Kachin people

The Kachin peoples (Jingpo: Ga Hkyeng, lit.'"red soil"'; Burmese: ကချင်လူမျိုး; MLCTS: ka. hkyang lu myui:, pronounced [kətɕɪ̀ɰ̃ lù mjó]), more precisely the Kachin Wunpong (Jingpo: Jinghpaw Wunpawng, "The Kachin Confederation") or simply Wunpong ("The Confederation"), are a confederation of ethnic groups who inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province, China, and Arunachal Pradesh, Assam in Northeastern India. About one million Kachin peoples live in the region. The term Kachin people is often used interchangeably with the main subset, called the Jingpo people in China.

Kachin women in traditional dress

The Jingpho language common to many of the Kachin has a variety of dialects and is written with a Latin-based script created in the late nineteenth century. A Burmese script version was subsequently developed. The Singhpo dialect is spoken in Northeast India and Jingpho in Southwest China.[1]

Kachins c. 1900

Kachin is an ethnicity that comprises various linguistic groups with overlapping territories and integrated social structures. Contemporary usage of Kachin relates to a grouping of six ethnicities: Rawang, the Lisu, the Jingpo, the Zaiwa, the Lashi/Lachik and the Lawngwaw/Maru.[2][3] Some definitions distinguish Kachin and Shan (Tai) peoples though some Kachin people have demonstrated the over-simplicity of the concept of lineage-based ethnic identity by culturally "becoming Shans".[4]

EtymologyEdit

There are many theories of how Kachin people got their name. One of them comes from American baptist missionary Dr. Eugenio Kincaid. When he arrived to the northern part of Myanmar, firstly he met with the Gahkyeng people. When he asked them who they were, they replied that they were the villagers from Gahkyeng. Therefore, he wrote "Ga hkyeng" in his notes. European writers called the Kachins "Kakhyens" until 1899. The book "The Great Queen is Coming 1890" described Major Ecy Brong was the first person who started using "Kachin" in Roman script.[5]

CategorisationEdit

In Yunnan, a different categorization is applied and peoples grouped as Wunpong are grouped into four nations. The Chinese definition of Jingpo (which include all speakers of Zaiwa cluster of Northern Burmish languages) is broader than that in Kachin Hills and is somewhat comparable to Wunpong in Kachin Hills.[6] Lisu, Anung (Rawang) and Derung (Taron) peoples in Yunnan are not subordinated to ethnic Jingpo thus are classified outside the Jingpo nation:

HistoryEdit

British colonial rule and Burmese independenceEdit

British rule in Burma began in 1824 after the first Anglo-Burmese War. Due to the remote location of the Kachin State and its rugged landscape, however, Kachin Peoples were relatively untouched by British rule. American missionaries were the first to heavily interact with Kachin Peoples and they converted large tracts of the population from animism to Christianity.[10] During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the British started replacing ethnic Burmans in the military with Chin, Kachin, and Karen soldiers. This exclusion of ethnic Burmans from the British military was formally adopted in 1925 when policy was written only allowing ethnic minorities to enlist in the army. Due to this change in military composition, many ethnic Burmans began associating the ethnic minorities with British oppression.[11] Following the Japanese invasion of Burma in 1942, many Burmese soldiers rallied together to form the Burmese Independence Army (BIA) and fight against the British alongside the Japanese. The Kachin Peoples, however, were recruited by the British and America to fight against Japanese forces with the promise of autonomy after the war.[12] After the end of World War II and British rule in the region, the Kachin Peoples agreed to join the Union of Burma at the 1947 Panglong Conference. The conference brought together Kachin, Shin, and Chan leaders - along with the Burman leader at the time General Aung San. Together they signed the Panglong Agreement which granted the ethnic border states autonomy in local administration and equal treatment by the State.[13] The assassination of General Aung San, however, reduced government support for the agreement and led to feelings of betrayals on the part of Kachin Peoples.[12]

Kachin independence movementEdit

The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) was formed on October 25, 1960 to advocate for and protect the rights of Kachin Peoples.[14] A year after its inception, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) was created to be the armed wing of the KIO. While the KIA initially started with a hundred members, current reports from KIA commanders indicate an army 10,000 strong with another 10,000 in reserves.[15] Both the KIO and KIA support their missions with the trade of jade, timber, and other raw materials with China.[16]

1994 ceasefire agreementEdit

After 33 years of insurgency, the KIO signed a ceasefire agreement with the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), ending all military missions instigated by both the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Army) and the KIO. The ceasefire primarily ended military activity but also included stipulations that the Myanmar government fund development projects in the Kachin state. At the time of signing, the KIO was facing increased military pressure from the Tatmadaw and decreasing support from foreign actors to continue warfare against the State.[17]

