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Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM, Zulu pronunciation: [aɓaˈɬali ɓasɛm̩dʒɔˈndɔːlo], in English: people of the shacks) is a shack-dwellers' movement in South Africa well known for its campaigning against evictions and for public housing. The movement grew out of a road blockade[1] organised from the Kennedy Road shack settlement in the city of Durban in early 2005[2][3] and now also operates in the cities of Pietermaritzburg[4] and in Cape Town.[5][6][7] It is the largest shack dweller's organisation in South Africa[8][9][10] and campaigns to improve the living conditions of poor people[11] and to democratise society from below.[12]

Abahlali baseMjondolo
Abahlali baseMjondolo Logo
Abahlali baseMjondolo Logo
Founded atKennedy Road, Durban
PurposeHousing activism
  • Durban
  • Cape Town
Key people
Shamita Naidoo, Mnikelo Ndabankulu, Zodwa Nsibande, Mzonke Poni, S'bu Zikode

The movement historically refused party politics, and has boycotted elections[13][14] and has a history of conflict with both the African National Congress and the Democratic Alliance.[15] Despite this stance, it announced its support for the Democratic Alliance in the 2014 elections.[16][17] Its key demand is that the social value of urban land should take priority over its commercial value[18] and it campaigns for the public expropriation of large privately owned landholdings.[19] The key organising strategy is to try "to recreate Commons" from below by trying to create a series of linked communes.[20]

According to The Times, the movement "has shaken the political landscape of South Africa."[21] Academic Peter Vale writes that Abahlali baseMjondolo is "along with the Treatment Action Campaign the most effective grouping in South African civil society."[22] Khadija Patel has written that the movement "is at the forefront of a new wave of mass political mobilisation".[23] However the movement has faced sustained, and at times violent, repression.[23][24][25][26]



Abahlali Assembly, Foreman Road Settlement

In 2001, the eThekwini Municipality, which governs Durban and Pinetown, embarked on a 'slum clearance program.' This meant the steady demolition of shack settlements and a refusal to provide basic services (for example electricity and sanitation) to existing settlements on the grounds that all shack settlements were now 'temporary.' Following these demolitions some shack dwellers were simply being left homeless and others subjected to unlawful forced evictions to the rural periphery of the city.[27][28] In early 2008, the United Nations expressed serious concern about the treatment of shack dwellers in Durban.[29] In the run up to 2010, there was also concern about the possibility of evictions linked to the 2010 FIFA World Cup across South Africa[30][31] and abroad.[32][33][34][35][36][9]


Abahlali's original work from 2005 onwards was primarily committed to opposing demolitions and forced removals and to struggling for good land and quality housing in the cities.[37] In most instances this takes the form of a demand for shack settlements to be upgraded with formal housing and services where they are or for new houses to be built close to where the existing settlements are. However the movement has also argued that basic services such as water, electricity and toilets should be immediately provided to shack settlements while land and housing in the city are negotiated. The movement has also engaged in the mass popular appropriation of access to water and electricity.[38][39]

The movement quickly had a considerable degree of success in stopping evictions and forced removals, winning the right for new shacks to be built as settlements expand and in winning access to basic services,[40] but for three years was not able to win secure access to good urban land for quality housing.[28] In late 2008 the then AbM President S'bu Zikode[41] announced a deal with the eThekwini Municipality which would see services being provided to 14 settlements and tenure security and formal housing to three.[42] The municipality confirmed this deal in February 2009.[43]

The movement has been involved in considerable conflict with the eThekwini Municipality and has undertaken numerous protests and legal actions against the city authorities.[44] Its members have been beaten and many of its leaders arrested by the South African Police Service in Sydenham, Durban.[45]

Abahlali has often made claims of severe police harassment, including torture.[46] On a number of occasions, these claims have been supported by church leaders[47] and human rights organisations.[48] The movement has successfully sued the police for unlawful assaults on its members.[49]

In October 2009, the movement won a constitutional court case which declared the KZN Slums Act unconstitutional.[37][50][51][52] In the same year there was acute conflict between the movement and the Cape Town City Council[53] which centred on the Macassar Village Land Occupation. There was similar conflict in 2013 which centred on the Marikana Land Occupation.[54]

Autonomy and democracyEdit

Academic work on the movement stresses that it is non-professionalised (i.e. its leaders are nonsalaried), independent of NGO control, autonomous from political organisations and party politics[55][56] and democratic.[57][58][59][60][61] Sarah Cooper-Knock describes the movement as "neurotically democratic, impressively diverse and steadfastly self-critical".[19][62] Ercument Celik writes that "I experienced how democratically the movement ran its meetings."[63]

The movement has, along with the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, refused to work with the NGO-run 'Social Movements Indaba' (SMI), and some of the NGOs involved with the SMI.[64] The movement has been particularly critical of the Centre for Civil Society at the University of KwaZulu-Natal[65] and refuses to work with the Centre.[66]

Membership and structuresEdit

Abahlali baseMjondolo is the largest shackdwellers organisation in South Africa.[9] In 2010, the movement claimed to have around 25,000 active supporters in 64 different shack settlements of which just over 10,000 were paid up card carrying members.[67]a youth league and a women's league.[68]


Since 2005, the movement has carried out a series of large scale marches,[19][69] created numerous dual power institutions[70] and engaged in direct action such as land occupations[71] and self organised water and electricity connections and made tactical use of the courts.[72][73][74][75] The movement has often made anti-capitalist statements,[76] has called for "a living communism",[77][78] and has demanded the expropriation of private land for public housing.[79]

