Dima Hasao district

Dima Hasao district (IPA: [ˈdɪmə həˈsaʊ]), earlier called North Cachar Hills district, is an administrative district in the state of Assam in North-Eastern Region of India. As of 2011, it is the least populous district of Assam.[1] [2]

Dima Hasao district
North Cachar Hills
Barail Range in Dima Hasao
Barail Range in Dima Hasao
India Assam Dima Hasao district map.svg
Coordinates: 25°11′N 93°02′E / 25.18°N 93.03°E / 25.18; 93.03Coordinates: 25°11′N 93°02′E / 25.18°N 93.03°E / 25.18; 93.03
Country India
StateAssam
DivisionCentral Assam
District created02-02-1970
HeadquartersHaflong
Government
 • TypeAutonomous district
 • BodyDima Hasao Autonomous District Council
 • Chief Executive MemberDebolal Gorlosa
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesAutonomous District (shared with Karbi Anglong & West Karbi Anglong district)
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesHaflong
Area
 • Total4,890 km2 (1,890 sq mi)
Area rank2
Elevation
513 m (1,683 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total214,102
 • Density43.667/km2 (113.10/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialEnglish
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
788XXX
Telephone code91 - (0) 03673
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
Vehicle registrationAS-08
Most spoken languageDimasa, Haflong Hindi (as langua franca)
Websitedimahasao.assam.gov.in

Dima Hasao district is one of the two Autonomous hill districts of the state of Assam. The district headquarter Haflong is the only hill station in Assam, a tourist paradise, also named the Switzerland of the north-east.

EtymologyEdit

"Dima Hasao" means "Dimasa Hills" in the Dimasa language.

HistoryEdit

The earliest inhabitants of the present district were a Mongoloid stock of groups who prefer to stay atop hilly terrain and who practised their own culture, tradition and land rights governing themselves as independent tribes. As per records of different British historians and officials, North Cachar Hills was already occupied by the Dimasa Kacharis, erstwhile old Kuki tribes viz. Biate, Hrangkhol, Sakachep and Zeme Naga tribe during the British Rule in India.[3]

Medieval periodEdit

During the medieval period (1500–1854), Dima Hasao was part of the Dimasa Kachari Kingdom called 'Cachar Kingdom' with its capital at Maibang. The Dimasa Kingdom as per Ahom Buranji, stretched from Kallang river in Nagaon to Kapili river[4] that includes, parts from Cachar and North Cachar (Dima Hasao), the districts of Hojai, Nagaon, Golaghat and Karbi Anglong of Assam and Dimapur district, in Nagaland.

Colonial periodEdit

In the colonial period, Khaspur in present-day Cachar district, had been administrative centre. However internal schism led to division of old Cachar Kingdom into North Kachar and South Kachar. The last Dimasa king Govinda Chandra Hasnusa assigned Kashi Chandra the hilly tract of Cachar i.e. roughly Dima Hasao (North Kachar Kingdom) for administrative purpose. Soonerthe latter declared its independence over the hilly portion that lead to treacherous murder of Kashi Chandra by Raja Govinda Chandra Hasnusa. Incensed, the son of Kashi Chandra, Tularam incessantly created political turbulence asserting his sovereignty over hilly portion of Cachar Kingdom. Finally, with British assistance, Tularam succeeded in carving North Cachar Hills from Cachar Kingdom. David Scott agent to British Raj in 1829[5] made an arrangement to recognise Tularam as the ruler of North Cachar (Dima Hasao). In 1850s, Tularam died and the frequent Angami raids and grave incident at Semkhor village paved a ground to extend British influence over North Cachar. In 1853, North Cachar was annexed and made part of Nagaon district of British Assam as subdivision.

In 1867, this sub-division was abolished and apportioned into three parts among the Cachar, Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts, and Nagaon. The present Dima Hasao district, or formerly North Cachar Hills district was included in the old Cachar district with Asalu being only police outpost. In 1880, this portion was constituted into a sub-division with headquarters at Gunjung under Cachar district.

