PAIS Alliance

PAIS Alliance[a] is a centre-left[1] social democratic political party in Ecuador.[2] As of 2016, it had 979,691 members.[3]

PAIS Alliance Movement (Proud and Sovereign Homeland)
Movimiento Alianza PAIS (Patria Altiva i Soberana)
PresidentAna Belén Marín
Secretary-GeneralGustavo Baroja
FounderRafael Correa
Founded3 April 2006; 15 years ago (2006-04-03)
Preceded byAlianza Bolivariana Alfarista
Amauta Jatari
Partido Comunista de Ecuador
Movimiento Pais
Poder Ciudadano
Ruptura de los 25
HeadquartersAv. Shiris, Quito
NewspaperSomos PAIS
Youth wingJuventudes Alianza Pais
Membership (2016)979,691
IdeologySocial democracy
Political positionCentre-left
National affiliationUnited Front [es; zh] (2014–2018)
Regional affiliationCOPPPAL
São Paulo Forum
Colours  Lime green
Seats in the National Assembly
0 / 137
Prefects
0 / 23
Mayors
27 / 221
Website
alianzapais.com.ec

Founded by Rafael Correa in April 2006,[4] the party soon found success amid the "pink tide" period in Latin America. The party's early period in power (2007–2017) is known as the Correa era, named after the longtime leader Correa, who was also the President of Ecuador. Under Correa, PAIS was more left-leaning and followed a form of anti-imperialism, Bolivarianism, democratic socialism,[5] left-wing populism, left-wing nationalism, and progressivism, as part of socialism of the 21st century, which was followed by like-minded parties in Bolivia and Venezuela, which became known as Correism. The party had majority governments throughout the period in power and also had a supermajority from 2013 to 2017. During this period, Correa's administration increased government spending, reducing poverty, raised the minimum wage, and increased the standard of living in Ecuador.[6][7][8] Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5%, and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent, as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades. At the same time, income and wealth inequalities, as measured by the Gini coefficient, decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.[9]

When Correa's third term came to an end, he was followed by his vice-president Lenín Moreno, who moved the party closer to the centre[10][11] towards Third Way social democracy,[12] which both left-wing critics and some observers deemed as unpicking left-wing legacy and renouncing socialism,[13] while capitulating to neoliberalism.[14][15][16] In part, this came as a result of recession by the end of Correa's tenuse due to reliance on oil, public expenditures, the 2016 Ecuador earthquake (more than 650 deaths and damage estimated at the equivalent of about 3% of GDP), and international pressure, resulting in government spending being slashed.[6][7][8][17]

Moreno maintained a majority approval rating throughout his term as vice president, his management was approved by 91% of Ecuadorians in May 2012,[18] and enjoyed a popularity rating as high as 77% shortly after the 2017 Ecuadorian general election. His approval dropped to 69% by the start of 2018, before dropping to 46% by mid-2018, and further fell to under 27% by mid-2019; in May 2020, it fell to 16%.[19][20][21] Moreno's sharp move to the right and its economic and political policies resulted in the 2019 Ecuadorian protests and mismanagement of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador, reaching only 5% of approval by early 2021.[22] Moreno left office with an approval rating of 9% according to a survey by the firm Cedatos,[23] and had a higher approval rating among those who voted for Guillermo Lasso (20%) than those who voted for Moreno himself (5%), although he was disapproved of by both groups. In light of those developments and Correa founding the left-wing Citizen Revolution Movement, even as Moreno did not pursue re-election and left the party to become an independent politician, PAIS collapsed in the 2021 Ecuadorian general election, losing all of its seats.[24]

BackgroundEdit

The roots of the PAIS Alliance go back to 1999, when Ricardo Patiño, together with Alberto Acosta, Patricia Dávila, Ivonne Benítez, and other Ecuadorian politicians, urged the creation of Jubilee 2000 Net Guayaquil, a civil corporation that would investigate ways to solve the serious issue of the Ecuadorian foreign debt, which had risen to a historical high.[25] Rafael Correa, Gustavo Larrea, and Fander Falconí also joined the group. Alliance PAIS influenced many successive political movements, giving its structure to movements like Civic Initiative, National Democratic Action, Alliance Bolivariana Alfarista, and Jubilee 2000.[clarification needed][26]

The PAIS Alliance movement functions under the Ecuadorian Socialist Party, sharing humanist movements and social bases.[26]