Abahlali historically refused to participate in party politics[80] or any NGO-style professionalisation or individualisation of struggle and instead sought to build democratic people's power where people lived and worked.[81][82] Academic work claims that the movement has protected its autonomy from political parties and NGOs.[83][56] However, in 2014, Abahlali was critiqued for endorsing the Democratic Alliance in the 2014 national elections.[84] Nonetheless Abahlali announced it endorsed the Democratic Alliance in the 2014 national election solely as part of a strategy to vote out any standing party that fails to deliver on its political promises [85]

Land and housingEdit

The movement campaigns for well located urban land for public housing[86] and has occupied unused government land.[87][88]

A primary demand of the movement has been for decent, public housing and much of its work takes the form of opposing evictions.[89] The movement has often used the phrase 'The Right to the City'[90] to insist that the location of housing is critically important and demands that shack settlements are upgraded where they are and that people are not relocated to out of town developments.[91][92] The movement rejects technocratic approaches to the housing crisis and stresses the need for dignity to be central to the resolution of the housing crisis.[93] It is opposed to shack dwellers being moved into 'transit camps'.[74]

The movement opposes all evictions and forced removals and has campaigned vigorously on this score via public protest and, also, legal action.[94][95]

Service deliveryEdit

The movement has also campaigned for the provision of basic services to shack settlements.[94][96]

In South Africa, there are an average of "ten shack fires a day with someone dying in a shack fire every other day".[97] Abahlali has campaigned on this issue demanding, amongst other things, the electrification of shacks.[98] It has also connected thousands of people to electricity.[97]

The movement campaigns for equal access to school education for poor children.[99]

Dual power and the refusal of electoral politicsEdit

Since 2005, Abahlali baseMjondolo refused to vote in all state elections.[19][100] The movement stated that it aimed, instead, to use direct democracy to build a counter power to that of the state by creating a series of linked collectives and communes. This position is shared by all the organisations in the Poor People's Alliance.[101][102] However, in 2014 it abandoned this position and urged its members to vote for the Democratic Alliance.[84]

Mutual aidEdit

The movement has organised a number of mutual aid projects: crèches, kitchens and vegetable gardens.[103]

The KZN Slums ActEdit

Abahlali baseMjondolo took the Provincial Government of KwaZulu-Natal to court to have the controversial Slums Act of 2007 declared unconstitutional, but lost the case. On 14 May 2009, it took the case on appeal to the Constitutional Court.[104] The judgment was handed down on 14 October 2009 and the movement won the case with costs.[105]

Xenophobia and police brutalityEdit

The movement took a strong stand against the xenophobic attacks that swept the country in May 2008[19][56][106][107] and there were no attacks in any Abahlali settlements.[19][108][109][110] The movement was also able to stop an in-progress attack in the (non-Abahlali affiliated) Kenville settlement and to offer shelter to some people displaced in the attacks.[111][112]

The movement has organised numerous actions against police racism and brutality[113] and has often demanded fair access to policing services for shack dwellers.[43]

The University of Abahlali baseMjondoloEdit

The movement runs formal courses and issues certification for these. The University of Abahlali baseMjondolo teaches through song and discussions, and archives the knowledge production process.[114] It also hosts regular seminars.[115]

2010 FIFA World CupEdit

Abahlali baseMjondolo of the Western Cape threatened to build shacks outside of the Cape Town stadium to draw attention to their situation[116][117] but were not able to make good on this threat.[118]


The movement describes itself as "a homemade politics that everyone can understand and find a home in"[119] and stresses that it moves from the lived experience of the poor to create a politics that is both intellectual and actional.[120]

Its philosophy has been sketched out in a number of articles and interviews. The key ideas are those of a politics of the poor, a living politics and a people's politics.[121] A politics of the poor is understood to mean a politics that is conducted by the poor and for the poor in a manner that enables the poor to be active participants in the struggles conducted in their name. Practically, it means that such a politics must be conducted where poor people live or in places that they can easily access, at the times when they are free, in the languages that they speak. It does not mean that middle-class people and organisations are excluded but that they are expected to come to these spaces and to undertake their politics there in a dialogical and democratic manner. There are two key aspects to the idea of a living politics. The first is that it is understood as a politics that begins not from external theory but from the experience of the people that shape it. It is argued that political education usually operates to create new elites who mediate relationships of patronage upwards and who impose ideas on others and to exclude ordinary people from thinking politically. This politics is not anti-theory – it just asserts the need to begin from lived experience and to move on from there rather than to begin from theory (usually imported from the Global North) and to impose theory on the lived experience of suffering and resistance in the shacks. The second key aspect, of a living politics, is that political thinking is always undertaken democratically and in common. People's politics is opposed to party politics or politicians' politics (as well as to top down undemocratic forms of NGO politics) and it is argued that the former is a popular democratic project undertaken without financial reward and with an explicit refusal of representative roles and personal power while the latter is a top down, professionalised representative project driven by personal power.[122][123][124][125]

While the movement is clear that its key immediate goals are 'land and housing' it is equally clear that it sees its politics as going beyond this.[126] S'bu Zikode has commented that: "We have seen in certain cases in South Africa where governments have handed out houses simply to silence the poor. This is not acceptable to us. Abahalali’s struggle is beyond housing. We fight for respect and dignity. If houses are given to silence the poor then those houses are not acceptable to us."[127]

'Abahlalism' has on occasion been described as anarchist or autonomist in practice.[128][129] This is primarily because its praxis correlates closely with central tenets of anarchism, including decentralisation, opposition to imposed hierarchy, direct democracy and recognition of the connection between means and ends.[130] However, the movement has never described itself as either anarchist or autonomist. Zikode has said that the movement aspires to 'a living communism'.[126]