This headquarters was shifted to Haflong in 1895. Since then, Haflong has continued to be the headquarters. In 1951, after the adoption of the Indian constitution, North Cachar Hills ceased to be a part of Cachar district, as specified under paragraph 20 of the sixth schedule to the constitution. This part along with Mikir Hills constituted a new civil district named "United District of North Cachar and Mikir Hills", which went into effect on 17 November 1951. According to a provision of the sixth schedule, two different councils were constituted later on, viz., North Cachar Hills District Council and Mikir Hills District Council within the geographical boundary of that North Cachar Hills District Council was inaugurated on 19 April 1952.

Since IndependenceEdit

On 17 November 1951, Mikir Hills and North Cachar Hills District was created with area occupying present Dima Hasao district, Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong district. On 2 February 1970, the government declared an independent administrative district, viz., North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council. At present,[when?] this autonomous council possesses administrative control over almost all departments of the district except Law and Order, Administration, and Treasury department.

AdministrationEdit

Dima Hasao comprises three subdivisions: (I) Haflong, (II) Maibang and (III) Diyungbra. The district consists of five Community Development Blocks: (I) Jatinga Valley Development Block, Mahur; (II) Diyung Valley Development Block, Maibang; (III) Harangajao ITD Block, Harangajao; (IV) Diyungbra ITD Block, Diyungmukh; and (V) New Sangbar Development Block, Sangbar.[6] There is one municipality board viz. Haflong and three town committees in Dima Hasao viz. Mahur, Maibang and Umrangso and also mini-towns like Harangajao, Langting and Diyungbra.

GeographyEdit

The district headquarters are located at Haflong. Dima Hasao district occupies an area of 4,888 square kilometres (1,887 sq mi).,[7] comparatively equivalent to Brazil's Ilha Grande do Gurupá.[8] It is the second largest district of Assam after Karbi Anglong. Dima Hasao District is surrounded by Karbi Anglong district and Nagaland on North-East, Manipur on East, Hojai District on North, West Karbi Anglong district on North-West, Meghalaya on West and Cachar district on South.

PoliticsEdit

Dima Hasao district is an autonomous district enjoying the Sixth Schedule status granted by the Constitution of India. The Dima Hasao District is administered by North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (DHADC). Members of the Autonomous Council (MAC) are elected by people of Dima Hasao. The Political party who has majority MACs form the ruling party. The Autonomous Council is a powerful body and almost all the department of government are under its control except the police and Law & Order is under Assam Government.

EconomyEdit

In 2006, the Indian government named Dima Hasao one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[9] It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[9]

EnergyEdit

Kopili HEP

Kopili Hydro Electric Project is a power project near Umrangso, involving two dams on Kopili river and Umrong nalla, a tributary of Kopili. There are two power stations as part of Kopili HEP, Khandong Stage I & II (75 MW) and Kopili Stage I & II (200 MW), with total output of 275 MW.[10]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
190140,812—    
191127,296−3.94%
192128,913+0.58%
193132,844+1.28%
194137,361+1.30%
195139,663+0.60%
196154,319+3.19%
197176,047+3.42%
1991150,801+3.48%
2001188,079+2.23%
2011214,102+1.30%
source:[11]

PopulationEdit

According to the 2011 census, Dima Hasao has a population of 214,102,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Samoa.[12] This gives it a ranking of 588th in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 44 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi).[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.53%.[1] Dima Hasao has a sex ratio of 931 females for every 1000 males[1] and a literacy rate of 78.99%.[1]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Dima Hasao is one of the three hill districts in Assam with a tribal majority population, the others being Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong. The tribal population in Dima Hasao accounting for about 70.92% of the total population of the district according to the 2011 census, the highest percentage in the state. Scheduled Castes are 2.02%. The major indigenous communities inhabiting the district are Dimasa Kachari, Karbi, Zeme Naga, Hmar, Biate and a number of minor indigenous communities including: Hrangkhol, Khasi-Pnars, Rongmei Naga, Khelma and Vaiphei. The Kuki, Hmar, Biate, Hrangkhol and Vaiphei language speakers belong to the Kuki-Chin ethnic group. Non-indigenous communities includes Kanrupi Bengali, Gorkha tribes, Deshwali tribes and few other communities who have made the district their home.