Party leadership and organizationEdit

The party has been led by Ana Belén Marín following the expulsion of Lenín Moreno from the party after the party's crushing defeat in the 2021 general elections. Other important leaders include former Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa, President of the National Assembly Fernando Cordero Cueva, the former Alcalde of Quito Augusto Barrera Guarderas, the Assemblyman Fernando Bustamante, Aminta Buenaño, the ex-Secretary of Planning Fander Falconí, and the Chancellor of the Republic Ricardo Patiño.[27][28]

As of 2011, the 22 vocales, or speakers, of the National Directive are Ricardo Patiño, Doris Soliz, Augusto Barrera, Irina Cabezas, Fernando Cordero, Nancy Morocho, Fander Falconí, María Luisa Moreno, Roberto Cuero, Ximena Ponce, Juan Carlos, Roxana Alvarado, Miguel Carvajal, Dora Aguirre, Jorge Loor, Gabriela Rivadeneira, Diego Borja, Patricia Sarzoza, Gustavo Baroja, Andrea Gonzaga, Leonardo Vicuña, and Olguita Mejía. Members of the Commission of Ethics include Karla Chávez, Carlos Marx, and Galo Borja. Members of the Electoral Commission include Mayerli Vásquez, Paúl Granda, and Xavier Ponce.[29] PAIS Alliance publishes the newspaper El Ciudadano. The young wing of the party is called the Juventudes Alianza País.[30]

HistoryEdit

First periodEdit

 
Rafael Correa, former leader of PAIS Alliance

PAIS (Proud and Sovereign Homeland) Alliance was officially founded by Rafael Correa at the start of 2006 presidential campaign. Originally espousing democratic socialist views,[5] the movement called for political sovereignty, regional integration, and economic relief for Ecuador's poor.[31]

During the campaign, Correa proposed a constituent assembly to rewrite Ecuador's constitution.[32] PAIS Alliance did not run any congressional candidates, as Correa had stated that he would call for a referendum to begin drafting a new constitution; however, the PAIS Alliance movement signed a political alliance with the Ecuadorian Socialist Party, which did present candidates for the National Congress.[33]

In the 2006 Ecuadorian general election, Correa came in second place (22.84%), behind banana tycoon Álvaro Noboa (26.83%). Correa won the subsequent 26 November 2006 runoff election with 56.67% of the vote.[34] He took office on 15 January 2007.

Constituent referendumEdit

On 15 April 2007, Ecuadoreans voted overwhelmingly (81.72% in favor) to support the election of a constituent assembly.[35]

Constituent Assembly electionEdit

In the 2007 Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly election, President Correa won backing for his plans to rewrite Ecuador's constitution and expand state control of the nation's economy. Correa's faction also won approximately 61% of the seats in the National Assembly (80 of 130 Assembly Members).[36] The Constituent Assembly was originally led by PAIS Alliance member Alberto Acosta, who was soon replaced by another PAIS member, Fernando Cordero.

Constitutional referendumEdit

A constitutional referendum was held on 28 September 2008 to vote on the Ecuadorian constitution drafted by the 2007 Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly.[37] Partial results show that 64% of voters voted to approve the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador.[38]

Second periodEdit

Primary electionsEdit

For the first time in the political history of Ecuador, an organized political party selected its candidates by means of primary elections. PAIS Alliance organized primary elections for 25 January 2009 in the whole country. The objective was that the members of the political movement would name the candidates for the elections of 26 April 2009.[39]

General electionsEdit

Correa was re-elected for a second term in the 2009 Ecuadorian general election. It was the first time in thirty years that the country had re-elected a president. PAIS also won the largest legislative block in the National Assembly, although it was not a majority.[40][41]

In the 2009 legislative election for the Andean Parliament, Alliance PAIS obtained 3 of 5 parliamentarians.[42][43][44]

Correa was ratified as president of the movement in November 2010. Galo Mora was designated as the first secretary-general.[45]

On 1 October 2016, former Vice President of Ecuador Lenín Moreno was nominated as a candidate for the 2017 Ecuadorian presidential election at the conference of País Alliance. The statement was made by President Correa.

