List of active separatist movements in Asia
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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Asia. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with current, active members.
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
- They are the citizens/people of the conflicted area and doesn't come from other countries.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state: for regions with a de facto polity
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding or anticipated sovereign state
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession
- Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations or insurgencies
- Advocacy group(s): for nonviolent, non-electoral, participatory entities
- Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s)
- 1 Azerbaijan
- 2 Bangladesh
- 3 Cyprus
- 4 China
- 5 Georgia
- 6 India
- 7 Indonesia
- 8 Iran
- 9 Iraq
- 10 Japan
- 11 Laos
- 12 Malaysia
- 13 Myanmar
- 14 Nepal
- 15 Pakistan
- 16 Philippines
- 17 Russia
- 18 Saudi Arabia
- 19 Sri Lanka
- 20 Syria
- 21 Tajikistan
- 22 Thailand
- 23 Turkey
- 24 Uzbekistan
- 25 Vietnam
- 26 Yemen
- 27 See also
- 28 References
- Breakaway state
- Breakaway state
The People's Republic of China (China, PRC) considers itself to be the sole legitimate state representing China. The PRC's territory consists of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. The PRC also claims the ROC-controlled area to be its territory. The PRC established the Special Administrative Region in Hong Kong and Macau under one country, two systems policy.
The Republic of China (Taiwan, ROC) also identifies itself as the sole legitimate state representing China. The ROC's territory consists of the island of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and nearby islands. The ROC also constitutionally claims the PRC-controlled area to be its territory.
- Ethnic group: Zhuang
- Ethnic group: Cantonese people
- Ethnic group: Lahu people
- Ethnic group: Manchus
- Ethnic group: Wuyue people
- Proposed state: Nguyuit Republic
- Political party: Shanghai National Party (formed in New York)
- Ethnic group: Taiwanese people
- Ethnic group: Taiwanese aborigines
- Political parties: Taiwan First Nations Party
- Proposed autonomous area: Aborigines of Taiwan's Autonomy
- Advocacy groups: Council of Indigenous Peoples
- Political parties: Taiwan First Nations Party
- Ethnic group: Mongolian
- Ethnic group: Tibetans
- Proposed state: Tibet
- Government-in-exile: Lobsang Sangay, head of the Central Tibetan Administration (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Political parties: International Tibet Independence Movement, National Democratic Party of Tibet
- Advocacy group: Students for a Free Tibet, Tibetan Youth Congress, International Campaign for Tibet
- Proposed state: Tibet
- Ethnic group: Uyghurs
- People: Hong Kongers
- Ethnic group: Abkhaz
- Ethnic group: Ossetians
Proposed autonomous movements:
- Ethnic group: Armenians
- People: Mingrelians
- Proposed state: Republic of Mingrelia
- Movements: Mingrelian Nationalist Party, Jinjikhat'I, Mingrelian People Group
- Proposed state: Kashmir
- Proposed state: Kamtapur
- Proposed state: Karbi
- Proposed state: Manipur
- Proposed state: Nagalim
- Proposed state: Tamilakam, Dravida Nadu
- Proposed state: Tripura
- Proposed state: Republic of Aceh
- Militant organisation: Free Aceh Movement (negotiated peace with the Indonesian government in 2005, and now it is a civil movement, but the separatism still has supporters)
- Proposed state: Sulawesi
- Movement: Baduy Society, Bali Fourm, Bali Freedom Movement
- Political party: Dharma Awakening Party
- Proposed state: South Moluccas
- Proposed state: Gerakan Kemerdekaan Minahasa
- Proposed state: Republic of West Papua
- Militant organisation: Free Papua Movement
- Organization: United Liberation Movement for West Papua
- Ethnic group: Azeri
- Ethnic group: Arab
- Proposed state: Islamic Republic of Al-Ahwaz
- Militant organisations: Al-Ahwaz Arab People's Democratic Popular Front, Ahwaz Arab Renaissance Party, Ahwaz Liberation Organisation, Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz
- Advocacy group: Democratic Solidarity Party of Al-Ahwaz (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic groups: Kurdish
See: Minorities in Iraq
- Proposed states
- Ethnic groups: Kurdish
- Ethnoreligious group: Assyrian
- Ethnic group: Turkmen
- Ethnic group: Ainu
- Ethnic group: Ryukyuan
- Proposed state: Republic of Ryukyu
- Political parties: Kariyushi Club (Formerly, Ryukyu Independence Party, 琉球独立党, Ryūkyū Dokuritsutō)
- Political groups: Ryukyu independence movement
- Note: The supporters of the movement want the Amami Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, former part of the defunct Ryukyu Kingdom until 1609, to be part of independent Ryukyu. See also Invasion of Ryukyu.
