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List of active separatist movements in Europe

  (Redirected from Separatism in Europe)

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

AzerbaijanEdit

Breakaway state

  Nagorno-Karabakh


BelgiumEdit

Autonomist movements

  German-speaking Community[7][8]

Secessionist movements

  Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes   Brussels-Capital Region)

  Wallonia

  French Community (Wallonia and   Brussels-Capital Region[9])

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

CroatiaEdit

Secessionist Movements

Istria

CyprusEdit

Czech RepublicEdit

Autonomist movements

  Moravia

DenmarkEdit

  Bornholm

  Faroe Islands

FinlandEdit

  Åland[14]

  Sapmi

FranceEdit

Secessionist movements

  French Basque Country

  Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of   Pays de la Loire

  Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)

  Corsica

  Savoy

  Occitania

  Provence

Autonomist movements

  Alsace

  Brittany

  Corsica

  Alpes-Maritimes

  Normandy

  Savoy

  Occitania

GeorgiaEdit

Breakaway states

  Abkhazia

  South Ossetia

Autonomist movement

  Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

GermanyEdit

 
Bavaria
 
Sorbs
Secessionist movements

  Bavaria

Autonomist movements

  Franconia[24]

  Lusatia

  North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate

ItalyEdit

  Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Separatist Res Publica Furlane-Parlament Furlan,[25] Patrie Furlane, Friulian Front,[26] Autonomist Pact for Autonomy

  Lombardy

  Piedmont

 
Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy

  Sardinia

  Sicily

  South Tyrol


  Tuscany

  Aosta Valley

  Veneto

KosovoEdit

MoldovaEdit

Breakaway state

  Transnistria

Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements

  Gagauzia

  Taraclia[38]

NetherlandsEdit

Autonomist movements

  Frisia

  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[39]

  Groningen

North MacedoniaEdit

NorwayEdit

  Sapmi

PolandEdit

Autonomist movements

  Upper Silesia

RomaniaEdit

Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations

RussiaEdit

Autonomist movements

  Komi-Permyak Okrug[54]

Secessionist movements

  Bashkortostan[55]

  Murmansk

  Chuvashia[56]

  Don Republic[57][58]

  Ingria[59]

    Karelia

  Komi Republic[60][61]

  Kuban [62][63]

  Idel-Ural[64]

  Mari El

  Mordovia

  Nenetsia[65]

  Sapmi

  Tatarstan

  Udmurtia[66]

  Ural Republic[67]

  Vepsia

  Votia

  Kaliningrad

Russia's North Caucasus

  Chechnya

  Abazinia[73][74][75]

  Circassia

  Aghulistan

  Avaria[76]

  Karachay-Balkaria

  Kumykia

  Lakistan

  Nogaia

SerbiaEdit

 
Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distictive administrative unit aswell.
Autonomist movements

  Vojvodina

  Sandžak

Breakaway state

  Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

SlovakiaEdit

Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[78]

SpainEdit

Secessionist movements

  Andalusia

  Aragon

  Asturias

  Balearic Islands

  Basque Country (autonomous community)

  Canary Islands

  Castile

  Catalonia

  Galicia

  León

  Navarre

  Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

  Cartagena


Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

  Aran Valley

SwedenEdit

  Scania

  Jämtland

  Sapmi

SwitzerlandEdit

Secessionist movements

  Canton of Jura or wider Jura region (including the three districts of Bernese Jura and the Laufen District)[84]

Autonomist movements

  Jura region

Ticino

TurkeyEdit

UkraineEdit

 
A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Breakaway states

  Autonomous Republic of Crimea

  Carpathian Ruthenia

De facto states
 
Occupied territories of Eastern Ukraine, controlled by DPR and LPR

  Luhansk Oblast (occupied areas)

  Donetsk Oblast (occupied areas)

United KingdomEdit

Secessionist movements

  Cornwall

  England

  Northern Ireland

  Scotland

  Shetland

  Wales

  Essex,   Sussex & West Country

  • People: Saxish
    • Proposed state:   Saxland
      • Political parties: Robert Craig (Independent)

[94][95]

Autonomist movements

  England

  Scotland

  Wales

  Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Canvey Island[104][105][106]

  Greater London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area:   London

Gwynedd

Highlands

  Isle of Wight

  Lincolnshire

  Mercia

North East England

Northern Isles

  Orkney

  Na h-Eileanan Siar

  Shetland

  Wessex[111]

  Yorkshire

Independence movements of dependent territories

  Isle of Man

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit