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The Meitei (also Meetei, Meithei, Manipuri) people are the majority ethnic group of Manipur[1], a northeastern state of India[1]. Meitei is an endonym or autonym while Manipuri is an exonym. They primarily settle in the central plain region of Manipur. A significant population of the Meitei also are settled in domestic neighboring states such as Assam[2], Meghalaya[3] and Tripura. They have also settled in Bangladesh[4] and Myanmar.[5]

Meitei, Meetei
ꯃꯩꯇꯩ/ꯃꯤꯇꯩ
Manipuri girls.jpg
Meitei girls in traditional attire
Total population
2.5 million
Regions with significant populations
Manipur, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nagaland and Mizoram
Languages
Meitei, English
Religion
Hinduism, Sanamahism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Nagas, Tangkhul, Kuki, Tai Ahom, Burmese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Shan peopleAngami naga, Komhrem, Tripuri, Shan, Tai, Karen, Other Indigenous Assamese people, Pangal

The Meitei people are made up of seven major clans, known as Salai Taret.[6] Their written history has been documented to 1445 BC.[7]

Contents

LanguageEdit

The Meitei people speak Meitei (Meiteilon), a Tibeto-Burman language. It's also known as Manipuri. Meitei is one of the officially recognized languages of India which got included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India in 1992.[8]

Historically, Meitei is written in their indigenous Meitei Mayek script[9] until it was replaced forcefully by Bengali Script in the early 18th century,[10] however the revival of the Meitei script started in 20th century and slowly it is taking back its place from the Bengali Script.

Kinship systemEdit

For the domestic group called Kinship, Meiteis reckon relationship both through affinal and consanguineal relationship. Manipuri word for kin is mari mata and the relationship mari-mata thoknaba literally means, to have relationship. Schematically, there are two types of kinship ( Mari-mata) 1. Luhonglaga thok naba mari (affinal relation) 2. Ee-gi mari leinaba (Consanguineal relation) Meitei kinship is classified at the kin system (Yek-salai), then at lineage (Sagei) and finally at the family level (imung manung). The bulk of Meitei population is divided into seven clans: Mangang, Luwang, Khuman, Angom, Moirang, Khaba-Nganba, and Chenglei-Sarang-Leishangthem. Under which there are many sageis. However,Meitei Bamons do not fall under the rubic of Yek -Salai. The kinship terms in Meitei are unilineal, patrilineal and patrilocal. Meitei kinship terms are classificatory with an exception of some descriptive terms. There are only four descriptive kin terms in Meiteilon. They are: 1. ima ‘mother’ 2. ipa ‘father’ 3. iku/ikubok ‘father-in-law’, 4. inem/inembok ‘mother-in-law’

HistoryEdit

PrehistoryEdit

Pre-colonial periodEdit

Before the arrival of European (mostly British) colonialism in South Asia, there had been many tribal wars in Nagaland and Manipur, persecution and raids from Burma by Burmese army on Meitei people and others in India's northeast region. The meitei kings succeeded in defending their territory ultimately.[11][1]

Colonial periodEdit

Since Indian independenceEdit

The Meitei ethnic group,[12] represents about 53% of the population of India's Manipur state.

CultureEdit

 
Lai haraoba Dance
 
Ras leela in Manipuri Dance style

Most of the rich culture of Manipur can be credited to the Meiteis. Since ancient times the valley region of Manipur was trading crossroads between India and Myanmar and gradually the valley portion of Manipur became the melting pot of Indo-Burman culture. The famous Manipuri dance form had its roots from the Lai Haraoba dance form.

SocietyEdit

GovernmentEdit

MusicEdit

ArtEdit

The well known Manipuri Martial art form, Thang-ta is a combative sport which had its origin from the meitei knights during the kings rule. It involves various fighting techniques with swords and spears.

ReligionEdit

All meiteis believe in the supreme Lord Sanamahi. They worship him in the South-west corner of every house. Some meiteis belong to Vaishnav sect of Hinduism. They worship Lord Krishna.

CuisineEdit

Rice and fish are staple food of the Meiteis.

Most of the Meiteis usually eat boiled veggies and curry with less oil. They use exotic herbs (local to them) in their culinary art which gives a pleasant taste. Roasted dried fish is usually added in most of the boiled curry to impart special taste.

ClothingEdit

Meitei women wear Phanek which is a kind of Sarong but has a unique style. They are either horizontal stripe pattern which is called Phanek mayeknaibi or single block colour. The ends are decorated with high embroidery. It is usually accompanied by a blouse and a matching enaphi which is like a Dupatta but usually transparent.

PoliticsEdit

EconomyEdit

SportsEdit

They introduced polo to the west when the British came to Manipur valley during the kings rule. It is locally called Sagol Kangjei. It is believed that the game was played by the Gods of Meiteis as a practice of warfare. According to Chaitharol-Kumbaba, a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who ruled Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (33 AD) introduced Polo.

Kang is a game played under a shed of building on an earth ground (court) smoothly levelled to suit the course of the 'Kang' the target on the court. It is well marked for the respective positions of the players of both to hit the target on the court. It has rules and regulations formed by the associations to suit the occasions of the games either for competitive tournaments or friendly entertainment. The dignitaries of the Palace, even Queen and King also participated on social functions.

