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In 2011, the Syrian population was estimated at roughly 23 million permanent inhabitants, including people with refugee status from Palestine and Iraq and are an overall indigenous Levantine people. While most modern-day Syrians are commonly described as Arabs by virtue of their modern-day language and bonds to Arab culture and history, they are, in fact, largely a blend of the various Semitic-speaking groups indigenous to the region.[1][2][3][4]

Syria pop.jpg
Population density, 1993
Nationality noun: Syrian(s) adjective: Syrian
Official Arabic

In 2017 the head of the Syrian Commission for Family Affairs, Mohammad Akram al-Qash, said that the Syrian population was 28 million, of which, 21 million were living in Syria and that 7 million were refugees.[5]

Contents

PopulationEdit

There is no detailed information about the ethnic and religious groups in Syria. The first census which focused on the sectarian distribution was carried out in 1932 under the French mandate, however, this census was only carried out in the lands under the short-lived Government of Latakia (the Alawite State established by the French) which covered only 7000 km2 out of modern Syria’s total area of 185000 km2.[6]

Albert Hourani published statistics from a general census of Syria in 1943 giving details of religious groups of the population and the rate of growth of each (citizens were not allowed to declare their ethnicity or mother tongue):

1943 census[6][7] 1953 census[6] Growth[6]
Sunnis 1,971,053 (68.91%) 2,578,810 (70.54%) 31%
Shi'ites 12,742 (0.45%) 14,887 (0.41%) 17%
Alawites 325,311 (11.37%) 398,445 (10.90%) 22%
Ismailis 28,527 (1.00%) 36,745 (1.01%) 29%
Druze 87,184 (3.05%) 113,318 (3.10%) 30%
Yezidi 2,788 (0.10%) 3,082 (0.08%) 11%
Total Muslims 2,427,605 (84.87%) 3,145,287 (86.03%) 30%
Jews 29,770 (1.04%) 31,647 (0.87%) 6%
Christians 403,036 (14.09%) 478,970 (13.10%) 19%

Ethnic groupsEdit

On 1st January 2011, the number of residents of Syria was 24 million, distributed over the 14 governorates.[8] These residents comprised a mixture of many ethnic and religious sects, as shown in the table below:

Ethnic and religious groups % of Syrian population[8] Estimated population (in 2011) Notes[8]
Arabs 80-85% est. 19,200,000 to 20,400,000 The Arabs form the majority in all districts except for the Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Kurds 10% est. 2,400,000 The majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslims, with a Yazidi minority
Turkmen/Turkoman 4-5% est. 960,000 to 1,200,000 These figures exclude the Arabic-speaking Turkmen. Only 30% of Turkmen have kept their mother tongue. The majority are Sunni Muslims.
Assyrians 3-4% est. 720,000 to 960,000 Most Assyrians are Christians with a small Muslim minority.
Circassians 1.5% est. 360,000 The majority of Circassians are Sunni Muslims.
Armenians 1% est. 240,000 The majority of Armenians are Christians.
Smaller groups of Albanians, Bosnian, Georgians, Greeks, Pashtuns, Persians, Russians. A significant number of these ethnic groups are Arabized, particularly those that adhere to Islam.

By 2017 the head of the Syrian Commission for Family Affairs, Mohammad Akram al-Qash, said that there was 21 million Syrians living in the country and that there was also 7 million Syrian refugees.[5]

ReligionEdit

There has been no Syrian census including a question about religion since 1960, these are thus the last official statistics available:[9]

In 1991 Professor Alasdair Drysdale and Professor Raymond Hinnebusch said that some 85% of Syrians were Muslims and that the remainder were almost all Christians, however, both religious groups were subdivided into many ethnic sects.[10] Among the former, approximately 70% of Syrians were Sunni Muslim, of which, 60% were Arabic-speaking and the remainder of Sunnis included Kurds (8.5%), Turkmen/Turkoman (3%), and Circassians (less than 1%).[10] In addition, Alawis formed 11.5%, Druze 3% and Ismailis 1.5% of the population. In regards to the Christians, they were subdivided into Armenians (4%) and Assyrians.[10]

According to Dr. Pierre Beckouche, before 2011, Sunni Muslims accounted for 74% of Syria's population, which included 500,000 Palestinan refugees and the non-Arab Sunni Muslims, namely the Kurds (9-10%) and the Turkmen/Turkoman (4%).[11] Other Muslims included Shias and Alawites (11%-16%), whilst the Christians made up 10% of the population.[11] There were also a few Jewish communities in Aleppo and Damascus.[11]

LanguagesEdit

Arabic is the official, and most widely spoken, language. Arabic speakers make up 85% of the population. Several modern Arabic dialects are used in everyday life, most notably Levantine in the west and Mesopotamian in the northeast. A report published by the UNHCR points out that "while the majority of Syrians are considered Arabs, this is a term based on spoken language (Arabic), not ethnicity."[12]

According to The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, in addition to Arabic, the following languages are spoken in the country, in order of the number of speakers: Kurdish,[13] Turkish,[13] Neo-Aramaic (four dialects),[13] Circassian,[13] Chechen,[13] Armenian,[13] and finally Greek.[13] None of these languages have official status.[13]

