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Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture

The Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture is located in western Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and is one of the eight autonomous prefectures of the province, bordering Baoshan to the east and Burma's Kachin State to the west.

Dehong Prefecture

德宏州
Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture
德宏傣族景颇族自治州
德宏州人民政府01.jpg
芒市天际线06.jpg
勐焕大金塔01.jpg
芒市广场-中缅友谊馆.jpg
瑞丽口岸01.jpg
瑞丽江畹町段02.jpg
瑞丽农场-弄岛分场04.jpg
勐戛镇01.jpg
From top, left to right:
Dehong Prefecture government hall, skyline of Mangshi, Menghuan Pagoda, Mangshi Square with China-Myanmar Friendship Memorial Hall, Ruili Border Port, Shweli River, farm in Ruili, mountains in Mangshi
Etymology: Tai Nuea language (ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ), meaning "the lower reaches of the Nu River"
Nickname(s): 
hometown of peafowl
Dehong in Yunnan
Dehong in Yunnan
Coordinates: 24°26′N 98°35′E / 24.433°N 98.583°E / 24.433; 98.583Coordinates: 24°26′N 98°35′E / 24.433°N 98.583°E / 24.433; 98.583
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceYunnan
Founded24 July 1953
SeatMangshi
Divisions
Government
 • Prefecture governorWei Gang (卫岗)[1] (CPC)
 • Secretary of CPC Prefecture CommitteeWang Junqiang (王俊强)[2]
Area
[3]:536
 • Total11,172.24 km2 (4,313.63 sq mi)
Area rank16
Dimensions
[4]:97
 • Length170 km (110 mi)
 • Width122 km (76 mi)
Elevation
[4]:106 (Mangshi)
920 m (3,020 ft)
Highest elevation
[4]:106 (Daniang Mount (大娘山), north of Yingjiang County)
3,404.6 m (11,169.9 ft)
Lowest elevation
[4]:106 (river valley of Jieyang (羯羊河), west of Yingjiang County)
210 m (690 ft)
Population
 • Total1,211,440
 • Estimate 
(2016)[6]:38
1,294,000
 • Rank13
 • Density110/km2 (280/sq mi)
 • Density rank9
Ethnics
[6]:38
 • Han Chinese704,000 - 52.24%
 • Dai368,100 - 28.45%
 • Jingpo141,200 - 10.91%
 • Lisu33,400 - 2.58%
 • Achang32,100 - 2.48%
 • Palaung (De'ang)15,200 - 1.17%
Sex
[5]:101–160
 • male624,774 - 51.57%
 • female586,666 - 48.43%
Time zoneUTC+8
Postal code
Area code(s)(0)692
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN-31
Vehicle registration云N
Websitewww.dh.gov.cn
Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese德宏傣族景颇族自治州
Traditional Chinese德宏傣族景頗族自治州
Burmese name
Burmeseတယ်ဟုန် တိုင် နှင့် ဂျိမ်းဖော ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ ခရိုင် ကြီးများ
Tai Nuea name
Tai Nueaᥟᥪᥒᥱ ᥙᥪᥴ ᥓᥝᥲ ᥙᥩᥒ ᥛᥥᥝᥰ ᥖᥭᥰ ᥓᥤᥒ ᥚᥨᥲ ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ
Jingpho name
JingphoSakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo
Zaiwa name
ZaiwaSikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Tai Nuea is the origin language of the word "Dehong", in Tai Le script (the script used to write the Tai Nüa language by the Tai Nua people) is written as "ᥖᥬᥳ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ", which transliterates to Latin as "Taue Xoong". Dehong means the lower reaches of the Nu River.[7]:38

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

Dianyue and Ailao were the ancient countries recorded in Chinese literature in Dehong area, and Guozhanbi (Kawsampi) was an ancient country established by Dai people and recorded in Dai legend.

DianyueEdit

In the history book Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, a paragraph in volume 123 describes Dianyue as when Zhang Qian visited Daxia in Central Asia, he found some merchandise was produced in Sichuan. And the Daxia merchant said it was purchased from Yuandu (India). There was a trade route, Shu-Yuandu Road (蜀身毒道) between Yuandu and Sichuan. The road passed a kingdom named "Dianyue" (滇越).[8] The country is also called "Dianyue Chengxiang" (滇越乘象国) in modern books.[6]:37Chinese historians generally said Tengyue is the center of Dianyue Chengxiang, and the territory included the Dehong area. But, some historians disagree with this opinion. Lou Zichang believes Dianyue Chengxiang was not a country in western Yunnan, even not a country established by Dai people.[9]

AilaoEdit

Ailao (哀牢) is an ancient tribal alliance country in west of Yunnan during Spring and Autumn to Eastern Han period, and modern historians said the area include Dehong. In Chronicles of Huayang, the record of Ailao mentions its territory "3,000 li from west to east, and 4,600 li from south to north",[10] approximately equal to 1,300 km west to east and 1,994 km south to north in modern unit.[11] It includes the southwest of Yunnan and most of Myanmar, in modern research, it is called the generalized area of Ailao.[11]

