
- Blundell, John (1990). Waging the War of Ideas: Why There Are No Shortcuts (PDF). London: Institute of Economic Affairs. p. 9. Archived from the original on 2011-06-09.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Boettke, Peter J., ed. (1994). The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics. Edward Elgar Pub. ISBN 978-1-85278-581-9.
- Boudreaux, Donald (October 13, 2011). "A Devalued Renminbi Makes Wealthier Americans". Debate Club. New York: U.S.News & World Report. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Burns, Jennifer (2005). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right, 1930--1980. ProQuest. ISBN 978-1-109-09637-8.
- Charity Navigator (2015). Foundation for Economic Education (Report). Charity Navigator. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Coyne, Christopher J. (2007). After War: The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy. Stanford Economics and Finance. ISBN 978-0-8047-5440-8.
- Dochuk, Darren (2010-12-13). From Bible Belt to Sunbelt: Plain-Folk Religion, Grassroots Politics, and the Rise of Evangelical Conservatism. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-07927-2.
- Dodsworth, Barbara (1995). The Foundation of Historic Irvington. Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education.
- Dunham, Carroll (1876). Address of Carroll Dunham, M.D., of Irvington, N.Y., to the World's Homoeopathic Convention of 1876, on Monday, June 26th, 1876. Sine nomine.
- Eliot, Charles W. (1902). Charles Eliot, Landscape Architect, a Lover of Nature and of His Kind, Who Trained Himself for a New Profession, Practised it Happily and Through it Wrought Much Good. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. pp. 281–284.
- Farrell, Steve (2011). "FEE Is Expanding to Atlanta". The Moral Liberal. Archived from the original on March 30, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Foley, Devin (March 16, 2010). "Free: Summer Liberty & Econ Seminars". Intellectual Takeout. Minneapolis, MN. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Foley, Ridgway K. (December 1971). "Individual Liberty and the Rule of Law". Willamette Law Journal. 7 (3): 396–418. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth A. (1994). Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism 1945–60. Urbana, IL: Univ. of Illinois Press. pp. 8, 38, 129, 195, 196, 213, 243. ISBN 978-0-252-02118-3.
- Foundation for Economic Education (March 1, 2016). "About: Foundation for Economic Education".
- Frelinghuysen, Alice C.; Hutchinson, Elizabeth (2006-06-30). Louis Comfort Tiffany and Laurelton Hall: An Artist's Country Estate. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-201-5.
- Garrison, Roger (2000). Time and Money: The Macroeconomics of Capital Structure (Reissue ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-77122-1.
- George, Susan (1997). "How to Win the War of Ideas" (PDF). Dissent. 44 (Summer 1997): 47–53. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Giannotta, Marissa (December 8, 2011). "Help Promote FEE Seminars to Your Campus Group!". Students For Liberty. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Gordon, David (2010). Strictly Confidential: The Private Volker Fund Memos of Murray N. Rothbard (PDF). Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. ix, 14–19. ISBN 978-1-933550-80-0.
- Hamowy, Ronald, ed. (2008). "The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism". The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Cato Institute. pp. 62, 217, 221, 335, 416, 417. doi:10.4135/9781412965811. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Hayek, F.A. (1992-02-15). The Fortunes of Liberalism: Essays on Austrian Economics and the Ideal of Freedom. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-32064-9.
- Hayek, F.A. (2014-08-13). The Fortunes of Liberalism: Essays on Austrian Economics and the Ideal of Freedom. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-56240-5.
- Hazlitt, Henry (May 1, 2006) [March 1984]. "The Early History of FEE". The Freeman.
The original officers were David M. Goodrich, chairman of the Board (he was then also chairman of the board of the B.F. Goodrich Company); Leonard Read, president; myself, vice-president; Fred R. Fairchild, professor of economics at Yale University, secretary; and Claude Robinson, president of the Opinion Research Institute, treasurer. [The] sixteen [original] trustees ... included H.W. Luhnow, president of William Volker & Company; A.C. Mattei, president of Honolulu Oil Corporation; William A. Paton of the University of Michigan; Charles White, president of the Republic Steel Corporation; Leo Wolman, professor of economics at Columbia; Donaldson Brown, former vice-president of General Motors; Jasper Crane, former vice-president of Du Pont; B.E. Hutchinson, chairman of the finance committee of Chrysler Corporation; Bill Matthews, publisher of the Arizona Star; W.C. Mullendore, president of the Southern California Edison Company.