The movement, together with similar grassroots movements in Johannesburg and Cape Town,[131] takes a very critical stance towards state elections in South Africa. They have boycotted the local government elections in 2006,[132] the national government elections in 2009 and the 2011 local government elections[133][134] under the banner of No Land! No House! No Vote!. It has been reported that "Nearly 75% of South Africans aged 20-29 did not vote in the 2011 [local government] elections" and that "South Africans in that age group were more likely to have taken part in violent street protests against the local ANC than to have voted for the ruling party".[135]

The philosophy of Abahlali baseMjondolo with regards to elections can be summarised by the following statement from its elected president S'bu Zikode,[136] "The government and academics speak about the poor all the time, but so few want to speak to the poor...It becomes clear that our job is just to vote and then watch the rich speak about us as we get poorer".[31]

The movement's Deputy President, Lindela Figlan has argued that “Voting someone into government just gives them power to oppress and exploit us.”[137]

Despite this sentiment, at the Abahlali baseMjondolo "Unfreedom Day" rally held in Kwa-Mashu on 27 April 2014, the movement's President Sbu Zikode announced that they "would abandon their No Land, No House, No Vote campaign and cast a “strategic vote” in the May 7 elections".[138] A few days later Zikode signed a pact with the centrist Democratic Alliance (DA), stating that "We encourage our comrades and our membership to vote for the Democratic Alliance so that we can get rid of corruption".[16] Zikode clarified that "Abahlali are not joining DA or any political party. We will remain independent from all kinds of mainstream political parties. But this time around it's a tactical partnership where the aim is to really get rid of the party that has become a threat to the society".[17] The DA welcomed Abahali's endorsement, stating that this had come after two years of engagement.[139]


In the early days of the movement, individuals in the ruling party often accused Abahlali of being criminals manipulated by a malevolent white man, a 'third force', or a foreign intelligence agency.[19][61][140]

The movement, like others in South Africa,[141][142] has suffered sustained illegal harassment from the state[143] that has resulted in more than 200 arrests of Abahlali members in the first last three years of its existence and repeated police brutality in people's homes, in the streets and in detention.[144] On a number of occasions, the police used live ammunition,[142] armoured vehicles and helicopters in their attacks on unarmed shack dwellers.[145] In 2006 the local city manager, Mike Sutcliffe, unlawfully implemented a complete ban on Abahlali's right to march[146][147] which was eventually overturned in court.[142][148][149][150] Abahlali have been violently prevented from accepting invitations to appear on television[151][152] and radio debates by the local police.[153] The Freedom of Expression Institute has issued a number of statements in strong support of Abahlali's right to speak out and to organise protests.[154][155] The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions[156] and a group of prominent church leaders[157][158] have also issued public statements against police violence, as has Bishop Rubin Philip in his individual capacity,[159] and in support of the right of the movement to publicly express dissent.[160]

In March 2008, the Mercury newspaper reported that both Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International were investigating human rights abuses against shack dwellers by the city government.[citation needed]

In 2009 the movement was attacked in the Kennedy Road settlement - see below.

In April 2010, IRIN, the newsletter of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, reported that "The rise of an organised poor people's movement [Abahlali baseMjondolo] in South Africa's most populous province, KwaZulu-Natal, is being met with increasing hostility by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) government.[161]

In April 2013 the movement successfully sued the Minister of Police for violence against three of its members.[162]

On the 26th of June a local AbM leader, Nkululeko Gwala, was assassinated in the Cato Crest shack settlement in Durban.[163][164][165][166]

On 29 September 2014, another Abahlali baseMjondolo member was killed. Thuli Ndlovu, the movement chairperson for KwaNdengezi was assassinated in her home after disputes with a local councillor over housing allocation.[167][168] Abahlali baseMjondolo accused the councillor of having a hand in the assassination.[169] On 27 February 2015, the local councillor, Mduduzi Ngcobo, was arrested on suspicion of being behind the murder.[170]

Church supportEdit

The movement has received strong support from some key church leaders.[171] In a speech at the AbM UnFreedom Day event on 27 April 2008 Anglican Bishop Rubin Phillip said that:

"The courage, dignity and gentle determination of Abahlali baseMjodolo has been a light that has shone ever more brightly over the last three years. You have faced fires, sickness, evictions, arrest, beatings, slander, and still you stand bravely for what is true. Your principle that everyone matters, that every life is precious, is very simple but it is also utterly profound. Many of us who hold dear the most noble traditions of our country take hope from your courage and your dignity."[172]

The Italian theologian Brother Filippo Mondini has attempted to develop a theology based on the political thought and practices developed in Abahlali baseMjondolo.[173]


The movement makes considerable use of cellphones to organise, generates its own media where possible[6] and has made use of films too.[174] The award-winning[175] documentary feature film Dear Mandela tells the story of three young activists in Abahlali baseMjondolo.[176][177]

The Poor People's AllianceEdit

In September 2008, the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, together with Abahlali baseMjondolo, the Landless People's Movement and the Rural Network (Abahlali baseplasini) formed The Poor People's Alliance[178][179] which is "a co-alition of independent social movements.[180] The Poor People's Alliance refuses electoral politics under the banner 'No Land! No House! No Vote!'.[102][181][182]

Abahlali baseMjondolo has also organised in solidarity with the Unemployed Peoples' Movement.[183]

