Communist Party of Byelorussia

The Communist Party of Byelorussia (CPB; Russian: Коммунистическая партия Белоруссии, romanizedKommunisticheskaya partiya Byelorussii; Belarusian: Камуністычная партыя Беларусі, romanizedKamunistyčnaja partyja Bielarusi) was the ruling communist party of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, a constituent republic of the Soviet Union from 1922, that existed from 1917 to 1991.

Communist Party of
Камуністычная партыя Беларусі
Founded30–31 December 1917
Banned25 August 1991
Succeeded byParty of Belarusian Communists
Political positionFar-left
National affiliationCommunist Party of the Soviet Union
International affiliationComintern (until 1943) Cominform (until 1956)
Colours  Red
SloganWorkers of the world, unite!
AnthemThe Internationale
Anthem of Byelorussian SSR
Party flag



The party was founded in 1917 as the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Byelorussia (Russian: Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Белоруссии) following the Russian Revolution of 1917 as part of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) led by Vladimir Lenin on December 30–31, 1918 with 17,800 members. It was important in creating the Byelorussian Soviet Republic in January 1919. From February 1919 until 1920 it functioned as a single organisation together with the Communist Party of Lithuania, known as the Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia.[1][2] It was renamed to the Communist Party of Byelorussia in 1952.[3]

The CPB was a communist party, organized on democratic centralism. This principle, introduced by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party, followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies. The highest body within the CPB was the Party Congress, which convened every five years. When Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body. Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, (previously the Presidium), the Secretariat. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or two of the three offices concurrently, but never all three at the same time. The party leader was the de facto chairman of the CPB Politburo and chief executive of the Republic. Ideologically, the CPB embraced Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, and Lenin, became formalized by Joseph Stalin as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence.

With debate raging regarding Belarusian independence, Byelorussian representatives in Petrograd were far more willing to accept Joseph Stalin's plans for establishing an autonomous Byelorussian Authority. Byelorussian Communist Party First Secretary Alexander Miasnikian, however, initially having held control of Minsk, was seemingly unwilling to share collective influence regarding the future affairs of Byelorussia. This internal conflict resulted in Byelorussian nationalist leadership attempting to establish power by calling the All-Byelorussian National Congress, in which 1872 delegates were gathered to discuss the future of the nation. While contingents of the organization voted in the Rada, a council of representatives for Byelorussia, the Communist Party played an active role in suppressing the Rada, causing them to go underground.[4]

The 1930s saw the Communist Party of Byelorussia targeted most heavily by Stalin's purges. The vast majority of high-profile figures were arrested and removed, while an additional 40% of all members were also removed (Marples 1999, 8-9) Having taken place during Stalin's infamous purges, much of the socially and culturally significant gains that the occurred—such as the return of exiled individuals, a resurrection of language, among other cultural developments that had begun in the 1920s—had become halted, affecting Byelorussian culture and society for some significant time. 1937 especially saw the highest rate of purges throughout the Party, but arrests and removals of key figures continued well into the 1940s. These formative years tended to halt specific social developments pushed by the Communist Party, hindering much for the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.[5]

July 28, 1990, from Art. 6 of the Constitution of the Byelorussian SSR, the provision on the monopoly of the Communist Party of Byelorussia on power was excluded.[6]

From August 25, 1991, to February 3, 1993, the activities of the Communist Party of Belarus were suspended.[7][8]

On April 25, 1993, at the XXXII (extraordinary) congress of the Communist Party of Belarus, it was decided to join the party in the Party of Communists of Belarus (PCB).[9]

First Secretaries of the Communist Party of Byelorussia

No. Picture Name
Took office Left office Political party
First Secretary
1   Alexander Miasnikian
1918 1919 CPB
2   Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas
1919 1919 CPB
3   Yefim Genkin
11 November 1920 1920 CPB
4   Vilhelm Knorin
25 November 1920 May 1922 CPB/CPSU
5   Waclaw Bogucki
May 1922 4 February 1924 CPB/CPSU
7   Aleksandr Osatkin-Vladimirsky
4 February 1924 14 May 1924 CPB/CPSU
8   Alexander Krinitsky
September 1924 7 May 1927 CPB/CPSU
9   Vilhelm Knorin
7 May 1927 4 December 1928 CPB/CPSU
10   Yan Gamarnik
4 December 1928 3 January 1930 CPB/CPSU
11   Konstantin Gey
3 January 1930 18 January 1932 CPB/CPSU
12   Nikolay Gikalo
18 January 1932 18 March 1937 CPB/CPSU
13   Vasily Sharangovich
18 March 1937 17 July 1937 CPB/CPSU
14   Yakov Yakovlev
27 July 1937 8 August 1937 CPB/CPSU
15   Aleksei Volkov
11 August 1937 18 June 1938 CPB/CPSU
16   Panteleimon Ponomarenko
18 June 1938 7 March 1947 CPB/CPSU
17   Nikolai Gusarov
7 March 1947 31 May 1950 CPB/CPSU
18   Nikolai Patolichev
31 May 1950 28 July 1956 CPB/CPSU
19   Kirill Mazurov
28 July 1956 30 March 1965 CPB/CPSU
20   Pyotr Masherov
30 March 1965 4 September 1980 CPB/CPSU
21 Tikhon Kiselyov
15 October 1980 11 January 1983 CPB/CPSU
22   Nikolay Slyunkov
13 January 1983 6 February 1987 CPB/CPSU
23 Yefrem Sokolov
6 February 1987 30 November 1990 CPB/CPSU
24 Anatoly Malofeyev
30 November 1990 25 April 1993 CPB/CPSU

See also



  1. ^ Glossary of Organisations: Co
  2. ^ Левые партии, действовавшие на территории Беларуси в конце ХІХ — 1930-х | Беларуская сацыял-дэмакратычная партыя (Грамада) Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Коммунистическая партия Белоруссии
  4. ^ SUKIENNICKI, WIKTOR (1965). "Stalin and Byelorussia's "Independence"". The Polish Review. 10 (4): 84–107. ISSN 0032-2970. JSTOR 25776631.
  5. ^ Dakin, Mary I. (December 1999). "David R. Marples, Belarus: A Denationalized Nation. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999, xv, 139 pp. + chronology, bibliography, index". Nationalities Papers. 27 (4): 706–707. doi:10.1017/s0090599200005596. ISSN 0090-5992. S2CID 165577217.
  6. ^ Закон Белорусской ССР от 28 июля 1990 г. №212-XII "Об изменениях и дополнениях Конституции (Основного Закона Белорусской ССР)"
  7. ^ Постановление Верховного Совета Белорусской ССР от 25 августа 1991 г. № 1016-XII от 25 августа 1991 года "О временном приостановлении деятельности КПБ—КПСС на территории Белорусской ССР"
  8. ^ Постановление Верховного Совета Республики Беларусь от 3 февраля 1993 г. № 2161-XII "О признании утратившим силу Постановления Верховного Совета Республики Беларусь "О временном приостановлении деятельности КПБ - КПСС на территории Республики Беларусь"
  9. ^ Коммунистическая партия Белоруссии (КПБ)