Border Guard ForcesEdit

Prior to the 2010 elections, the Tatmadaw implored government officials to turn the KIA, along with other ethnic insurgent groups, into militia forces under the jurisdiction of the Tatmadaw.[18] The order stemmed from a military-drafted 2008 Constitution mandating all armed forces surrender their weapons, fall under the central authority of the Tatmadaw, and rebrand as Border Guard Forces (BGF).[19] The KIO refused to transform into a BGF and instead provided a counter-proposal which would rebrand the KIA as the Kachin Regional Guard Force (KRGF). The new organization would work towards ethnic equality for Kachin Peoples but the effort was dismissed by the Tatmadaw.

Land rights disputeEdit

Following the 1994 ceasefire, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) and State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) engaged in land-grabs across the Kachin State. Leveraging weak land governance policies, SLORC and SPDC invited foreign actors to invest in mining, logging, dam construction, and other infrastructure projects in lands traditionally owned by Kachin People. Furthermore, the Kachin State is rich in natural resources, particularly jade, which the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Army) and KIO fight for control over.[18] Throughout the late 1900s and early 2000s, the Tatmadaw established military presence in areas designated for commercial development, eroding the control of land under the governance of the KIO.[20]

2011–2013 conflict in Kachin StateEdit

Following the 2011 election of Thein Sein as President of Myanmar additional ceasefires were signed with many of the largest ethnic armed organizations (EAOs) signaling reconciliation.[18] However, on June 9, 2011 Tatmadaw forces broke the 17-year ceasefire and launched an armed offensive against the KIO along the Taping River near a hydroelectric plant.[21] During the attack, Tatmadaw forces abducted KIO Lance Corporal Chang Ying only to return his tortured body days later. The move prompted retaliation from KIO and began a series of deadly skirmishes between the two.[22] By 2012 fighting between KIA and Tatmadaw forces escalated to all regions of the Kachin state. After multiple rounds of discussion, President Thein Sein declared a temporary ceasefire in May 2013 against the desires of Tatmadaw commanders on the ground.[23] By the end of the two year conflict, an estimated 100,000 Kachin people were displaced.[24]

Culture and traditionsEdit

The Kachin people are traditionally known for their disciplined fighting skills, complex clan inter-relations, craftsmanship, herbal healing and jungle survival skills. In recent decades, animist and Buddhist beliefs have been supplanted in some areas by Christianity. According to one source, approximately two-thirds of the Kachin people identify themselves as Christians,[25] while another places the figure at 90 to 95 percent.[26] Many religious rituals and symbols, such as the annual Manau festival in Myitkyina, are celebrated as folkloric traditions.[27][28]

Human rightsEdit

The Kachin Peoples have suffered numerous human rights violations and transgressions against the community, especially by the Tatmadaw continue to be documented. Violations by the Tatmadaw include rape and sexual assault, extrajudicial killings, forced labor, torture, physical abuse, and many other forms of discrimination or outright violence. In 2014 alone, over 100 rapes in the Kachin State were recorded by the Women's League of Burma. In another incident, a Kachin civilian was tortured and subsequently forced to guide Tatmadaw soldiers through combat areas in the Mansi Township.[29]