International solidarityEdit


According to eThekwini City Manager Dr. Michael Sutcliffe, the essence of the tensions between Abahlali baseMjondolo and the City lie in the fact that the movement "rejects the authority of the city." When the Durban High Court ruled that his attempts to ban marches by Abahlali baseMjondolo were unlawful he stated that: "We will be asking serious questions of the court because we cannot allow anarchy having anyone marching at any time and any place."[196] According to Lennox Mabaso, spokesperson for the Provincial Department of Housing, the movement is "under the sway of an agent provocateur" who is "engaged in clandestine operations" and who has been "assigned to provoke unrest".[197] City Officials continue to argue that the movement is a Third Force seeking to undermine the ruling African National Congress for nefarious purposes.[198]

In December 2006, Abahlali members and members of the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign,[199] disrupted a meeting of the Social Movements Indaba at the University of KwaZulu Natal and staged a protest.[70] Some academics and NGO activists, all of whom have clear links to a local NGO, the Centre for Civil Society, claimed that this was criminal behaviour[200] and somehow illegitimate in that, according to these people, it was in response to the dismissal of four Abahlali linked academics from the Centre. However the WC-AEC issued a statement vigorously rejecting these claims[199] while the Mail and Guardian newspaper reported a very different account of why Abahlali protested the meeting.[201] A masters thesis by Matt Birkinshaw explained that the protest happened because "Abahlali felt that there was a lack of genuine democracy and participation due to NGO co-optation" in the SMI.[70] Online video footage of the protest shot by Antonios Vradis indicates that the demonstration was peaceful and rational and that the movements had a clear critique of the NGO co-option of the SMI.[202]

In October 2010, Abahlali baseMjondolo of the Western Cape called for a month of direct action.[203][204] Mzonke Poni, the chairperson of the Cape Town structure at the time, publicly endorsed road blockades as a legitimate tactic during this strike.[205] The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) and the South African Communist Party, the latter a major ally of the ruling ANC, issued strong statements condemning the campaign and labelling it 'violent'[206] and, 'anarchist' and reactionary'.[207] AbM responded by saying that their support for road blockades was not violent and that "We have never called for violence. Violence is harm to human beings. Blockading a road is not violence."[208] They also said that the SACP's attack was really due to the movement's insistence on organising autonomously from the African National Congress.[209] After the strike by AbM Western Cape, there were some protests in TR section of Khayelitsha in which vehicles were damaged. AbM WC ascribed these protests to the ANC Youth League[210] as did Helen Zille and the Youth League itself.[211] According to Leadership Magazine "The ANC Youth League in the province has hijacked the peaceful service-delivery protests organised by the social movement Abahlali baseMjondolo in Khayelitsha in a violent, destructive and desperate attempt to mobilise support for the ANC against the province's Democratic Alliance provincial and municipal governments."[212]

Violence at the Kennedy Road settlementEdit

On 26 September 2009, a group of 40 people entered the Kennedy Road settlement wielding guns and knives and attacked an Abahlali baseMjondolo youth meeting.[24][213] Two people were killed in the resulting conflict.[116] The Mail & Guardian newspaper described the attack on Kennedy Road as a "hatchet job."[214] On 18 July 2011, the case against the 12 accused members of Abahlali baseMjondolo collapsed.[215][216] The Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa issued a statement saying that the "charges were based on evidence which now appears almost certainly to have been manufactured" and that the Magistrate had described the state witnesses as "“belligerent”, “unreliable” and “dishonest”.[217] Amnesty International noted that the court had found that "police had directed some witnesses to point out members of Abahlali-linked organisations at the identification parade".[218]