- Heller, Anne C. (2009-10-27). Ayn Rand and the World She Made. Random House Digital. ISBN 978-0-385-52946-4.
- Hoffman, William (2011-11-22). Continuum Living at Irvington. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Irvington, NY: VHB Engineering, Surveying and Landscape Architecture, P.C. p. 51.
- Hollenbeck, Todd (2013-01-08). "FEE's 2013 Summer Seminar and Internship Applications are Now Open". Young Americans for Liberty.
- Horwitz, Steven (2007). Microfoundations and Macroeconomics. Accel Development.
- —— (2013-01-09). "Applications for FEE Summer Seminars are Now Open". Bleeding Heart Libertarians. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Hülsmann, Jörg Guido (October 28, 2007). "Birth of a Movement". Mises Daily. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Internal Revenue Service (Nov 9, 2015). Exempt Organizations Business Master File (Report). Washington, DC: Internal Revenue Service.
- —— (2012). Exempt Organizations Select Check (Report). Washington, DC: Internal Revenue Service.
- Kashyap, Anil K.; Wilcox, David W. (1993). "Production and Inventory Control at the General Motors Corporation During the 1920's and 1930's". The American Economic Review. 83: 383–401. JSTOR 2117524.
- Leeson, Peter T. (2011). The Invisible Hook: The Hidden Economics of Pirates. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15009-3.
- Lichtman, Allan J (2008). White Protestant Nation: The Rise of the American Conservative Movement. New York: Grove Press. pp. 160, 171, 173, 206. ISBN 978-0-8021-4420-1.
- Machan, Tibor (1994). The Virtue of Liberty. Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. ISBN 978-0-910614-93-1. OCLC 717721529.
- McGann, James (2015-03-01). 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report. University of Pennsylvania. p. 75.
- Mellor (February 2008). "An Evening at FEE With Chip Mellor". Liberty & Law. 18. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011.
- Menger, Carl (1934). The Collected Works of Carl Menger: Grundsätse Der Volkswirthschaftslehre. London School of Economics.
- Meyer, Del (December 7, 2004). "MedicalTuesday". Medical Tuesday Network. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Mirowski, Philip; Plehwe, Dieter (2009). The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 15, 19, 21, 53, 156, 190, 196, 243, 281, 284, 293, 387, 397, 410. ISBN 978-0-674-03318-4.
- Mises, Ludwig von (1947). Planned Chaos. Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. ISBN 978-0-910-61400-9. OCLC 782168388.
- Olson, Wayne (September 28, 2009). "An Inside Look at the Foundation for Economic Education FEE". Motorhome Diaires (Interview). Interviewed by Pete Eyre. Irvington, NY.
- —— (May 1, 2014). "Strategic Notes from FEE—Bricks & Mortar". FEE. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- —— (September 1, 2016). "Passing the Torch: From the Freeman to FEE.org". FEE. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- Perelman, Michael (2007). The Confiscation of American Prosperity from Right-Wing Extremism and Economic Ideology to the Next Great Depression. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-230-60046-1.
- Perlstein, Rick (2009). Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus. Nation Books. pp. 113–4. ISBN 9780786744152.
- Phillips-Fein, Kim (2009). Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan. New York: W.W. Norton. p. ii, 27, 52, 60, 86, 101, 115, 116, 124, 149, 167, 265, 270, 285, 286. ISBN 978-0-393-05930-4.
- Plehwe, Dieter (2006). Neoliberal Hegemony: A Global Critique. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 31, 48, 49. ISBN 978-0-415-37327-2.
- Read, Leonard E. (1998). Anything That's Peaceful (2 ed.). Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. ISBN 978-1-572460-79-9. OCLC 40829866.
- —— (1958). I, Pencil: My Family Tree (PDF). Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. ISBN 978-1-572462-09-0. OCLC 271625357.
- Reed, Lawrence W. (October 7, 2012). "RE: The FEE presidents" (E-mail)
- Rothbard, Murray N. (2006). Making Economic Sense. Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-0-945466-46-8.
- Schneider, Gregory L (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7425-4284-6.
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- Sennholz, Hans (1997). Up from Poverty. Irvington, NY: Foundation for Economic Education. ISBN 978-1-57246-060-7. OCLC 36854072.
- Sennholz, Mary (1993). Leonard E. Read, Philosopher of Freedom. Foundation for Economic Education. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-910614-85-6.
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- —— (July 9, 2002). "Letter from Mark Skousen, President, Foundation for Economic Education". Missing or empty
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