Many educated Syrians also speak English and French.[14][15]

DispositionEdit

60% of the population live in the Aleppo Governorate, the Euphrates valley or along the coastal plain; a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert. Overall population density is about 118.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (306/sq mi). Education is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 11. Schooling consists of 6 years of primary education followed by a 3-year general or vocational training period and a 3-year academic or vocational program. The second 3-year period of academic training is required for university admission. Total enrollment at post-secondary schools is over 150,000. The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 86.0% for males and 73.6% for females.[16]

Since 1960, censuses have been conducted in 1960, 1970, 1981, 1994 and 2004.[17]

Civil war's effect on populationEdit

More than four million refugees have left the country during the course of the civil war. Most of them fled to neighboring countries such as Turkey,[18][19] Lebanon, Jordan,[20] and Iraq,[21] as well as European nations like Greece and Germany.

The war also affected the birth rate. The annual birth rate in Syria has fallen by more than half since the country plunged into turmoil in March 2011, from about 500,000 births per year before 2011, to about 200,000.[22]

Life expectancyEdit

Prior to the civil war, the life span in Syria was 75.9 years, but that number has since fallen to an estimated 55.7 years.[23]

Vital statisticsEdit

UN estimates[24]Edit

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 187 000 75 000 112 000 51.2 20.5 30.6 7.23 180.1
1955–1960 212 000 77 000 136 000 50.1 18.1 32.0 7.38 150.5
1960–1965 241 000 76 000 165 000 48.5 15.3 33.3 7.54 121.8
1965–1970 275 000 74 000 201 000 46.8 12.5 34.2 7.56 98.8
1970–1975 322 000 70 000 252 000 46.3 10.1 36.2 7.54 77.3
1975–1980 373 000 69 000 304 000 45.4 8.3 37.0 7.32 63.1
1980–1985 417 000 66 000 351 000 42.8 6.7 36.1 6.77 49.9
1985–1990 440 000 61 000 379 000 38.4 5.3 33.1 5.87 36.2
1990–1995 441 000 58 000 383 000 33.3 4.3 28.9 4.80 26.1
1995–2000 447 000 58 000 389 000 29.7 3.8 25.8 3.96 20.8
2000–2005 451 000 62 000 389 000 26.2 3.6 22.6 3.39 17.4
2005–2010 465 000 69 000 396 000 23.9 3.5 20.4 3.10 15.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Structure of the population[25]Edit

Structure of the population (2011-07-01) (Estimates, including Palestinian refugees) :
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 10 794 000 10 330 000 21 124 000 100
0-4 1 428 000 1 347 000 2 775 000 13.14
5-9 1 384 000 1 270 000 2 654 000 12.56
10-14 1 232 000 1 198 000 2 430 000 11.50
15-19 1 191 000 1 088 000 2 279 000 10.79
20-24 1 035 000 944 000 1 979 000 9.37
25-29 864 000 873 000 1 737 000 8.22
30-34 674 000 697 000 1 371 000 6.49
35-39 601 000 628 000 1 229 000 5.82
40-44 545 000 551 000 1 096 000 5.19
45-49 437 000 433 000 870 000 4.12
50-54 387 000 405 000 792 000 3.75
55-59 293 000 280 000 573 000 2.71
60-64 254 000 227 000 481 000 2.28
65+ 469 000 389 000 858 000 4.06
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 4 044 000 3 815 000 7 859 000 37.20
15-64 6 281 000 6 126 000 12 407 000 58.73
65+ 469 000 389 000 858 000 4.06

CIA World Factbook demographic statisticsEdit

 
Demographics of Syria, Data of FAO, year 2007 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[26]

PopulationEdit

17,951,639 in 2014, a massive decline due to nearly 4 million Syrian refugees leaving the country because of the Syrian Civil War and furthermore because of the death in the war. This is a drop of 9.7% from the previous year.[27]

Age structureEdit

0–14 years: 35.2% (male 4,066,109/female 3,865,817)
15–64 years: 61% (male 6,985,067/female 6,753,619)
65 years and older: 3.8% (male 390,802/female 456,336) (2011 est.)

Median ageEdit

total
21 years male
21.7 years female
22.1 years (2011 est.)

Population decline rateEdit

0.797% (2012 est.)

YearPop.±%
19372,368,000—    
19503,252,000+37.3%
19604,565,000+40.4%
19706,305,000+38.1%
19808,704,000+38.0%
199012,116,000+39.2%
199514,186,000+17.1%
200417,921,000+26.3%
201121,124,000+17.9%
201617,185,000−18.6%
201718,029,549+4.9%
Source:[28] 2016 estimate[29]

Birth rateEdit

21.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rateEdit

4 deaths/1,000 population (July 2017 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

-27.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and older: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total years: 71.19 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 72.68 years (2009 est.)

