Zaiwa (autonym: tsau31 va51; Tsaiwa, Tsaiva, 载瓦, Burmese: အဇီး) is a Burmish language spoken in parts of China and Burma. There are around 100,000 speakers. It is also known as Atsi, its name in Jingpo. Other names for the language include Atzi, Azi, Aci, Aji, Atshi, Atsi-Maru, Maru, Zi, Tsaiwa, Szi and Xiaoshanhua. Pela (Bola), with 400 speakers, was once classified as a dialect. From the 1950s Zaiwa was using Roman script. A Gospel of Mark was published in Zaiwa in 1938 in the Fraser alphabet, and in 1951 in Roman script.
|Native to||China, Burma|
There are more than 70,000 Zaiwa speakers in Yunnan, China, including in:
- Bangwa 邦瓦, Longchuan County, Dehong Prefecture
- Zhanxi 盏西, Yingjiang County, Dehong Prefecture
- Xishan 西山, Mangshi, Dehong Prefecture
The Ethnologue lists Bengwa, Longzhun, and Tingzhu as dialects.
In Myanmar, the Sadon (Sadung) dialect is the standard variety (Yabu 1982).
Zaiwa has five tones. Three of these five tones are in unchecked syllables and the remaining two are in checked syllables. The tones are distinguished through a numbering system of one to five; one being the lowest pitch and five the highest pitch.
- Zaiwa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zaiwa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Atsi". MultiTree.
- "Zaiwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
- Xu Xijian 徐悉艰, Xu Guizhen 徐桂珍. Jingpozu Zaiwayu Jianzhi 景颇族载瓦语简志.
- Lustig, Anton (24 September 2010). A Grammar and Dictionary of Zaiwa. Brill. ISBN 978-9004184893.
- 程黙 Chéng Mò. 1956. ‘載瓦語簡介 Zàiwǎ yǔ jiǎnjiè [Introduction to the Zaiwa Language]’, 中国語文 Zhōngguó yǔwén [Chinese Language] 53 (November), 41-44.
- Hill, Nathan, & Cooper, Douglas. (2020). A machine readable collection of lexical data on the Burmish languages [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3759030
- Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1982). アツィ語基礎語彙集 / Atsigo kiso goishū / Classified dictionary of the Atsi or Zaiwa language (Sadon dialect) with Atsi, Japanese and English indexes. Tokyo: 東京外国語大学アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所 Tōkyō Gaikokugo Daigaku Ajia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyūjo.
- Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (1988). A preliminary report on the study of the Maru, Lashi and Atsi languages of Burma. In Yoshiaki Ishizawa (ed.), Historical and cultural studies in Burma, 65-132. Tokyo: Institute of Asian Studies, Sophia University.
- Lustig, Anton (2010). A grammar and dictionary of Zaiwa. Leiden: Brill.
- Yanhua Zhu 朱艳华, Lepaizaosha 勒排早扎著, and Qingxia Dai 戴庆厦 (2013). 遮放载瓦语参考语法 [Reference Grammar of Zhefang Zaiwa] Zhefang Zaiwa yu can kao yu fa. Beijing: 中国社会科学出版社 Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
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