Workers of the world, unite!

The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848)[1][2][3][4] by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (German: Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!",[5] but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").[5][note 1] A variation of this phrase ("Workers of all lands, unite") is also inscribed on Marx's tombstone.[7] The essence of the slogan is that members of the working classes throughout the world should cooperate to defeat capitalism and achieve victory in the class conflict.

A Kuban Cossacks squadron at the 1937 May Day parade in Moscow, marching across the phrase written in German, Spanish, Russian and other languages of the world
The State Emblem of the Soviet Union had the slogan emblazoned on the ribbons in 15 languages spoken in the republics
The tomb of Karl Marx at Highgate Cemetery bearing the slogan "Workers of All Lands Unite"

OverviewEdit

 
In this still from the historical drama The Man with the Gun, the phrase (in pre-reform Russian orthography) is depicted on a banner in the background.

Five years before The Communist Manifesto, this phrase appeared in the 1843 book The Workers' Union by Flora Tristan.[8]

The International Workingmen's Association, described by Engels as "the first international movement of the working class" was persuaded by Engels to change its motto from the League of the Just's "all men are brothers" to "working men of all countries, unite!".[9] It reflected Marx's and Engels' view of proletarian internationalism.

The phrase has overlapping meanings: first, that workers should unite in unions to better push for their demands such as workplace pay and conditions;[10][better source needed] secondly, that workers should see beyond their various craft unions and unite against the capitalist system;[11] and thirdly, workers of different countries have more in common with each other than workers and employers of the same country.

The phrase was used by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in their publications and songs[12][13] and was a mainstay on banners in May Day demonstrations. The IWW used it when opposing World War I in both the United States[13] and Australia.[14]

The slogan was the Soviet Union's state motto (Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!; Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!) and it appeared in the State Emblem of the Soviet Union. It also appeared on 1919 Russian SFSR banknotes (in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian and Russian),[15] on Soviet ruble coins from 1921 to 1934[16] and was the slogan of Soviet newspaper Pravda.[17]

Some socialist and communist parties continue using it.[18][failed verification]

VariationsEdit

In the first Swedish translation of The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848, the translator Pehr Götrek substituted the slogan with Folkets röst, Guds röst! (i.e. Vox populi, vox Dei, or "The Voice of the People, the Voice of God"). However, later translations have included the original slogan.[19]

The guiding motto of the 2nd Comintern congress in 1920, under Lenin's directive, was "Workers and oppressed peoples of all countries, unite!".[20] This denoted the anti-colonialist agenda of the Comintern, and was seen as an attempt to unite racially-subjugated black people and the global proletariat in anti-imperialist struggle.[20]

In other languagesEdit

This slogan was used by several socialist states and communist parties as their official motto.

Motto of the Soviet UnionEdit

In each Soviet republic, the same motto was used in the local language.

