Hmar people are a scheduled tribe ethnic group[2][3] from the states of Manipur,[4][5] Mizoram,[6] Assam,[7] and Meghalaya[8] in Northeast India. They use the Hmar language as their primary language.

Regions with significant populations
Hmar language
Related ethnic groups
Kuki-Chin-Mizo peoples


According to the 2011 Indian Census, there were 98,988 Hmar speakers.[9]


The majority of the Hmar people practice Christianity.[10]

Place of origin

The Hmar people believe Sinlung to be their ancestral origin.[11]

Notable people

Name Notes
HT Sangliana Indian Cop and former Lok Sabha MP. A South Indian movie, Sangliyana, was made in honor of him.
Robert Romawia Royte MLA from Mizoram and owner of Aizawl FC.
Ngurdinglien Sanate Former Minister from Manipur.
Lalnghinglova Hmar Current Minister of State (Sports) and MLA from Mizoram.
Ngursanglur Sanate Current MLA from Manipur.
Bijoy Kumar Hrangkhawl Politician from Tripura.
Pachhunga First President of the Mizo Union.
Dr. Chaltonlien Amo Former Minister from Manipur.[12][13]
Lalmuanpuia Punte Current Political Advisor[14][15] to Lalduhoma and MLA, Mizoram.
K. Sapdanga Current Deputy Chief minister, Mizoram.
Name Contribution(s)
Lalremsiami India women's national field hockey team player
David Lalhlansanga India national football team member
Alfred Lalroutsang youngest ever player to play in the Indian Super League at the age of 16 years.
Lalrinliana Hnamte Indian professional footballer.
Lalvarmoi Hmar Indian professional footballer.
Lalram Luaha Indian professional footballer
Hmar Zothanchhunga Indian professional cricketer.
Academicians & Authors
Name Notes
Rochunga Pudaite Included the Hmar people, Paite people, Zou people, Vaiphei people, Gangte people, and Anāl people, as one of the Schedule Tribes of India, 1956, and the founder of Bibles for the World.[16]
Lal Dena Manipur historian.
Lalthlamuong Keivom Former Indian diplomat and writer of Zoram Khawvel series.
Zirsangzela Hnamte Author.
Dr. Lallukhum Fimate Former Director, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences[17] and Zoram Medical College.[18]
Singers & Musicians
Name Notes
Mami Varte Singer
Esther Hnamte Singer
Lalruotmawi Singer