See alsoEdit

Abahlali baseMjondolo activistsEdit

Other land and housing movementsEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Article in the Sunday Tribune newspaper by Fred Kockott describing the road blockade Archived 19 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Struggle is a School by Richard Pithouse, Monthly Review, 2006
  3. ^ 'Delivery and Dignity' (pdf) by Jacob Byrant, Journal of Asian & African Studies, 2007
  4. ^ 'ANC to shift to the Left after South Africa's presidential election', Daily Telegraph, London
  5. ^ [1][permanent dead link] Article in the Sowetan newspaper on the launch of the Cape Town branch of Abahlali baseMjondolo
  6. ^ a b Social Movement Media in Post-Apartheid South Africa, by Wendy Willems,Encyclopaedia of Social Movement Media (Ed. John D. H. Downing, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 2011)
  7. ^ Cape Town Administration Violates the Rights of the Poor, Carmen Ludwig, All Africa, 27 October 2011
  8. ^ 'South Africa's Poor Have Had Enough' Carol Landry, Agence France-Presse, December 2005[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ a b c Steele, Jonathan (2009). "Why 2010 Could Be An Own Goal for the Rainbow Nation". Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  10. ^ What's the Deal with the Toyi-Toyi, by Lisa Nevitt,Cape Town Magazine, November 2010
  11. ^ 'The State of Resistance: Popular struggles in the Global South' edited by Francois Polet pp.139–140, McMillian 2007
  12. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo (2008). "iPolitiki ePhilayo: The Abahlali baseMjondolo Manifesto for a Politics of the Poor". Indybay. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Abahlali baseMjondolo: 'A homemade politics'". LibCom. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  14. ^ 'Shack dwellers honour their leader' Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine by SABC News, 16 December 2009
  15. ^ The seed of a new opposition? Business Day, 7 February 2011
  16. ^ a b DA signs pact with KZN landless people SAPA, The Daily News, 2 May 2014
  17. ^ a b Abahlali throws support behind DA Thrishni Subramoney and SAPA, East Coast Radio, 2 May 2014
  18. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo March on Jacob Zuma, Durban, South Africa, 22 March 2010, UK IndyMedia
  19. ^ a b c d e f g [Street Traders: A Bridge Between Trade Unions and Social Movements in Contemporary South Africa], by Ercument Celik, Nomos, Freiburg, 2009
  20. ^ Joel Kovel, 'The Enemy of Nature', 2007 Zed Books, New York, p. 251
  21. ^ 'Stench of shanties puts ANC on wrong side of new divide' by Jonathan Clayton 25 February 2006
  22. ^ Peter Vale – Insight into history of SA an imperative 2010/04/09 Daily Dispatch. Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b Shack dwellers take the fight to eThekwini – and the ANC takes note, Khadija Patel, The Daily Maverick, 16 September 2013
  24. ^ a b Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, Imraan Buccus, SA Reconciliation Barometer, September 2010
  25. ^ On the Quality of Electioneering in South Africa, Frank Meintjies, All Africa, 25 July 2013
  26. ^ Lessons from the Demise of Thabo Mbeki, Jane Duncan, SACSIS, 16 September 2013
  27. ^ "South Africa". Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE). Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2008.
  28. ^ a b "Report to the United Nations (pdf)" (PDF). Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE). 2008.
  29. ^ "United Nations Statement on Housing Rights Violations in South Africa". Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  30. ^ [2] The Guardian World Cup 2010: football brings defining moment for South Africa, 12 June 2009
  31. ^ a b The real winners and losers: of the beautiful game Archived 10 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Sunday Herald 9 August 2009
  32. ^ World Cup 2010: football brings defining moment for South Africa, 12 June 2009. The Guardian Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  33. ^ World Cup Whose Meaning Goes Beyond Soccer, Alan Cowell, 28 December 2009, The New York Times
  34. ^ "Shack Dwellers Fight Demolition in S. Africa Court". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.
  35. ^ "Pooh-slinging Slums Act showdown at Con Court". M&G.
  36. ^ "South Africa's Poor Targeted by Evictions, Attacks in Advance of 2010 World Cup". Democracy Now!.
  37. ^ a b Cabannes, Yves (13 June 2010). "How people face evictions". UCL. The Bartlett Development Planning Unit. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  38. ^ "A big devil in the shacks: The politics of fire". History Matters. 16 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) A-Short-History-of-Abahlali-baseMjondolo
  40. ^ Durban breaks new ground in participatory democracy, Imraan Buccus. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  41. ^ South Africa's new apartheid?, Riz Khan, Al Jazeera, 23 November 2010
  42. ^ Speech by S'bu Zikode Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (14 December 2008). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  43. ^ a b The Work of violence:a timeline of armed attacks at Kennedy Road Archived 17 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Kerry Chance School of Development Studies Research Report, 83, July 2010.]
  44. ^ These are detailed in some of the academic work and there is reference to some of the legal actions in the report on Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva) which is online at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). The papers from many of the court actions are also archived on the Abahlali site
  45. ^ Niren Tolsi, 'I was punched, beaten', Mail & Guardian', 16 September 2007
  46. ^ Abahlali_3. "Abahlali baseMjondolo & the Police - Abahlali baseMjondolo". Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  47. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo (2007). "Police Violence in Sydenham, 28 September 2007: A Testimony by Church Leaders". Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  48. ^ Relevant Letter and Full Report Archived 19 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ SA police caught dead to right, by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian,26 April 2013
  50. ^ [3] 'Shack dwellers' victory bus' by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 2009
  51. ^ Landmark judgment for the poor, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 18 October 2009]. (18 October 2009). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  52. ^ Ruling in Abahlali case lays solid foundation to build on, Marie Huchzermeyer, Business Day, 04/11/2009
  53. ^ Collection of articles on the Macassar Village Land Occupation Archived 20 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ 'Marikana' UnFreedom Day land occupation ends in violent Workers’ Day eviction, by Jared Sacks, The Daily Maverick, 2 May 2013