Language Motto Transliteration Used by
Abkhaz Атәылақуа зегьы рпролетарцәа, шәҽеидышәкыл!   Abkhaz ASSR
Armenian Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացե՛ք Proletarner bolor yerkrneri, miats’ek’!   Armenian SSR
Avar Киналго улкабазул пролетарал, цолъе нуж! Kinalgo ulkabazul proletaral, soļe nuƶ!   Dagestan ASSR
Azerbaijani Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Bütün ölkələrin proletarları, birləşin!   Azerbaijan SSR
  Dagestan ASSR
Bashkir Бөтә илдәрҙең пролетарийҙәре, берләшегеҙ!   Bashkir ASSR
Belarusian Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Praletaryji ŭsich krajin, jadnajciesia!   Byelorussian SSR
Buryat Бүхы оронуудай пролетаринар, нэгэдэгты!   Buryat ASSR
Chechen Массо а мехкийн пролетареш, цхьанакхета!   Checheno-Ingush ASSR
  Dagestan ASSR
Chuvash Пӗтӗм тӗнчери пролетарисем, пӗрлешӗр!   Chuvash ASSR
Crimean Tatar Бютюн мемлекетлерининъ пролетарлары, бирлешинъиз!   Crimean ASSR
Erzyan Чыла элласе пролетарий-влак, ушныза!   Mordovian ASSR
Estonian Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege!   Estonian SSR
Finnish Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen!   Karelo-Finnish SSR
  Karelian ASSR
Georgian პროლეტარებო ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Proletarebo qvela kveqnisa, sheertdit!   Georgian SSR
Ingush Масса а мехкашкара пролетареш вӀашагӀкхета!   Checheno-Ingush ASSR
Kabardian Хэгъэгу пстэухэм япролетариехэр, зы шъухъу!   Kabardino-Balkar ASSR
Kalmyk Цуг-орн нутгудын пролетармуд, негдцхәтн!   Kalmyk ASSR
Karachay-Balkar Бютеу дунияны пролетарлары, бирлешигиз!   Kabardino-Balkar ASSR
Kazakh Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Barlyq elderdıñ proletarlary, bırıgıñder!   Kazakh SSR
Komi Став мувывса пролетарийяс, oтувтчӧй!   Komi ASSR
Kyrgyz Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Bardık ölkölordün proletarları, birikkile!   Kirghiz SSR
Latvian Visu zemju proletārieši, savienojieties!   Latvian SSR
Lithuanian Visų šalių proletarai, vienykitės!   Lithuanian SSR
Mari Чыла элласе пролетарий-влак, ушныза!   Mari ASSR
Moksha Чыла элласе пролетарий-влак, ушныза!   Mordovian ASSR
Ossetian Ӕппӕт бӕстӕты пролетартӕ баиу ут!   North Ossetian ASSR
Romanian (Moldovan Cyrillic) Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, уници-вэ! Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă!   Moldavian SSR
Russian Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Proletarii vseh stran, sojedinjajtesj!   Russian SFSR
  Soviet Union
Sakha Бары дойдулар пролетарийдара, холбоһуҥ!   Yakut ASSR
Tajik Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Proletarhoji hamaji mamlakatho, jak şaved!   Tajik SSR
Tatar Барлык илләрнең пролетарийлары, берләшегез!   Tatar ASSR
Turkmen Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ähli ýurtlaryň proletarlary, birleşiň!   Turkmen SSR
Udmurt Вань странаосысь пролетарийёс, огазеяське!   Udmurt ASSR
Ukrainian Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Proletari vsich krajin, jednajtesja!   Ukrainian SSR
Uzbek Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Butun dunyo proletarlari, birlashingiz!   Uzbek SSR

Motto of other countriesEdit

Language Motto Transliteration Used by
Albanian Proletarë të të gjitha vendeve, bashkohuni!   Albania
Bulgarian Пролетарии от всички страни съединявайте се! Proletarii ot vsichki strani, syedinyavayote se!   People's Republic of Bulgaria
Chinese 全世界無產階級和被壓迫的民族聯合起來! Quánshìjiè wúchǎnjiējí hé bèi yāpò de mínzú liánhé qǐlai!   Chinese Soviet Republic
Czech Proletáři všech zemí, spojte se!   Czechoslovakia
Dari کارگران جهان متحد شوید! Kârgarân-e jahân mottahed šavid!   Afghanistan
French Prolétaires de tous les pays, unissez-vous !   Benin
  Madagascar
German Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!   East Germany
  Volga German ASSR
Hungarian Világ proletárjai, egyesüljetek!   Hungarian People's Republic
  Hungarian Soviet Republic
Malagasy Mpiasa eran'izao tontolo izao, mampiray!   Madagascar
Mongolian Орон бүрийн пролетари нар нэгдэгтүн! Oron büriin proletari nar negdegtün!   Mongolian People's Republic
Polish Proletariusze wszystkich krajów, łączcie się!   Polish People's Republic
Romanian Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă!   Socialist Republic of Romania
Slovak Proletári všetkých krajín, spojte sa!   Czechoslovakia
  Slovak Soviet Republic
Tuvan Бүгү телегейниң пролетарлары болгаш дарлаткан араттары каттыжыңар! Pygy delegejniꞑ вroledarlarь polgaş tarladkan araddarь kaddьƶьꞑar!   Tuvan People's Republic
  Tuvan ASSR

Motto of communist partiesEdit

The English phrase and its variants (the variant "All power to the workers" is used by some parties such as the Communist Party of Australia) are used by communist parties in the English-speaking world. The list below does not include the mottos of communist parties of the above countries or in languages listed above.

