Post-Islamism is a neologism in political science, the definition and applicability of which has led to an intellectual debate. Asef Bayat and Olivier Roy are among the main architects of the idea.
Terminology and definitionEdit
The term was coined by Iranian political sociologist Asef Bayat, then associate professor of sociology at The American University in Cairo in a 1996 essay published in the journal Middle East Critique.
Bayat explained it as "a condition where, following a phase of experimentation, the appeal, energy, symbols and sources of legitimacy of Islamism get exhausted, even among its once-ardent supporters. As such, post-Islamism is not anti-Islamic, but rather reflects a tendency to resecularize religion." It originally pertained only to Iran, where "post-Islamism is expressed in the idea of fusion between Islam (as a personalized faith) and individual freedom and choice; and post-Islamism is associated with the values of democracy and aspects of modernity". In this context, the prefix post- does not have historic connotation, but refers to the critical departure from Islamist discourse. Bayat later pointed in 2007 that post-Islamism is both a "condition" and a "project".
French politician Olivier Carré used the term in 1991 from a different perspective, to describe the period between the 10th and the 19th centuries, when both Shiite and Sunni Islam "separated the political-military from the religious realm, both theoretically and in practice".
The advent of moderate parties Al-Wasat Party in Egypt, as well as Justice and Development Party in Morocco appeared to resemble emergence of post-Islamism, however scholars rejected that they qualify as such. A similar characterization applies to the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS).
A 2008 Lowy Institute for International Policy paper suggests that Prosperous Justice Party of Indonesia and Justice and Development Party (AKP) of Turkey are post-Islamist. According to Ahmet T. Kuru and Alfred Stepan (2012), many analysts consider Turkish AKP an example of post-Islamism, similar to Christian democratic parties, but Islamic. However, some scholars such as Bassam Tibi dispute this. İhsan Yılmaz argues that the party's ideology after 2011 is different from that of between 2001 and 2011.
- Gómez García 2012.
- Mojahedi 2016, p. 52.
- Badamchi 2017, p. 1.
- Bayat 1996, p. 45.
- Badamchi 2017, p. 4.
- Ismail 2008, p. 626.
- Fazeli 2006, p. 169.
- Badamchi 2017, p. 3.
- Shahibzadeh 2016, p. 103.
- Stacher 2002, p. 432.
- Lauzi`ere 2005, p. 242.
- Muller 2013.
- Bubalo, Fealy & Mason 2002, p. 51, 76.
- Kuru & Stepan 2012, p. 172.
- Hale & Ozbudun 2009, p. 148.
- Yılmaz 2016, p. 115.
- Cavatorta & Merone 2015.
- Bayat, Asef (Fall 1996). "The Coming of a Post-Islamist Society". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 5 (9): 43–52. doi:10.1080/10669929608720091.
- Mojahedi (subscription required), Mohammad Mahdi (Autumn 2016). ""Is There Toleration in Islam?" Reframing a Post-Islamist Question in a Post-Secular Context". ReOrient. 2 (1): 51–72. doi:10.1080/10669929608720091. JSTOR 10.13169/reorient.2.1.0051.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Cavatorta, Francesco; Merone, Fabio (2015). "Post-Islamism, ideological evolution and 'la tunisianite´' of the Tunisian Islamist party al-Nahda". Journal of Political Ideologies. 20 (1): 27–42. doi:10.1080/13569317.2015.991508.
- Stacher (subscription required), Joshua A. (Summer 2002). "Post-Islamist Rumblings in Egypt: The Emergence of the Wasat Party". Middle East Journal. 56 (3): 415–432. doi:10.1080/10669929608720091. JSTOR 4329786.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Bubalo, Anthony; Fealy, Greg; Mason, Whit (2008). Zealous Democrats: Islamism and Democracy in Egypt, Indonesia and Turkey (PDF). Australia: Lowy Institute for International Policy. ISBN 9781921004353.
- Badamchi, Meysam (2017). Post-Islamist Political Theory: Iranian Intellectuals and Political Liberalism in Dialogue. Philosophy and Politics - Critical Explorations. 5. Springer. ISBN 9783319594927.
- Fazeli, Nematollah (2006). Politics of Culture in Iran. Routledge/BIPS Persian Studies Series. Routledge. ISBN 9781134200382.
- Shahibzadeh, Yadullah (2016). Islamism and Post-Islamism in Iran: An Intellectual History. Springer. ISBN 9781137578259.
- Lauzi`ere, Henri (2005). "Post-Islamism and Religious Discourse of al-Salam Yasin". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 37: 241–261 – via Cambridge (subscription required).
- Gómez García, Luz (2012). "Post-Islamism, the Failure of an Idea: Regards on Islam and Nationalism from Khomeini's Death to the Arab Revolts". Religion Compass. 6 (10): 451–466. doi:10.1111/rec3.12002.
- Muller, Dominik M. (2013). "Post-Islamism or Pop-Islamism? Ethnographic observations of Muslim youth politics in Malaysia" (PDF). Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde. 6 (10): 261–284.
- Kuru, Ahmet; Stepan, Alfred (2012). Democracy, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey. Religion, Culture, and Public Life. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231530255.
- Hale, William; Ozbudun, Ergun (2009). Islamism, Democracy and Liberalism in Turkey: The Case of the AKP. Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics. Routledge. ISBN 9781135214920.
- Yılmaz, İhsan (2016). "The Experience of the AKP". In Alessandro Ferrari (ed.). Religions and Constitutional Transitions in the Muslim Mediterranean: The Pluralistic Moment. ICLARS Series on Law and Religion. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781317067122.
- Ismail, Salwa (2008). "Being Muslim: Islam, Islamism and Identity Politics". In Laleh Khalili (ed.). Politics of the Modern Arab World. Critical concepts in the modern politics of the Middle East. Routledge. ISBN 9780415451598.