  55. ^ examining the refusal of electoral politics in Abahlali, Raj Patel
  56. ^ a b c Analysing Political Subjectivities: Naming the Post-Development State in Africa Today by Michael Neocosmos, Journal of Asian & African Studies, pp.534–553, Vol. 45, No. 5, October 2010
  57. ^ Patel, Raj (2008). "A Short Course in Politics at the University of Abahlali baseMjondolo". Journal of Asian and African Studies. 43: 95–112. doi:10.1177/0021909607085587.
  58. ^ Gibson, Nigel C. (2008). "Upright and free: Fanon in South Africa, from Biko to the shackdwellers' movement (Abahlali baseMjondolo)". Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture. 14 (6): 683–715. doi:10.1080/13504630802462802.
  59. ^ Nigel Gibson. "Zabalaza, Unfinished Struggles against Apartheid: The Shackdwellers' Movement in Durban". Socialism & Democracy. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  60. ^ Settlement Informality: The importance of understanding change, formality and land and the informal economy, Marie Huchzermeyer, 2008
  61. ^ a b Nigel C. Gibson, Living Fanon: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2011: London, Palgrave Macmillan)
  62. ^ Symbol of hope silenced, Sarah Cooper-Knock, Daily News, 13 November 2009
  63. ^ [Street Traders: A Bridge Between Trade Unions and Social Movements in Contemporary South Africa], by Ercument Celik, Nomos, Freiburg, 2009, p. 175-176
  64. ^ "Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign – Working against Forced Removals". Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-18. AEC statement on the SMI
  65. ^ [4] 'Land and Housing: the burning questions', The Diakonia Council of Churches Economic Justice Lecture, 28 August 2008
  66. ^ [5] Supporting Abahlali baseMjondolo
  67. ^ Kerry Chance (July 2010). "The Work of violence:A timeline of armed attacks at Kennedy Road". School of Development Studies Research Report 83. Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  68. ^ Pierre de Vos (2010). "In defense of the Internet". Constitutionally Speaking. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  69. ^ [6] Resistance from the other South Africa by Neha Nimmagudda in Pambazuka News(2008-07-17]
  70. ^ a b c See 'Rights, democracy, social movements: Abahlali baseMjondolo – a living politics' Masters Thesis by Matt Birkinshaw, University of London, 2007
  71. ^ Occupy Durban, AbM Press Statement, December 2011
  72. ^ Civic Action and Legal Mobilisation: the Phiri water meters case, Jackie Dugard, Wits University, 2010
  73. ^ Victory for the Forgotten Shack Dwellers, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa, 19 September 2012
  74. ^ a b Judgment a victory for 38 families, Daily News, 20 September 2012
  75. ^ A Durban shack dweller's movement tells of ANC's woes, Khadija Patel, The Daily Maverick, 4 October 2013
  76. ^ 'Abahlali baseMjondolo – The South African Shack Dwellers Movement' by Suzy Subways, 2008 Archived 3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  77. ^ [7] Text of Speech at Diakonia Economic Justice Forum – Please follow the link to the PDF for the full content of the speech
  78. ^ Politics of Grieving Archived 26 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Drucilla Cornell, Social Text, 2011
  79. ^ ‘The poor need proper homes’ – article in the Sowetan by Mary Papayya 1 September 2008 Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ [8] Article by M'du Hlongwa examining the refusal of electoral politics in Abahlali
  81. ^ [9] Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Article by Xin Wei Ngiam in Critical Dialogue (Vol.2, No.1, 2006) that includes interviews on conceptions of democracy amongst Abahlali militants.
  82. ^ Clandestino Carta Magazine
  83. ^ Street Traders: A Bridge Between Trade Unions and Social Movements in Contemporary South Africa, by Ercument Celik, Nomos, Freiburg, 2009
  84. ^ a b [10] DA signs pact with KZN landless people, 2 May 2014
  85. ^ "Why Abahlali endorsed the DA: S'bu Zikode speaks to GroundUp". 5 May 2014.
  86. ^ South Africa's shack-dwellers fight back, by Patrick Kingsely, The Guardian, 24 September 2012
  87. ^ 'Black Boers' clear townships by force by Ruth Maclean, The Times, London, 22 November 2013
  88. ^ Despite the state's violence, our fight to escape the mud and fire of South Africa's slums will continue, S'bu Zikode, The Guardian, 11 November 2013
  89. ^ Serving the public interest in Cairo’s urban development, by Jessie McClelland, al Masryalyoum, 12/05/2010
  90. ^ The Abahlali baseMjondolo Shack Dwellers Movement and the Right to the City in South Africa by Charlotte Mathivet and Shelley Buckingham, Habitat International Coalition, 2009
  91. ^ [11] This emerges clearly in the archive of the movement's memoranda and press statements
  92. ^ There is reference to some of the legal actions against evictions in the 2008 report on housing rights in Durban Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva) which is online at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). The papers from many of the court actions are also archived on the Abahlali site
  93. ^ Love in the Time of AIDS, Mark Hunter, UKZN Press, 2010, p.224
  94. ^ a b [12] This also emerges very clearly in the archive of the movement's memoranda and press statements
  95. ^ [13] For a discussion of a key court victory against evictions see the article 'Chetty Champions the Poor' in 'South African Legal Brief', 24 September 2008
  96. ^ [14] Capitalism the 'real culprit behind climate change' by Faranaaz Parker, Mail & Guardian, 18 December 2009
  97. ^ a b Matt Birkinshaw 'The Big Devil in the Jondolos: The Politics of Shack Fires in Pambazuka News (2008). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  98. ^ See
  99. ^ South African Social Movement campaigns against School Exclusions, Teacher Solidarity, 9 January 2011
  100. ^ Speech by S'bu Zikode, December 2008. (17 December 2008). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  101. ^ [15] See Raj Patel,'Electing Land Questions: A Methodological Discussion with Reference to Abahlali baseMjondolo, the Durban Shack dwellers' Movement', Codesria, 2007
  102. ^ a b [16] Grassroots movements plan to boycott South African poll Ekklesia, 29 April 2009
  103. ^ Seeds of rebellion, by Albert Buhr, The Times, 15 August 2010
  104. ^ South Africa shanty town bill row, BBC, 15 May 2009. BBC News (14 May 2009). Retrieved on 30 April 2019.
  105. ^ ‘From shack to the Constitutional Court’: The litigious disruption of governing global cities, by Anna Selmeczi, Utrecht Law Review, April 2011
  106. ^ See
  107. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)'The Africa that Pushes Back' by Mukoma Wa Ngugi, Foreign Policy in Focus, 24 December 2008
