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The Ingush (/ˈɪŋɡʊʃ/, Ingush: ГIалгIай, Ghalghaj, pronounced [ˈʁəlʁɑj]) are a Northeast Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation. The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims and speak the Ingush language, a Northeast Caucasian language that is closely related to Chechen; the two form a dialect continuum.[3] The Ingush and Chechen peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh, although the genetics of Ingush and the Chechen indicate a split about 13,000-17,000 Ybp.[4][5]

Ingush
ГIалгIай (Ghalghaj)
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Total population
700,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia444,833[2]
    Ingushetia415,537
    Chechnya1,296
    North Ossetia-Alania8,336
 Kazakhstan16,893
 Ukraine455
Languages
Ingush, Chechen
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam (Shafii Madhhab)
Related ethnic groups
Chechens, Bats, Kists and other Northeast Caucasian peoples

HistoryEdit

Caucas is the legendary ancestor of the Ingush. Their name in Georgian is Kists or Ghlighvi [6]. The ancient Greek author Strabo spoke about the Gargars, while American cartographer Joseph Hutchins Colton labeled the people as Gelians.

The Ingush came under Russian rule in 1810, but under Soviet rule during World War II they were falsely accused of collaborating with the Nazis and thus, the entire population was deported to the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Ingush were rehabilitated in the 1950's, after the death of Joseph Stalin, and allowed to return home in 1957, though by that time western Ingush lands had been ceded to North Ossetia.

CultureEdit

The Ingush possess a varied culture of traditions, legends, epics, tales, songs, proverbs, and sayings. Music, songs and dance are particularly highly regarded. Popular musical instruments include the dachick-panderr (a kind of balalaika), kekhat ponder (accordion, generally played by girls), mirz ponder (a three-stringed violin), zurna (a type of oboe), tambourine, and drums.

ReligionEdit

The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims of the Shāfi‘ī Madh'hab, although a Sufi minority exists.[7]

Ingush geneticsEdit

According to one test by Nasidze in 2003 (analyzed further in 2004), the Y-chromosome structure of the Ingush greatly resembled that of neighboring Caucasian populations (especially Chechens, their linguistic and cultural brethren).[10][11]

There has been only one notable study on the Ingush Y chromosome. These following statistics should not be regarded as final, as Nasidze's test had a notably low sample data for the Ingush. However, they do give an idea of the main haplogroups of the Ingush.

  • J289% of Ingush have the highest reported frequency of J2 which is associated with the Fertile Crescent.[5]
  • F* – (11% of Ingush)[11] This haplogroup was called "F*" by Nasidze. It may have actually been any haplogroup under F that was not under G, I, J2, or K; however, it is probably consists of haplotypes that are either under J1 (typical of the region, with very high frequencies in parts of Dagestan, as well as Arabia, albeit in a different subclade) or F3.
  • G – (27% of Ingush)[11] Typical of the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. The highest values were found among Georgians, Circassians and Ossetes. There was a noticeable difference in G between Ingush and Chechens (in J2 and F*, Ingush and Chechens have similar levels), possibly attributable to low samples that were all from the same town.

In the mtDNA, the Ingush formed a more clearly distinct population, with distance from other populations. The closest in an analysis by Nasidze were Chechens, Kabardins and Adyghe (Circassians), but these were all much closer to other populations than they were to the Ingush.[11]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Число родившихся в Ингушетии почти на 408% превысило число умерших - magas.su". magas.su.
  2. ^ "Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  3. ^ Nichols, J. and Vagapov, A. D. (2004). Chechen-English and English-Chechen Dictionary, p. 4. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-31594-8.
  4. ^ Arutiunov, Sergei. (1996). "Ethnicity and Conflict in the Caucasus". Slavic Research Center
  5. ^ a b Oleg Balanovsky, Khadizhat Dibirova, Anna Dybo, Oleg Mudrak, Svetlana Frolova, Elvira Pocheshkhova, Marc Haber, Daniel Platt, Theodore Schurr, Wolfgang Haak, Marina Kuznetsova, Magomed Radzhabov, Olga Balaganskaya, Alexey Romanov, Tatiana Zakharova, David F. Soria Hernanz, Pierre Zalloua, Sergey Koshel, Merritt Ruhlen, Colin Renfrew, R. Spencer Wells, Chris Tyler-Smith, Elena Balanovska, and The Genographic Consortium Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region Mol. Biol. Evol. 2011 : msr126v1-msr126.
  6. ^ Khist-Ghlighwa © Julius Klaproth https://books.google.be/books?id=fNxOAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA72&dq=Inguschen+Ghalgha+Khi%C3%9Ft+Ghlighwa&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiY6paf-a7lAhWNY1AKHa33DpgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Inguschen%20Ghalgha%20Khi%C3%9Ft%20Ghlighwa&f=false
  7. ^ Stefano Allievi; Jørgen S. Nielsen (2003). Muslim networks and transnational communities in and across Europe. 1.
  8. ^ Ivane Nasidze; et al. (2001). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and the genetic structure of human populations from the Caucasus". European Journal of Human Genetics. 9 (4): 267–272. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200615. PMID 11313770.
  9. ^ Nasidze, I; Risch, GM; Robichaux, M; Sherry, ST; Batzer, MA; Stoneking, M (April 2001). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and the genetic structure of human populations from the Caucasus" (PDF). Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 9 (4): 267–72. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200615. PMID 11313770.
  10. ^ Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (March 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050.
  11. ^ a b c d Nasidze, I.; Ling, E. Y. S.; Quinque, D.; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus" (PDF). Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (3): 205–221. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-08.

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