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List of active separatist movements in Europe

  (Redirected from Separatism in Europe)

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.


Breakaway state



Autonomist movements

  German-speaking Community[7][8]

Secessionist movements

  Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes   Brussels-Capital Region)


  French Community (Wallonia and   Brussels-Capital Region[9])

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit


Secessionist Movements



Czech RepublicEdit

Autonomist movements




  Faroe Islands





Secessionist movements

  French Basque Country

  Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of   Pays de la Loire

  Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)





Autonomist movements









Breakaway states


  South Ossetia

Autonomist movement

  Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti


Secessionist movements


Autonomist movements



  North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate


  Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Separatist Res Publica Furlane-Parlament Furlan,[25] Patrie Furlane, Friulian Front,[26] Autonomist Pact for Autonomy



Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy



  South Tyrol


  Aosta Valley




Breakaway state


Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements




Autonomist movements


  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[39]


North MacedoniaEdit




Autonomist movements

  Upper Silesia


Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations


Autonomist movements

  Komi-Permyak Okrug[54]

Secessionist movements




  Don Republic[57][58]



  Komi Republic[60][61]

  Kuban [62][63]


  Mari El






  Ural Republic[67]




Russia's North Caucasus











Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distictive administrative unit aswell.
Autonomist movements



Breakaway state

  Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija


Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[78]


Secessionist movements




  Balearic Islands

  Basque Country (autonomous community)

  Canary Islands







Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.


Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

  Aran Valley






Secessionist movements

  Canton of Jura or wider Jura region (including the three districts of Bernese Jura and the Laufen District)[84]

Autonomist movements

  Jura region




A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Breakaway states

  Autonomous Republic of Crimea

  Carpathian Ruthenia

De facto states
Occupied territories of Eastern Ukraine, controlled by DPR and LPR

  Luhansk Oblast (occupied areas)

  Donetsk Oblast (occupied areas)

United KingdomEdit

Secessionist movements



  Northern Ireland




  Essex,   Sussex & West Country

  • People: Saxish
    • Proposed state:   Saxland
      • Political parties: Robert Craig (Independent)


Autonomist movements




  Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Canvey Island[104][105][106]

  Greater London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area:   London



  Isle of Wight



North East England

Northern Isles


  Na h-Eileanan Siar




Independence movements of dependent territories

  Isle of Man

See alsoEdit


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External linksEdit