In the 19 February 2017 election, Moreno won the elections with 39.3% of the vote; however, he was short by less than one percentage point of outright victory, as Ecuador requires in its two-round system. In the Ecuadorian system, to avoid a runoff a candidate needs to either win 50 percent of the first-round vote, or take 40 percent of the vote and be at least 10 percent ahead of the runner-up (Guillermo Lasso had obtained 28.09%; had Moreno gained 40 percent, he would have won on the 40–10 rule). He defeated Lasso in the 2 April 2017 second runoff with 51.16% of the vote.[46]

Moreno administrationEdit

Within months of winning the election, Moreno moved away from his election platform,[12] igniting a feud with ex-president Rafael Correa. Moreno distanced himself from populist policies championed by Correa and the Venezuelan government, arguing that Ecuador needed to be independent from ALBA.[47] Moreno continued to identify himself as social democrat throughout this process.[1]

In February 2018, Moreno led the 2018 Ecuadorian referendum and popular consultation, which proposed more strict corruption laws and more regulations to protect natural areas within the country.[48] The most significant proposal approved by Ecuadorians in the referendum was the re-establishment of term limits for the presidency, effectively blocking Correa's future electoral bids.[1] At the time, Moreno enjoyed an approval rating near 80 percent according to polls.[1]

Under Correa, the Ecuadorian government had begun to overspend and increase borrowing, with the country's debt tripling in a five-year period.[12] Moreno was tasked with overhauling Ecuador's economy, resulting in spending cuts.[12] The moves to reverse Correa's populist policies did not earn Moreno more popular support, however, and by April 2019 his approval rating had dropped to around 30 percent.[12][1] By early 2020, his popularity had reduced to 7,72%.[49]

In 2021 Ecuadorian general election, Moreno did not seek re-election. Meanwhile, the party lost all of its seats in the National Assembly.[24]

Political projectEdit

PAIS occupies the slot of party number 35 on the Ecuadorian ballot. The colours of PAIS are bitter lemon and midnight blue. The slogan for the 2007 elections Dale Patria translates to "Go Homeland" in English. In 2016, it had an approximate membership of 979,691 people.[50]

Electoral historyEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Party candidate Votes % Votes % Result
First round Second round
2006 Rafael Correa 1,246,333 22.84% 3,517,635 56.67% Elected  Y
2009 3,584,236 51.99% Elected  Y
2013 4,918,482 57.17% Elected  Y
2017 Lenín Moreno 3,716,343 39.36% 5,062,018 51.16% Elected  Y
2021 Ximena Peña 142,909 1.54% Lost  N

National Assembly electionsEdit

Election Party leader Seats +/– Position
2006 Rafael Correa
0 / 100
Did not take part to elections
2007
80 / 130
  80 Majority government
2009
59 / 124
  21 Majority government
2013
100 / 137
  41 Supermajority government
2017 Lenin Moreno
74 / 137
  26 Majority government
2021
0 / 137
  74 Extra-parliamentary opposition