Language Motto Transliteration Used by Active in
Greek Προλετάριοι όλων των χωρών, ενωθείτε! Proletarii ólon ton khorón, enothíte! Communist Party of Greece   Greece
Macedonian Пролетери од сите земји, обединете се! Proleteri od site zemji, obedinete se! League of Communists of Macedonia   Yugoslavia
Malay Kaum buruh semua negeri, bersatulah! Malayan Communist Party   Malaysia
Serbo-Croatian Пролетери свих земаља уједините се! Proleteri svih zemalja, ujedinite se! League of Communists of Yugoslavia   Yugoslavia
Slovene Proletarci vseh dežel, združite se! League of Communists of Slovenia   Yugoslavia
Tagalog Manggagawa ng lahat ng bansa, magkaisa! Communist Party of the Philippines   Philippines
Turkish Bütün ülkelerin işçileri ve ezilen halklar, birleşin![a] Socialist Liberation Party   Turkey

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The final paragraph of The Communist Manifesto was translated by Samuel Moore as follows: "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!". This translation is the authorized translation by Marx and Engels and is the most commonly used version in English.[6]
  1. ^ Literally "Workers of all countries and oppressed people, unite!

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gabrijela Kišiček; Igor Ž. Žagar (3 October 2013). What Do We Know About the World?: Rhetorical and Argumentative Perspectives. University of Windsor. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-920233-70-2. One of the most famous rallying cries of communism Workers of the world, unite!
  2. ^ Simon Levis Sullam (21 October 2015). Giuseppe Mazzini and the Origins of Fascism. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-137-51459-2. only a few years later, would give the famous rallying cry Workers of t...
  3. ^ Edward R. Kantowicz (1999). The Rage of Nations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8028-4455-2. titled The Communist Manifesto, which contained the famous rallying cry: "Workers of the w...
  4. ^ Ronald Niezen (15 April 2008). A World Beyond Difference: Cultural Identity in the Age of Globalization. John Wiley & Sons. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4051-3710-2. The famous rallying cry from The Communist Manifesto, "workers of the world unite!" was meant only to hasten the [...]
  5. ^ a b "Translator's note to the Communist Manifesto". Marxists.org. Marxist Internet Archive. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  6. ^ Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich (2002). Jones, Gareth Stedman (ed.). The Communist Manifesto (New ed.). London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-140-44757-6.
  7. ^ Wheen, Francis (2002). "Introduction". Karl Marx: A Life. New York: Norton.
  8. ^ Marie M. Collins and Sylvie Weil-Sayre (1973). "Flora Tristan: Forgotten Feminist and Socialist". Nineteenth-Century French Studies. 1 (4): 229–234. JSTOR 23535978.
  9. ^ Lucia Pradella in 'The Elgar Companion to Marxist Economics.' Edited by Ben fine and Alfredo Saad-Filho, 2012, p.178.
  10. ^ Wiktionary, entry for "Workers of the World"
  11. ^ Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848. [1]
  12. ^ Joseph Grim Feinberg, "The Gifts of the IWW," Against the Current 117, July–August 2005. [2]
  13. ^ a b Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All, Quadrangle Books, 1969.
  14. ^ Nick Armstrong, "The Industrial Workers of the World," Socialist Alternative, June 2005. [3]
  15. ^ Anderson, Joel. "RUSSIAN COINS AND CURRENCY". Interesting World Coins.
  16. ^ "Communist States: Russia and China". www.coinlands.com. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  17. ^ Heritage, Timothy (4 May 2012). "Russia's Pravda hits 100, still urging workers to unite". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  18. ^ Thurston, Robert W.; Bonwetsch, Bernd (2000). The People's War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union (illustrated ed.). University of Illinois Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780252026003. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  19. ^ Götrek, Pehr (1848). Kommunismens röst : förklaring af det kommunistiska partiet, offentliggjord i februari 1848. Pogo Press. ISBN 91-7386-018-2.. libris 7639421. reprint of libris 2683080.
  20. ^ a b Pateman, Joe (2 January 2020). "V. I. Lenin on the 'Black Question'". Critique. 48 (1): 77–93. doi:10.1080/03017605.2019.1706786. ISSN 0301-7605. S2CID 213348492. Retrieved 9 November 2020.

External linksEdit