The conflict between the KIA and Tatmadaw has led to a large-scale refugee crisis with over 100,000 Kachin people displaced. These internally displaced people (IDPs) often attempt to cross the border into neighboring China. In 2011, however, Kachin IDPs were forcibly sent back to Myanmar and denied refugee status by the Chinese government.[30] This lack of recognition as refugees or asylum seekers has forced many Kachin peoples to form large IDP camps in Myanmar. Only IDP camps in Tatmadaw controlled areas, however, are provided access to UN convoys and international aid. International actors attempting to provide aid in KIA controlled areas are often denied access by the Myanmar government on the basis of security.[29]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jingpho - Ethnologue.com (limited access - may require subscription) Retrieved 15 April 2017
  2. ^ Sadan, M. 2007, TRANSLATING GUMLAU:HISTORY, THE ‘KACHIN’ AND EDMUND LEACH. in Sadan, M and Robinne, F. (eds) 2007. Social Dynamics in the Highlands of Southeast Asia, Reconsidering Political Systems of Highland Burma by E. R. Leach. Brill. Leiden, Boston.
  3. ^ Kachin National Museum, Myitkyina
  4. ^ Leach, E. R. (1965) Political Systems of Highland Burma: a study of Kachin social structure. Boston: Beacon Press.
  5. ^ Htoi Ya Tsa Ji, Mungkan hta grin nga ai Jinghpaw mabyin (4) hte Kachin Mabyin (4) hpe chye na ai lam, The Kachin Times, Volume 2,2017
  6. ^ a b The Jingpo people is divided into 5 subgroups: Jingpo, Zaiwa, Leqi, Lang'e (Langsu) and Bola.
  7. ^ 景颇族高日支系考释
  8. ^ Jingpo - Orientation
  9. ^ The Rouruo people form a sub-division of the Nu ethnic minority, which also has the sub-division of Anong people.
  10. ^ Nash, Ed (30 November 2020). "The Long War Pt. 4; The Kachin Independence Army (KIA)". Military Matters. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  11. ^ Walton, Matthew (November–December 2008). "Ethnicity, Conflict, and History in Burma: The Myths of Panglong". Asian Survey. 48 (6): 889–910. doi:10.1525/as.2008.48.6.889 – via JSTOR.
  12. ^ a b Jaquet, Carine (3 July 2018), "Kachin history, perceptions, and beliefs: contextual elements", The Kachin Conflict : Testing the Limits of the Political Transition in Myanmar, Carnets de l’Irasec, Bangkok: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, pp. 17–32, ISBN 978-2-35596-015-4, retrieved 29 March 2021
  13. ^ Kipgen, Nehginpao (2015). "Ethnic Nationalities and the Peace Process in Myanmar". Social Research: An International Quarterly. 82 (2): 399–425. ISSN 1944-768X.
  14. ^ Hlaing., Ganesan, N. (Narayanan), 1958- Kyaw Yin (2007). Myanmar : state, society, and ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-434-6. OCLC 124063677.
  15. ^ "Burma's Kachin army prepares for civil war". 22 February 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  16. ^ author., Sun, Yun. China, the United States and the Kachin conflict. OCLC 872666485.
  17. ^ Dukalskis, Alexander (3 October 2015). "Why Do Some Insurgent Groups Agree to Cease-Fires While Others Do Not? A Within-Case Analysis of Burma/Myanmar, 1948–2011". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 38 (10): 841–863. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2015.1056631. hdl:10197/8472. ISSN 1057-610X. S2CID 108469636.
  18. ^ a b c South, Ashley (December 2018). "Protecting civilians in the Kachin borderlands, Myanmar: key threats and local responses" (PDF). Humanitarian Policy Group.
  19. ^ "Border guard plan could fuel ethnic conflict". The New Humanitarian. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  20. ^ Oishi, Mikio, ed. (2020). Managing Conflicts in a Globalizing ASEAN. doi:10.1007/978-981-32-9570-4. ISBN 978-981-32-9569-8.
  21. ^ Lintner, Bertil (18 December 2012). "More war than peace in Myanmar". Asian Times.
  22. ^ Lahpai, Seng Maw (2014). Debating Democratization in Myanmar: Chapter 14 State Terrorism and International Compliance: The Kachin Armed Struggle for Political Self-Determination. ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute. ISBN 9789814519151.
  23. ^ Farrelly, Nicholas (June 2014). "Cooperation, Contestation, Conflict: Ethnic Political Interests in Myanmar Today". South East Asia Research. 22 (2): 251–266. doi:10.5367/sear.2014.0209. hdl:1885/50156. ISSN 0967-828X. S2CID 144657499.
  24. ^ Ying, Lwin (January 2013). "The Situation of Kachin Women during the Current Political Crisis". Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 19 (2): 162–171. doi:10.1080/12259276.2013.11666153. ISSN 1225-9276. S2CID 218770577.
  25. ^ "Kachin". Joshua Project. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  26. ^ Mang, Pum Za (July 2016). "Buddhist Nationalism and Burmese Christianity". Studies in World Christianity. 22 (2): 148–167. doi:10.3366/swc.2016.0147.
  27. ^ Manao Festival "to propitiate local nat (spirit)" Retrieved 15 April 2017
  28. ^ Manao Festival description Retrieved 15 April 2017
  29. ^ a b "Myanmar's Human Rights and Humanitarian Violations in Kachin State and its Duty to Investigate, Prosecute, and Provide Victims with Remedies" (PDF). Human Rights Now. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  30. ^ Ho, Elaine Lynn-Ee (2017). "Mobilising affinity ties: Kachin internal displacement and the geographies of humanitarianism at the China–Myanmar border". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 42 (1): 84–97. doi:10.1111/tran.12148. ISSN 1475-5661.

Further readingEdit

  • Sadan, Mandy (2013). Being and Becoming Kachin: Histories Beyond the State in the Borderworlds of Burma. Oxford University Press and the British Academy.