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Stuenkel, Oliver (2019-07-11). "Is Ecuador a Model for Post-Populist Democratic Recovery?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 2019-07-12. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  2. ^ "Lenin Moreno: It is necessary to establish a new ideology". Al Jazeera. 3 January 2019.
  3. ^ "3,5 millones de firmas avalan a 16 grupos políticos". El Telégrafo (in Spanish). 6 September 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Conozca la historia de Alianza PAIS, de un binomio al control del poder en Ecuador". América Economía.
  5. ^ a b Ortiz-T., Pablo (2008), "Ecuador", The Indigenous World 2008, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, p. 147
  6. ^ a b "Ecuador election: Who will succeed Rafael Correa?". BBC News. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  7. ^ a b "What to expect from Ecuador's elections". The Economist. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b Schipani, Andres (22 February 2017). "Ecuador's Lasso looks to overturn Correa's revolution". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  9. ^ "Report" (PDF). Centre for Economic Policy Research. 2017. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  10. ^ Roberts, James M. "Can Ecuador Continue to Gain Economic Freedom?". The Heritage Foundation.
  11. ^ Valencia, Alexandra (October 5, 2019). "Ecuador unions call off anti-austerity protests after 370 arrests in two days" – via www.reuters.com.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Lenín Moreno's new economic policy". The Economist. 2019-04-11. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  13. ^ "The Socialist Who Gave Up Julian Assange and Renounced Socialism". Bloomberg.
  14. ^ "Ecuador paralyzed by national strike as Moreno refuses to step down". The Guardian.
  15. ^ "Moreno Is Breaking Ranks with the Correa Administration". Fair Observer. Sep 10, 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  16. ^ "Lenín Moreno unpicks Ecuador's leftwing legacy". The Financial Times. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  17. ^ Solano, Gonzalo (19 February 2017). "Official: Ecuador's presidential election headed to runoff". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  18. ^ "El 91% de ecuatorianos apoya la gestión del vicepresidente Lenín Moreno". www.vicepresidencia.gob.ec. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  19. ^ "Moreno's approval rating tumbles as popular concern grows over border violence – CuencaHighLife". cuencahighlife.com. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  20. ^ "Ecuador votes to limit presidents' terms in blow to Rafael Correa". The Guardian. Associated Press. 5 February 2018. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  21. ^ "Lenín Moreno's new economic policy". The Economist. 11 April 2019. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 14 October 2019..
  22. ^ "Desgaste institucional en el ocaso de las funciones". www.expreso.ec. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  23. ^ "OPINIÓN DE LA POBLACIÓN SOBRE MANDATARIOS SALIENTE Y ENTRANTE; EXPECTATIVAS HACIA EL FUTURO. Estudio cerrado al 21 de mayo de 2021". Cedatos.com.ec. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  24. ^ a b Rogatayuk, Denis. "Ecuador's Election Was a Massive Repudiation of Neoliberalism". Jacobin. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  25. ^ Salmon, Felix (2011-07-05). "How Ecuador sold itself to China". Reuters Blogs. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  26. ^ a b "Elected Left, Governing Right". NACLA. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  27. ^ Rogtayuk, Denis. "Ecuador's Neoliberal Government Is Trying to Ban Rafael Correa from the 2021 Elections". Jacobin Mag.
  28. ^ "Bribery trial begins against ex-Ecuador leader Rafael Correa". AP NEWS. 2020-02-10. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  29. ^ "Movimientoalianzapais - Mein Blog". movimientoalianzapais.com.ec. Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
  30. ^ "Juventudes Alianza País".[permanent dead link] Oromar TV.
  31. ^ ‘Socialismo’ en el discurso de Correa Archived 2009-01-09 at the Wayback Machine El Universo, July 23, 2007
  32. ^ McDermott, Jeremy Man of the people closes in on presidency Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine, The Scotsman, 14 October 2006.
  33. ^ (in Spanish) Alianza PAIS and Socialist Party sign alliance on Alianza PAIS website Archived 2009-11-18 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ (in Spanish) RESULTADOS: NACIONALES[permanent dead link] Tribunal Supremo Electoral
  35. ^ "Consulta Popular Nacional" (in Spanish). 2007-06-30. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  36. ^ Correa Wins Majority in Ecuador Vote to Rewrite Constitution, Bloomberg News, 2 October 2007.
  37. ^ "Ecuador Assembly Approves Constitution - Prensa Latina".
  38. ^ "Ecuadoreans back new constitution". BBC News. 29 September 2008.
  39. ^ Reglamento: Elecciones Primarias 2009 Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine Acuerdo PAIS
  40. ^ "Avenger against oligarchy" wins in Ecuador The Real News, April 27, 2009.
  41. ^ "PAIS, sin mayoría tras definirse los 124 escaños". 23 June 2009.
  42. ^ "Ecuatorianos designan parlamentarios andinos en apáticas elecciones". Archived 17 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. HOY Ecuador (in Spanish). 14 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  43. ^ "Alianza País alcanza tres de las cinco curules en el Parlamento Andino". Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ElTiempo.com (in Spanish). 15 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  44. ^ "PAIS encabezará representantes de Ecuador en Parlamento Andino". Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. HOY Ecuador (in Spanish). 16 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  45. ^ "Ratifica convención de Alianza País liderazgo de presidente Correa". globedia.com.
  46. ^ "CNE informa 'resultados irreversibles': Moreno 51.16% – Lasso 48.84%" (in Spanish). Ecuavisa. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  47. ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". Associated Press. 24 August 2018. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  48. ^ "¿Cuáles son las siete preguntas del referéndum y la consulta popular del 4 de febrero del 2018 en Ecuador?". El Comercio (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  49. ^ "Encuestadora: la popularidad de Lenín Moreno toca fondo". www.expreso.ec. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  50. ^ Telégrafo, El (2016-09-06). "La CC aún no tramita el pedido de aclaración por supuesta estafa". El Telégrafo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  1. ^ Full Spanish name is Alianza PAIS (Patria Altiva i Soberana), while the full English name is PAIS Alliance (Proud and Sovereign Homeland). Note that país also means 'country' in Spanish.

External linksEdit