  108. ^ [17] 'The politics of fear and the fear of politics' by Michael Neocosmos, Pambazuka, 2008
  109. ^ From 'Foreign Natives' to 'Native Foreigners': Explaining Xenophobia in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Michael Neocosmos, CODESRIA, Dakar, 2010
  110. ^ “We are Gauteng People” Challenging the politics of xenophobia in Khutsong, South Africa Archived 2 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Seminar Presentation, Joshua Kirshner, 23 February 2011, Rhodes University
  111. ^ See 'The Politics of Fear and the Fear of Politics: Reflections on Xenophobic Violence in South Africa', an article by Professor Michael Neocosmos from Monash University in Australia in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Vol. 43, No. 6, 586–594 (2008)
  112. ^ 'The May 2008 Pogroms: xenophobia, evictions, liberalism, and democratic grassroots militancy in South Africa' by Richard Pithouse, in ''Sanhati'', June 2008. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  113. ^ See, for instance, Against Police Brutality – March On Glen Nayager, 10 April 2007. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  114. ^ Transforming the basis of knowledge, Budd Hall, University World News, 25 May 2013
  115. ^ Nigel Gibson, 'Upright and free: Fanon in South Africa, from Biko to the shackdwellers' movement (Abahlali baseMjondolo)', Social Identities (Volume 14, Issue 6 November 2008 , pages 683 – 715)
  116. ^ a b A Quiet Coup: South Africa’s largest social movement under attack as the World Cup Looms Toussaint Losier, Left Turn Magazine, June 2010
  117. ^ Shack dwellers threat to Cup Archived 26 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Francis Hweshe, The Sowetan, 1 June 2010
  118. ^ South Africa: from Polokwane to the World Cup and after Archived 12 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Martin Legassick, World Wide Socialist Network, 9 July 2010
  119. ^ Richard Pithouse' Thinking Resistance in the Shantytown', Mute Magazine, August 2006 Archived 25 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  120. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo, Spatial Agency. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  121. ^ Abahlali’s Vocal Politics of Proximity: Speaking, Suffering and Political Subjectivization, Anna Selmeczi, Journal of Asian and African Studies, October 2012 vol. 47 no. 5 498-515
  122. ^ The movement's philosophy is clearly articulated in a number of statements on its website – see, especially, the statements at It is also usefully summarised in the academic work by Nigel Gibson
  123. ^ [18] Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Also see 'Taking poverty seriously: What the poor are saying and why it matters' by Xin Wei Ngiam in Critical Dialogue, Vol.2, No.1, 2006
  124. ^ [19] Educating resistance by Anna Anna Selmeczi in Debating David Harvey in Interface Journal (pp. 309 – 314), Volume 2 issue 1 (May 2010)
  125. ^ [20] We are being left to burn because we do not count: Biopolitics, Abandonment, and Resistance by Anna Selmeczi in Global Society, Volume 23, Issue 4 October 2009 , pages 519 – 538
  126. ^ a b Politics of Grieving Archived 26 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Drucilla Cornell, Social Text, 2011
  127. ^ Report on the Attack on Abahlali baseMjonolo in the Kennedy Road settlement by the Development Planning Unit of University College London Archived 16 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, by Malavika Vartak, 2009
  128. ^ 'Anarchism, the State and the Praxis of Contemporary Antisystemic Social Movements' by Morgan Rodgers Gibson, December 2010]
  129. ^ Modern Anarchist Societies Series – Abahlali baseMjondolo || The Autonomous Exemplars of South Africa Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  130. ^ 'The Role of Anarchism in Contemporary Anti-Systemic Social Movements' Morgan Rodgers Gibson, December 2009]
  131. ^ [21] Elections: A Dangerous Time for Poor People's Movements in South Africa
  132. ^ [22] "No Vote” Campaigns are not a Rejection of Democracy, November 2005
  133. ^ W Cape voters ‘not predictable’, Quinton Mtyala and Babalo Ndenze, The Cape Argus, 18 May 2011
  134. ^ ‘No Land! No House! No Vote!’, The Mercury, By SINEGUGU NDLOVU AND BRONWYN FOURIE, 19 May 2011
  135. ^ Deep Read: 'Born free' voters may not choose ANC, JON HERSKOVITZ, Mail & Guardian, 29 January 2013
  136. ^ Economies Go UndergroundRobert Neuwirth, Forbes, 09.09.10,
  137. ^ Be angry with government, not cops, Lee Rondganger, Lyse Comins and Nosipho Mngoma, The Daily News, 2014
  138. ^ We will vote, but not ANC: Abahali, Nosipho Mngoma, The Daily News, 29 April 2014
  139. ^ Abahlali Basemjondolo publicly endorse the DA for the elections Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sizwe Mchunu, DA Leader in KwaZulu-Natal, 2 May 2014
  140. ^ [23] Article by S'bu Zikode written in response to Third Force allegations
  141. ^ See a report in illegal police repression in South Africa by the Freedom of Expression Institute. (9 November 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  142. ^ a b c Dissent Under Thabo Mbeki[permanent dead link], Jane Duncan, May 2011
  143. ^ Nigel C. Gibson, Living Fanon: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2011: London, Palgrave Macillan)
  144. ^ Shack Dwellers on the Move in Durban, Richard Pithouse, Radical Philosophy, 2007
  145. ^ Yonk'indawo Umzabalazo Uyasivumela: New work from Durban, Research Report[permanent dead link]. (PDF) . Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  146. ^ This is discussed in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Feb 2008; vol. 43: pp. 63 – 94.[permanent dead link]
  147. ^ Also see a letter from the Freedom of Expression Institute, 23 February 2008, which gives a detailed chronology of the banning of one march. (PDF) . Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  148. ^ [24] Article in the Daily News
  149. ^ Statement by the Freedom of Expression Institute. (9 November 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  150. ^ [25] Will Zuma administration open its ears to the streets?, Jane Duncan, Business Day, 4 August 2009]
  151. ^ [26] Richard Pithouse, 'South Africa: Freedom not yet', Pambazuka, 29 April 2010
  152. ^ BATTLE TO BE HEARD Archived 18 July 2012 at, by Carol Paton, Financial Mail, 16 February 2006
  153. ^ 'I was punched, beaten', Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 16 September 2006,
  154. ^ [27] Freedom of Expression Institute statement
  155. ^ [28] Also see 'Free expression means nothing if it's limited to the media' by Na'eem Jenah, Thought Leader, 18 October 2007
  156. ^ [29] Open Letter to Obed Mlaba & Mike Sutcliffe by COHRE
  157. ^ [30] Testimony by Church Leaders
  158. ^ [31]"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Sunday Tribune article on church leader's statement