Member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- Proposed state: Sarawak
- Advocacy group: Borneo Heritage Foundation (BHF), Sarawak For Sarawakian Big Team (S4S Big Team), Sarawak Association of People's Aspirations (SAPA), Sarawak Sovereignty Movement, Sabah Sarawak Keluar Malaysia (SSKM), Sarawak Liberation Movement
- Ethnic group: Rakhine
- Ethnic group: Chin
- Proposed state: Republic of Zo Asia
- Ethnic group: Karen
- Ethnic group: Karenni
- Ethnic group: Kokang people (ethnic Han Chinese)
- Ethnic group: Mon
- Ethnic group: Shan (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic group: Wa
- Ethnic group: Kuki
- Ethnic group: Zomi
- Ethnic group: Madhesi peoples (including Maithils, Bhojpuris and Tharus).
- Proposed state: Madhesh
- Advocacy group: Alliance for Independent Madhesh
- Militant Group: Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha, Madhesh Mukti Tigers (MMT), Tharuwan National Liberation Front (TNLF).
- Ethnic group: Baloch
- Proposed state: Balochistan along with Sistan and Baluchestan of Iran and some parts of Afghanistan.
- Political party: Baloch National Movement, Baloch Republican Party, Free Balochistan Movement (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Militant organisations: Baloch Liberation Army, Baloch Liberation Front, Baloch Republican Army
- Ethnic group: Sindhi
- Ethnic group: Moro
- Ethnic group: Igorot
- Ethnic group: Buryats
- Proposed state: Buryatia
- Political party:All-Buryat Association for the Development of Culture
- Ethnic groups: Russians, Udeges, Nanais and other various ethnic groups
- Proposed state:
- Proposed entity: Far Eastern Republic, including all territories from the Far Eastern Republic and/or modern-day federal subjects associated within the former lands of the aforementioned Far Eastern Republic (Note: This includes the modern-day federal subjects such as: Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk Krai, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai and Buryatia, sometimes federal subjects such as: Magadan Oblast, Kamchatka Krai and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug are included based on maximum extent from 1920. It may rarely or sometimes include all federal subjects in Far Eastern economic region and/or Far Eastern Federal District.)
- Advocacy movements: Far East Forum, Zemyak, Regional Association of the Far East
- Movements: Republican Movement, Far East Independence Movement
- Political party: Alliance of the Pacific Peoples
- Militant organization: Far Eastern People's Front
- Ethnic group: Sibiryak
- Proposed state: Siberian Republic
- Advocacy movements: Siberskoye Zemlyachestvo (Autonomy Movement), Sibir, Free Siberia, Democratic Siberia
- Movement: Siberian regionalism
- Political parties: Monstration for Siberian Federalization, All-Siberian Democratic Union, Siberian Republican Alliance, Roar of the Taiga (Zov Taugi)
- Organizations: Siberian Agreement, Siberian Regional Organization (Siberskoye Zemlyachestvo
- Militant organization: Siberian Liberation Army
- Ethnic group: Tuvans
- Proposed state: Tuva
- Political parties: People's Party of Sovereign Tuva, People's Front "Free Tuva", Tiva Turu
- Ethnic group: Nenets
- Proposed state: Yamalia/East Nenetsia
- Advocacy group: Yamal for Future Generations (Association of the Indigenous People of Yamal-Nenets Autonomus Region)
- Ethnic group: Arab
- Ethnic group: Arab
- Ethnic and ethno-religious group: Kurdish, Yazidis
- Proposed states
- Ethno-religious group: Druze
- Ethno-religious group: Arameans
- Ethnic group: Assyrian
- Ethnic group: Syrian Turkmen
- Ethnic group: Khmer people
- Ethnic group: Indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands in Vietnam
- South Yemen
- Ethnic group: Arab
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