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Damascus Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة دمشقMuḥāfaẓat Dimashq) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. Completely surrounded by the Rif Dimashq Governorate, it consists only of the city of Damascus, the capital of Syria, and the suburb of Yarmouk Camp.

Damascus Governorate

مُحافظة دمشق
Map of Syria with Damascus highlighted
Map of Syria with Damascus highlighted
Coordinates (Damascus): 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.513°N 36.292°E / 33.513; 36.292Coordinates: 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.513°N 36.292°E / 33.513; 36.292
CountrySyria Syria
CapitalDamascus
Government
 • GovernorAdel al-Olabi
Population
 (2010 est.)
 • Total1,711,000
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
ISO 3166 codeSY-DI
Main language(s)Arabic

The governorate's area is around 107 km2, encompassing the area of the city of Damascus and the Yarmouk Camp, while the population is around 1,711,000.

GeographyEdit

Damascus occupies a strategic location on a plateau which rises 680 m (2,230 ft) above sea level and about 80 km (50 mi) inland from the Mediterranean, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon mountains, supplied with water by the Barada River. The Anti-Lebanon mountains which mark the border between Syria and Lebanon, bock precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, so that the region of Damascus is sometimes subject to droughts. However, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, an irrigated farmland where many vegetables, cereals, and fruits have been farmed since ancient times.

The governorate occupies an area of 107 km2, 79 km2 of which is urban (77 in Damascus, 2 in Yarmouk Camp) while the rest is occupied by Mount Qasioun which overlooks the city.

ClimateEdit

Damascus has a cold desert climate (BWk) in Köppen-Geiger system,[1] due to the rain shadow effect of the Anti-Lebanon mountains[2] and the prevailing ocean currents. Summers are dry and hot with less humidity. Winters are cool and somewhat rainy; snowfall is infrequent. Annual rainfall is around 130 mm (5 in), occurring from October to May.

Climate data for Damascus (Damascus International Airport) 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
29.0
(84.2)
34.4
(93.9)
38.4
(101.1)
41.0
(105.8)
44.8
(112.6)
46.0
(114.8)
44.6
(112.3)
42.0
(107.6)
37.8
(100.0)
31.0
(87.8)
25.1
(77.2)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
24.7
(76.5)
30.1
(86.2)
34.6
(94.3)
37.0
(98.6)
36.8
(98.2)
33.9
(93.0)
28.1
(82.6)
20.1
(68.2)
14.3
(57.7)
25.5
(77.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
7.7
(45.9)
11.4
(52.5)
16.2
(61.2)
20.8
(69.4)
25.0
(77.0)
27.3
(81.1)
27.0
(80.6)
24.0
(75.2)
19.0
(66.2)
12.1
(53.8)
7.5
(45.5)
17.0
(62.6)
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.9
(35.4)
4.3
(39.7)
7.9
(46.2)
11.4
(52.5)
15.0
(59.0)
17.9
(64.2)
17.7
(63.9)
14.4
(57.9)
10.3
(50.5)
4.8
(40.6)
1.7
(35.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−12
(10)
−8
(18)
−7.5
(18.5)
0.6
(33.1)
4.5
(40.1)
9.0
(48.2)
8.6
(47.5)
2.1
(35.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8
(18)
−10.2
(13.6)
−12.2
(10.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.0
(0.98)
26.0
(1.02)
20.0
(0.79)
7.0
(0.28)
4.0
(0.16)
1.0
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.01)
6.0
(0.24)
21.0
(0.83)
21.0
(0.83)
131.3
(5.18)
Average precipitation days 8 8 6 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 3 5 7 42.5
Average snowy days 1 1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3
Average relative humidity (%) 76 69 59 50 43 41 44 48 47 52 63 75 56
Mean monthly sunshine hours 164.3 182.0 226.3 249.0 322.4 357.0 365.8 353.4 306.0 266.6 207.0 164.3 3,164.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.3 6.5 7.3 8.3 10.4 11.9 11.8 11.4 10.2 8.6 6.9 5.3 8.5
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[3]
Source #2: NOAA (sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  2. ^ Tyson, Patrick J. (2010). "SUNSHINE GUIDE TO THE DAMASCUS AREA, SYRIA" (PDF). www.climates.com. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  3. ^ "The Climate of Damascus 1981–2010" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Damascus INTL Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 April 2017.