  159. ^ [32][permanent dead link] Unfreedom Day Speech by Bishop Rubin Philip, 27 April 2007
  160. ^ [33] See'Why we must keep our eyes on the ground' by Professor Stephen Friedman, Business Day, 17 October 2007
  161. ^ SOUTH AFRICA: Poor people's movement draws government wrath, IRIN,UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 22 April 2010
  162. ^ Minister of Police to pay damages to Abahlali members for police brutality, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa
  163. ^ KZN protest leader shot 12 times, Nkululeko Nene, Daily News, 27 June 2013
  164. ^ KZN: Anatomy of an assassination, Niki Moore, Daily Maverick, 31 July 2013
  165. ^ Africa: Killed for crying foul, by Andrew England, Financial Times, 26 August 2013
  166. ^ Cato Crest: Land hunger of 'Marikana' proportions, Manqoba Nxumalo, Mail & Guardian, 6 September 2013
  167. ^ GroundUp, 1 October 2014
  168. ^ M&G, 3 October 2014
  169. ^ Thuli Ndlovu was Assassinated last Night, Abahlali baseMjondolo, 30 September 2014
  170. ^ Councillor bust for Thulisile's murder, Daily Sun, 3 March 2015
  171. ^ [34] A bishop's pursuit of justice for South Africa's shack dwellers, Emma Pomfret Christian Today
  172. ^ The speech was printed in the May issue of 'Anglican News' and it can be downloaded at[permanent dead link]
  173. ^ [35] 'Abahlali basemjondolo Theology' by Filippo Mondini, Korogocho, 26 June 2008
  174. ^ Sean Jacobs, 'Post-Apartheid Social Movements on Film', Popular Media, Democracy and Development in Africa, Herman Wasserman (Ed.)Routledge, London, 2010
  175. ^ Award-winners at the 32nd Durban International Film Festival. (1 August 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  176. ^ DIFF 2011 | The Wrap Up. (3 August 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  177. ^ After Apartheid, More Struggles to Wage, Nicolas Rapold, The New York Times, 20 September 2012
  178. ^ The Struggle for Land & Housing in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Toussaint Losier, Left Turn, January 2009
  179. ^ 'Participatory Society: Urban Space & Freedom' Archived 6 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, by Chris Spannos, Z-Net, 29 May 2009
  180. ^ Voices of poor must be heard, Editorial, Business Day, 25 October 2010
  181. ^ The alliance, and its position on electoral politics, is mentioned in the speech by S'bu Zikode at
  182. ^ ANC Attacks Shack Dwellers Movements. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  183. ^ Protests promised over arrest Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Dudu Dube, 25 June 2013, The New Age
  184. ^ Protest at Zuma’s UK visit in solidarity with South African Shack Dwellers, TMP Online, 3 March 2010
  185. ^ "Home". Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  186. ^ Talk to Us, Not About Us. (22 August 2009). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  187. ^ An Evening with the Shackdwellers Movement of South Africa (20 August 2009) Archived 22 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (20 August 2009). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  188. ^ Picture the Homeless Protest in New York City, 9 Oct 2009. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  189. ^ Zapatista-Inspired Rally Held in New York City; Aims to Fight Gentrification by Paola Reyes, Latin Dispatch, 3 March 2010
  190. ^ Media Mobilizing Project. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  191. ^ Take Back the Land in South Africa. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  192. ^ Tek bir insan ırkı vardır-Abahlali baseMjondolo (Güney Afrika). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  193. ^ Combined Harare Residents' Association Visit to Abahlali: mid June 2007. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  194. ^ Il doppio shock by Gianluca Carmosino, Clandestino
  195. ^ War on Want Writes to the South African High Commissioner Archived 27 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine|date=July 2010
  196. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Press Statement by Sutcliffe
  197. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Sunday Tribune article by Mabaso
  198. ^ ANC: ‘Abahlali and opposition a third force’, Mhlabunzima Memela, The Witness, 17 October 2013
  199. ^ a b On the SMI, from the Anti-Eviction Campaign. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  200. ^ Setshedi, V. (2006) ‘Report Glosses Over Tsotsi Politics’, Mail and Guardian, 18 December 2006
  201. ^ On the far side of left, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 8 December 2006
  202. ^ Raw Footage of the Protest at the SMI by the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign and Abahlali baseMjondolo Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  203. ^ Shack dwellers strike set to last one month, Anna Majavu & Unathi Obose, 4 October 2010
  204. ^ South Africa’s rebellion of the poor, by Rebecca Burns, Waging Non-Violence
  205. ^ Urgent Call. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  206. ^ Unite poor and working class people! Reject Abahlali baseMjondolo’s call for violence Archived 17 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (13 October 2010). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  207. ^ Blockading Public Roads is anarchy and reactionary. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  208. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo of the Western Cape Replies to the Treatment Action Campaign. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  209. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo of the Western Cape Responds to the South African Communist Party. (18 October 2010). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  210. ^ The Protests in TR Section Today Are Organised by the ANC Youth League and Not by AbM Western Cape Archived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (12 November 2010). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  211. ^ Ungovernability in Cape Town. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  212. ^ ANC’s reshuffle Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (23 November 2010). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
  213. ^ Report: Experiences of Abahlali baseMjondolo in Durban, South Africa, by Malavika Vartak, Development Planning Unit of University College London
  214. ^ Kennedy olive branch a sham Kennedy olive branch a sham, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 11 October 2009
  215. ^ Press statement by the Unemployed Peoples Movement, 18 July 2011
  216. ^ The ANC and the failing of democratic governance, Paul Trewhela, Politics Web, 27 August 2011
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External linksEdit

Films about Abahlali baseMjondoloEdit