NationalityEdit

noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and older can read and write

  • total population: 79.6% (2004 census)
  • male: 86.0%
  • female: 73.6%

UrbanizationEdit

  • urban population: 56% of total population (2010)
  • rate of urbanization: 2.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - populationEdit

As of 2011:

  • Aleppo: 3.164 million
  • Damascus (capital): 2.65 million
  • Homs: 1.369 million
  • Hama: 933,000

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Michael Haag. The Templars: The History and the Myth - From Solomon's Temple to the Freemasons. p. 65. 
  2. ^ "PLOS ONE". plosone.org. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  3. ^ El-Sibai M, Platt DE, Haber M, Xue Y, Youhanna SC, Wells RS, Izaabel H, Sanyoura MF, Harmanani H, Bonab MA, Behbehani J, Hashwa F, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA (2009). "Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast". Annals of Human Genetics. 73: 568–581. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x. PMC 3312577 . PMID 19686289. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  4. ^ John Joseph. The Modern Assyrians of the Middle East. p. 30. 
  5. ^ a b حكومة النظام السوري تحصي عدد سكان سوريا, Enab Baladi, 2017, retrieved 22 July 2018 
  6. ^ a b c d Khalifa, Mustafa (2013), The impossible partition of Syria, Arab Reform Initiative, p. 3 
  7. ^ Hourani, Albert (1947), Minorities in the Arab World, Oxford University Press 
  8. ^ a b c Khalifa, Mustafa (2013), The impossible partition of Syria, Arab Reform Initiative, pp. 3–5, Arabs constitute the major ethnic group in Syria, making up between 80 and 85% of the population.
    Kurds are the second largest ethnic group in Syria, making up around 10% of the Syrian population and distributed among four regions...with a Yazidi minority that numbers around 40,000...
    Turkmen are the third largest ethnic group in Syria, making up around 4–5% of the population. Some estimations indicate that they are the second biggest group, outnumbering Kurds, drawing on the fact that Turkmen are divided into two groups: the rural Turkmen who make up 30% of the Turkmen in Syria and who have kept their mother tongue, and the urban Turkmen who have become Arabised and no longer speak their mother language...
    Assyrians are the fourth largest ethnic group in Syria. They represent the original and oldest inhabitants of Syria, today making up around 3–4% of the Syrian population...
    Circassians are the fifth largest ethnic group in Syria, making up around 1.5% of the population...
    Armenians are sixth largest ethnic group in Syria, making up around 1% of the population...
    There are also a small number of other ethnic groups in Syria, including Greeks, Persians, Albanians, Bosnian, Pashtuns, Russians and Georgians...
     
  9. ^ (in French) Mouna Liliane Samman, La population de la Syrie: étude géo-démographique, IRD Editions, Paris, 1978, ISBN 9782709905008 table p.9
  10. ^ a b c Drysdale, Alasdair; Hinnebusch, Raymond A. (1991), Syria and the Middle East Peace Process, Council on Foreign Relations, p. 222, ISBN 0876091052 
  11. ^ a b c Pierre, Beckouche (2017), "The Country Reports: Syria", Europe’s Mediterranean Neighbourhood, Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 178, ISBN 1786431491 
  12. ^ Hassan, G; Kirmayer, L.J.; Mekki-Berrada, A.; Quosh, C.; el Chammay, R; Deville-Stoetzel, J.B; Youssef, A; Jefee-Bahloul, H; Barkeel-Oteo, A; Coutts, A; Song, S; Ventevogel, P (2015), Culture, Context and the Mental Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Syrians (PDF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, p. 10, Given the lack of accurate census data, it is only possible to estimate the ethnic and religious composition of the current Syrian population. While the majority of Syrians are considered Arabs, this is a term based on spoken language (Arabic), not ethnicity. Around nine to ten percent of Syria’s population is Kurdish (close to two million people), followed by Turkmen,... 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Behnstedt, Peter (2008), "Syria", in Versteegh, Kees; Eid, Mushira; Elgibali, Alaa; Woidich, Manfred; Zaborski, Andrzej, Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, 4, Brill Publishers, p. 402, ISBN 978-90-04-14476-7 
  14. ^ "Syrian refugees and the need for English language training". www.blogs.jbs.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-26. 
  15. ^ Etheredge, Laura (2012), Middle East Region in Transition: Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, Britannica Educational Publishing, p. 9, ISBN 1615303294 
  16. ^ [1] Archived June 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "World Microdata Inventory". IPUMS-International. University of Minnesota. 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  18. ^ "Syrian Refugees May Be Wearing Out Turks' Welcome". NPR. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Syria crisis: Turkey refugee surge amid escalation fear". BBC News. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  20. ^ "Syria: Refugees brace for more bloodshed". News24. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "30 Syrian soldiers flees to Iraq's Kurdish region: official". Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  22. ^ http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2015/11/17/438068/Syria-birth-rate-Watan-MSF
  23. ^ http://www.news.com.au/world/middle-east/shocking-numbers-that-sum-up-syrian-civil-war/news-story/0361e487c319253b7703d7cc881cb2c8
  24. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". un.org. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  25. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  26. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  27. ^ "Syria Demographics Profile 2014". indexmundi.com. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  28. ^ Demographic Developments and Population Policies in Baʻthist Syria, Onn. Winkler, page 184, 1998.
  29. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". 

External linksEdit