Mukna a unique form of wrestling popular amongst the Meiteis.

Mukna Kangjei also known as Khong Kangjei is a game which combines the arts of mukna (wrestling hockey) and Kangjei (Cane Stick) to play the ball made of seasoned bamboo roots.[3] The origin of the game dates to Aniconic worship. People celebrate Lai Haraoba (festival to please traditional deities) and include this item to mark the end of the festival. It was believed that Khagemba Ningthou (King, 1597–1652) patronised this game.

Yubi lakpi is a traditional full contact game played by Meiteis using a coconut, which has some notable similarities to rugby.[1] Yubi lakpi literally means "coconut snatching". The coconut is greased to make it slippery. There are rules of the game, as with all Manipur sports. It is played on the lush green turf. Each side has 7 players in a field with about 45x18 meters in area.[6] The goal post is 4.5x3 meters box in the central portion of the goal line. The coconut serves the purpose of a ball and is offered to the king, the chief guest or the judges before the game begins. The aim is to run while carrying the greased coconut and physically cross over the goal line, while the other team tackles and blocks any such attempt as well as tries to grab the coconut and score on its own.

Oolaobi (Woo-Laobi) is an outdoor game mainly played by females.[1] Meitei mythology believes that Umang Lai Heloi-Taret (seven deities–seven fairies) played this game on the Courtyard of the temple of Umang Lai Lairembi. The number of participants is not fixed but are divided into two groups (size as per agreement). Players are divided as into Raiders (Attackers) or Defenders (Avoiders).

The Raiders say "oo" without stopping as long as they can continue and try to touch the Avoiders. If a Raider touches an Avoider while saying "oo", the Avoider is out. This process goes on till all Avoiders are out or surrender. If a raider fails to say "oo" or is out of breath, the Raider is out. Points are counted on the elimination of Raiders/Defenders.

If Raiders are tired they declare for change and a time limit is decided on. The principles of Oolaobi are very similar to Kabaddi in India. The ground (court) is not marked; normally the open space in the premises of the house or temple is used for the game. Oolaobi, sometimes spelled Woolaobi, is very popular with girls and a source of talent in Kabaddi.

Hiyang tannaba (Hi Yangba Tanaba) is a traditional boat rowing race[1] and festivity of the Panas. This is held during the month of November. This was introduced during the time of Ningthourel Khunjaoba, the second son of King Khagemba, who dug the Kangla Moat around the Palace to make it impregnable in the year of 1660 after he ascended the throne in 1652. In the traditional function two boats "Tanahi" (Race Boat) are detailed for leaders known as "Tengmai Lappa". In each boat forty Hiroys (Boatsman) operate the boat. The boat which reaches the finishing line is the winner and all boatsman raise their (Now) oars high in the air as a sign of reaching the finishing line first and thus the winner of the race is declared. The leader pays his respect to the deity and the King of Manipur.

Arambai Hunba People of Manipur are very fond of riding horses specially those who are in the village near the breeding areas. Since the ponies are easily available, the young boys get the chance of riding ponies without saddle on horse back. Sometimes they ride horse using a rope in place of regular bridle throwing branches of small trees in place of Arambai. This practice helped the Meitei Arambai force as a martial art which was very much required during the advance and withdrawal of forces. This art was very popular as an indigenous game of the Meitei youths.

Some outdoor games formerly played by children are nearly extinct. These include Khutlokpi, Phibul Thomba, Kanthali, and Chaphu Thugaibi.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Prabaskar, Arunima. "Shiv Sena plans to rename Nagaland to Naganchi". Geocities.ws. 
  2. ^ "Meitei Diaspora In Assam". E-pao.net. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  3. ^ http://www.travelhot.in/TravelExperience/Meghalaya/Festivals_Of_Meghalaya.shtml
  4. ^ Project, Joshua. "Manipuri, Meitei in Bangladesh". Joshuaproject.net. Archived from the original on 2014-09-23. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  5. ^ Project, Joshua. "Manipuri, Ponna in Myanmar (Burma)". Joshuaproject.net. Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  6. ^ "Origin of the Meiteis Part 2". E-Pao. Dr J Rimai. 
  7. ^ "A Brief History of the Meiteis of Manipur". The Manipur Page. P. Lalit. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  8. ^ "Eight Schedule of the Constitution of India" (PDF). Mha.nic.in. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  9. ^ "History of Meetei Mayek". Tabish.freeshell.org. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  10. ^ "Manipuri language and alphabets". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  12. ^ Khomdan Singh Lisam, Encyclopaedia Of Manipur, ISBN 978-8178358642, pp. 322–347

Further readingEdit

  • Kshetrimayum, Otojit. (2014). Ritual, politics and power in north east India: Contexualising the Lai Haraoba of Manipur. New Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.
  • Singh, Saikhom Gopal. (2014). The Meeteis of Manipur: A study in human geography. New Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.
  • Singh, Saikhom Gopal. (2014). Population geography of Manipur. New Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.