As per the language data, the largest non-tribal communities are Bengalis (25,264: change of -7.53% from 2001), Nepalis (13,615: +9.76%), Hindi speakers (9,926: +13.83%), Assamese speakers (4,057: -26.32%), Halam-Kuki/Khelma/Riam (1,940 : +15.41%), Bodo-Kachari (1,604 : -7.82%), Meitei (1,373 : -24.64%), Tripuri (527: -21.11%), and Bishnupriya (401: -14.32%).[13]

Religions in Dima Hasao district (2011)[14]
Religion Percent
Hindus
67.07%
Christians
29.57%
Muslims
2.04%
Other or not stated
1.32%

As of the 2011 census, 67.07% of the population are Hindus, 29.57% Christians and 2.04% Muslims.

Ethnic Group Decadal
growth rate
2001[15] 2011[16] Religion (2001) Religion (2011)
Total +13.83% 188,079 214,102 Hindu - 69.91% Hindu - 67.07%
Dimasa +14.83% 64,881 74,502 Hindu - 98.73% Hindu - 99.19%
Kuki +43.69% 16,757 24,079 Christian - 91.98%, Hindu - 7.56% Christian - 93.17%, Hindu - 6.03%
Naga +21.98% 17,078 20,832 Christian - 52.20%, Hindu - 43.72%, Animist - 3.43% Christian - 53.67%, Hindu - 40.46%, Animist - 5.14%
Hmar +8.7% 13,863 15,070 Christian - 98.71% Christian - 99.18%
Karbi +16.59% 7,973 9,296 Hindu - 63.18%, Christian - 36.52% Hindu - 50.77%, Christian - 48.69%
Khasi +17.89% 3,157 3,722 Christian - 95.31% Christian - 96.94%
Smaller tribes -8.6% 4,719 4,342 Christian - 59.00%, Hindu - 38.12% Christian - 62.92%, Hindu - 34.94%
Non-tribal +3.41% 59,651 61,686 Hindu - 86.57%, Muslim - 7.34%, Christian - 4.57% Hindu - 85.80%, Muslim - 6.50%, Christian - 5.57%

LanguagesEdit

Languages of Dima Hasao (2011)

  Dimasa (35.72%)
  Bengali (11.8%)
  Zeme (9.65%)
  Hmar (7.65%)
  Nepali (6.36%)
  Kuki (5.11%)
  Karbi (4.46%)
  Hindi (3.14%)
  Khasi (1.93%)
  Assamese (1.89%)
  Others (12.29%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 35.72% of the district spoke Dimasa, 11.8% Bengali, 9.65% Zeme, 7.65% Hmar, 6.36% Nepali, 5.11% Kuki, 4.46% Karbi, 3.14% Hindi, 1.93% Khasi and 1.89% Assamese as their first language.

Dimasa and Haflong Hindi (a speech form of Hindi) are the main lingua franca in the Dima Hasao.[17]

CultureEdit

Dima Hasao District is a land of sensuousness. The district is populated by various tribes and races who maintain their own dialect, culture, customs and way of living. Apart from various tribes, non-tribals also account for a sizable amount of the population. They are mostly government employees, traders, graziers living in urban and semi-urban area. The small and serene villages shelter the lovely people – warm and fascinating – and as colourful as the land itself.

The district is home to Dimasa Kacharis, Zeme Naga, Hmars, Kukis, Biates, Hrangkhol.