  • Allen BC, Gait EA, Allen CGH, and Howard HF. Gazetteer of Bengal and North East India. Mittal Publications. New Delhi 1979.
  • Bapui, VLT & Buruah, PN Dutta. 1996. Hmar Grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. CIIL Press, Mysore.
  • Bapui, Vanlal Tluonga. 2012. Hmar Ṭawng Inchukna (A Lexical Study of the Hmar Language & Usages). Guwahati, Assam: The Assam Institute of Research for Tribals and Scheduled Castes. Hi-Tech Printing & Binding Industries, Guwahati
  • Cassar, T. 2013. Only 36,000.
  • Cassar, T. 2017. Oh God - Now it's 75K (and it's only getting worse)!.
  • Dena, Lal. 1995. Hmar Folk Tales. New Delhi: Scholar Publishing House. Bengal Printing Press, New Delhi.
  • Dena, Lal; In search of identity: Hmars of North-East India; New Delhi 2008.
  • Fimate, L. Thina Râpthlak.
  • Hmar, RH Hminglien. 1997. Hmangaitu Hmel.
  • Hminga, FT. 1991. Hmar Pipu Thilhming Lo Phuokhai. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hminga, FT. 1993. Hmar Ṭawng Indiklem. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hminga, FT. 1994. Hming Umzie Neihai. Churachandpur, Manipur: Dr. FT Hminga.
  • Hrangate, HC. 1996. Pathien Kut.
  • Lalhmuoklien, 2009. Gospel Through Darkness. Churachandpur, Manipur: Rev. Dr. Lalmuoklien. SMART tech Offset Printers, Churachandpur
  • Ngurte, SN. 1991. Damlai Thlaler.
  • Ngurte, SN. 1994. Rengchawnghawi.
  • Ngurte, SN. 1995. Kanaan Phaizawl. HL Lawma & Sons Publication.
  • Pakhuongte, Ruolneikhum. 1983. The Power of the Gospel Among the Hmar Tribe. Shillong, Meghalaya: EFCI. Ri Khasi Press, Shillong.
  • Pudaite, Jonathan. 2011. The Legacy of Watkin R. Roberts.
  • Pudaite, Mawii. 1982. Beyond The Next Mountain: The Story of Rochunga Pudaite. Tyndale House Publishers.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 1963. The Education of the Hmar People. Sielmat, Churachandpur. Indo-Burma Pioneer Mission, 1963.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 1985, The Dime That Lasted Forever. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 2008. English-Hmar Dictionary. Partnership Publishing House.
  • Pudaite, Rochunga. 2011. Ka Hring Nun Vol-1. Thomson Press, Harayana.
  • Pudaite, Rosiem. 2002. Indian National Struggle for Freedom and its Impact on the Mizo Movement (1935-1953 AD).
  • Pulamte, John H. 2011. Hmar Bûngpui. Imphal, Manipur: Dr. John H. Pulamte. BCPW, Imphal.
  • Ruolngul, Darsanglien. 2009. The Advance of the Gospel (Part One). Churachandpur, Manipur: Rev. Darsanglien Ruolngul. SMART * tech Offset Printers, Churachandpur.
  • Ruolngul. Darsanglien. 2013. Kohran. Churachandpur, Manipur: ICI. Diamond Offset, Churachandpur.
  • Sanate, Ngurthangkhum. 1984. Ngurte Pahnam Chanchin. Churachandpur, Manipur/
  • Sawngate, Thangsawihmang. 2012. Hmangaina Parbâwr. Churachandpur, Manipur.
  • Sinate, Lalthankhum. 2001. Kohran Hring.
  • Songate, H. 1956. Hmar History-Hmar Chanchin. Imphal: Mao Press.
  • Songate, H. 1967. Hmar Chanchin (Hmar History).Churachandpur: L & R Press.
  • Thangsiem, JC. Zilsi Varzan. Rengkai, Churachandpur.
  • Ṭhiek, Hrilrokhum. 2013. History of the Hmars in North East India, Guwahati, Assam: Rev. Hrilrokhum Ṭhiek, Bhabani Offset Private Ltd., Guwahati.
  • Ṭhiek, Hrilrokhum. 1996. Maichâma Mei Chu Sukchawk Zing Ding A Nih.
  • Thuomte, H. 2001. Joute Pahnam Inthladan (Joute Genealogy). Churachandpur, Manipur
  • Various. 2008. Lal Remruot - Saidan Chanchin. Delhi. Hmanglien & Sons. Rai's Ad-venture, Delhi.
  • Zaneisang, H. 2003. Sinlung. Churachandpur, Manipur: H. Zaneisang. Diamond Offset, Churachandpur.
  • Zote, Timothy Z. 2007. Manmasi Year Book (Vol-II), Churachandpur, Manipur: Manmasi Year Book Editorial Board. BCPW, Imphal.
  • Sungte, Robert L. 2007. Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar tribe in Manipur, Karnataka. Mangalore University, Mangalore.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2016. Revisiting Sikpui Ruoi of the Hmar Tribe. Anthropology Today. Vol. 1, No. 2. ISSN 2454-2709. Pp. 60–72.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2017. In Search of the "Holy" Confluence: A Journey to the Barak River. In: Queenbala Marak (Ed) "Doing Autoethnography". Serials Publications: New Delhi.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & Lalthakim Hmar (ed). 2016. Highland Musing. 2016. IndigeNE: Imphal.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & Lalthakim Hmar (ed). 2016. Sinlung Sermei. IndigeNE: Imphal.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Hmar at the Crossroads. IndigeNE: Imphal.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Culture and Development: Hmar of Tipaimukh in Transition. IndigeNE: Imphal.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2019. Ruolevaisuo a Hohlimna Thusim Thlirletna. 2019. In: Nunhlui-II (Hmar MIL Textbook for TDC Third Semester), Assam University, Silchar, Hmar Literature Society, Assam.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2014. Traditional concepts on honour, wealth, happiness and self-reliance vis-á-vis planned development: Case of the Hmars. In: Aheibam Koireng Singh, Amol Sanasam and Sushma Phurailatpam (Ed) "Knowing Manipur from Endogenous Perspective". Centre for Manipur Studies, Manipur University and Indian Council of Social Science Research: Imphal. Vol. 2.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2011. Indigenous Knowledge System, Identity, Freedom and Tipaimukh Dam: An Anthropological Perspective. In: Lal Dena (Ed) "Dialogue on Tipaimukh Dam". Akansha Publishing House: New Delhi.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang & R. Th. Varte. 2017. Hmar Traditional Practices in Conflict Resolution: An Anthropological Perspective. In: Melvil Pereira, Bitopi Dutta and Binita Kakati (Ed) "Legal Pluralism and Indian Democracy: Tribal Conflict Resolution Systems in Northeast India". Routledge: New York.
  • Varte, Immanuel Zarzosang. 2005. Pre-historical Heritage of Ruong Le Vaisuo. "Hmar Arasi". Souvenir on the occasion of Cultural Festival-cum-Sikpui Ruoi, 2 – 5 December & 50th General Assembly-cum-Literary Meet, 15 – 16 December. Hmar Students' Association General Headquarters: Churachandpur.

See also


  1. ^ Census of India 2011 (2011). "Hmar" Language - India, State and Union Territories (PDF). Office of the Registrar General, India. p. 9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Scheduled Tribes" (PDF). DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK CHURACHANDPUR (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations Manipur. 2011. p. 28.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Census of India 2011 (2011). "Hmar" - Language: India, States and Union Territories (Table C-16) (PDF). Office of the Registrar General, India. p. 9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^
  11. ^ Dena, Lal (2008). In Search of Identity: Hmars of North East India. Akansha Publishing House: Delhi.
  12. ^ "Dr. Chaltonlien Amo(Indian National Congress(INC)):Constituency- TIPAIMUK(ST)(CHURACHANDPUR) - Affidavit Information of Candidate:". Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  13. ^ "Manipur: Senior Congress MLA joins BJP". The Indian Express. 9 January 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  14. ^ "Appointment of PS to Adviser to Chief Minister" (PDF).
  15. ^ "Mizoram Legislative Assembly". Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  16. ^ "About". Bibles For The World. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  17. ^ "New Director RIMS L Fimate". Retrieved 22 May 2024.
  18. ^