Judima is a very important brew made by Dimasa tribals used in ceremonies and festivals is very famous in this region. In sept 2021, Judima got GI tag by Government of India making it the first bree in northeastern part of India to bag this title.

EducationEdit

Average literacy rate of Dima Hasao in 2011 were 77.54% compared to 67.62% of 2001. All schools of Dima Hasao are run by the state government or private organisations. English is the primary languages of instruction in most of the schools. The schools are recognised either with Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA), Assam Higher Secondary Education Council (AHSEC) or Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All Colleges of Dima Hasao are affiliated to Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams.

CollegeEdit

  • Haflong Government College, Haflong
  • J.B Hagjer Junior College, Umrangso
  • B. Bodo Junior College, Maibang
  • Hills Degree College, Haflong
  • J.B Hagjer Memorial Junior College, Diyungbra
  • Maibang Degree College, Maibang
  • Sengya Sambudhan Junior College, Haflong
  • M.C.D Junior College, Harangajao.

SchoolsEdit

Prominent schools in the district:

  • Ever Green High School, Maibang
  • Vivekananda Kendra Vidyalaya,NEEPCO, Umrangso
  • Don Bosco Higher Secondary School, Haflong
  • Lower Haflong High School.
  • Trinity High School, Mahur
  • Vivekananda Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sarkari Bagan, Haflong
  • Mahur High School, Mahur
  • St. Agnes Convent Higher Secondary School, Dibarai, Haflong
  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Haflong
  • CHT Synod Higher Secondary School, Haflong
  • Tularam Memorial Good Shepherd School, Gunjung
  • Presbyterian High School, Mahur
  • Langting High School, Langting
  • HM St. Mary's High School, Langting
  • Prabananda Vidya Mandir, Maibang
  • Raja Gobindh Chandra Aarsh Gurukulum, Diyungbra
  • Royal Academy, Umrangso
  • Jamundadevi Saraswati School
  • Sacred Heart high school, umrongso

MediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

Channel Year founded Language Owned by Ref
NDH (News Dima Hasao) Dimasa Hindi English Zed Nunisa [1]
Assam Talks Assamese Mahmadhul Hussan
News Live Assamese Ashim Choudhury
News Time Assam Assamese Anup Biswas
Prag News Assamese Sanjib Dutta
DY365 Assamese Samsul Alam
NKTV Assamese Pankaj Kumar Deb
Hills Live TV
Borail News
Karbi Anglong Live English and Karbi Suroj Barman
Pratidin Times Assamese Pankaj Tumung

RadioEdit

  • All India Radio, Akashvani Haflong broadcasts from Haflong at 100.02 megahartz on FM band.

Local newspapersEdit

  • Haflong Khurang (Dimasa weekly)
  • Haflong Times (English weekly)
  • Dima Hasao Post (English weekly)
  • Agape (Hmar weekly)
  • Shoilo Prohori (Bengali Weekly)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  2. ^ "District at a Glance | Dima Hasao District | Government of Assam, India".
  3. ^ Stewart, Lieutenant R. "Notes on Northern Cachar (1855).
  4. ^ Gait, Edward. (2011) History of Assam: Surjeet Publication. Delhi.
  5. ^ Rhodes, NG & Bose, SK. (2006) History of the Dimasa -Kachari As seen Through the coinage. Mira Bose: Dhubri (Assam).
  6. ^ "Dima Hasao District". North Cachar Hills. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  7. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  8. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Ilha Grande do Gurupá 4,864km2
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  10. ^ "Kopili Hydro Electric Project". Water Resources Information System of India. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  12. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Samoa 193,161
  13. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India".
  14. ^ "C-16 Population By Religion - Assam". census.gov.in. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  15. ^ "WELCOME TO CENSUS OF INDIA : Census India Library".
  16. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India".
  17. ^ Col Ved Prakash, "Encyclopaedia of North-east India, Vol# 2", Atlantic Publishers & Distributors;Pg 575, ISBN 978-81-269-0704-5

External linksEdit