In the Han period, Ailao was an influential tribal country with a population of 20,000.[11] Baoshan historian, Xiao Zhengwei believes the kingdom of Dianyue was a powerful tribe under Ailao.[12]

In 69 AD, Liu Mao (柳貌), the king of Ailao, led the tribal alliance to surrender to the Han dynasty, and Han set "Ailao County" here.[13] In Southern dynasty Qi period, the name was changed to "Xicheng County" (西城县) [14]:1950. During the end of the Liang dynasty, Xicheng County was abolished.[14]:933

GuozhanbiEdit

Between 568 BC and 424 BC, during the Eastern Zhou dynasty in China, ancestors of Dai people had settled in Shweli River valley area and entered the tribal period. In 364 BC, grand chief Gelaba (葛拉叭) unified the tribes in Shweli basin. He became the chief of the tribal alliance and set the capital at Hansa (喊萨, in modern Ruili). It was the early stage of the kingdom "Guozhanbi"(果占璧), also called "Kawsampi" (憍赏弥).

In 364 AD, a descendant of Gelaba named Zhaowuding (召武定) inherited the throne. He became the famous deity, sovereign, and culture hero of Dai people.[15]:5 In the 7th century, the Dai area was in chaos and the descendants of Zhaowuding could not effectively control the area. At the same time, the kingdom of Nanzhao was rising, and conquered the Dehong area. Piluoge, the king of Nanzhao canonized another Dai tribe chief Hundeng (混等) to be the "King of Mong Mao" and managed the whole Dai area in 762.[16]:28–29

In 1995, Dehong historian Yang Yongsheng published research on ancient Dai civilization. He put forward a new opinion during the Dai legend research - The "Kingdom of Daguang" (达光) is the first country of Dai people which was established in 424 BC, and the country "Dianyue Chengxiang" is another name of "Daguang". In 233 BC, the capital of Daguang moved to Pagan, and finally perished in 586 AD.[17] The research was countered by He Ping, a history professor at Yunnan University. He Ping says that the Kingdom of Daguang is the legendary kingdom of Tagaung in Burmese history and there was no kingdom of "Daguang" in the ancient Dai civilization. The Dai legend of Daguang is the story of pre-period of Pyu city-states. The story of Pyu city-states spread to Dehong Dai area, localized to a Dai legend and was recorded in Dai literature.[18]

In Yang Yongsheng's research, the kingdom of "Guozhanbi" was the second kingdom established by Dai people after Daguang. Dai languages literatures were his sources of research. He said the kingdom of Guozhanbi was existence from 567 to 1488. According to the research of He Ping, "Guozhanbi" is the ancient state "Kawsampi". There are many of legends about Kawsampi in Thai-Shan folks culture. The origin of the legend was a story in Buddhist texts. Therefore, He Ping thought the Kingdom of "Guozhanbi" or "Kawsampi" is untrustworthy history.[19]

MedievalEdit

Whether or not the early history of Dehong is controversial, it can be determined that Dehong belonged to Nanzhao and Dali in the medieval period of Yunnan. In Nanzhao, it was separated to "Yongchang Jiedu" (永昌节度, south of Dehong) and "Lishui Jiedu" (丽水节度, north of Dehong).[4]:10 In Dali, it was under the division of "Zhenxi Zhen" (镇西镇).[20]:115

In 1253, Kublai Khan conquered the Dali Kingdom, Dehong Dai people capitulated to the Mongol Empire. The Mongols set an administrative division named "Jinchi Anfu Si" (金齿安抚司) to manage west of Yunnan. In 1276, Yuan dynasty, the Anfu Si was upgraded to "Jinchi Xuanfu Si" (金齿宣抚司), and set an agency "6 Lu governor Fu" (六路总管府) to manage the Dehong area. The 6 Lu were: Luchuan Lu (麓川路, modern Ruili and Longchuan), Pingmian Lu (平缅路, modern southern Lianghe and northern Longchuan), Zhenxi Lu (镇西路, modern Yingjiang), Zhenkang Lu (镇康路, modern Zhenkang, out of Dehong), Mangshi Lu (茫施路, modern Mangshi) and Rouyuan Lu (柔远路, modern Lujiang, out of Dehong). In addition, a special division named "Nan Dan" (南赕) and Nandian Fu (南甸府, modern Lianghe) was set. The scope of "6 Lu general manager Fu" is closed to the modern Dehong territory.[4]:11

In 1277, Narathihapate, the king of Burmese Pagan Kingdom, invaded modern Dehong area. The Battle of Ngasaunggyan occurred on the bank of Taping River, presently in the Yingjiang County. The Yuan army only had 700 soldiers but finally repelled Burmese military of 40,000 to 50,000 soldiers with 10,000 horses and 800 elephants.[21]:104 It was the prelude to the First Mongol invasion of Burma.[22]:26–27

During the 13th and 14th century, the Dehong Dai people immigrated to modern Assam in India and built up the kingdom of Ahom. They formed the latter-day Ahom people.[23]

Mong MaoEdit

 
Territory of Mong Mao in the heyday of Si Kefa period, include the state which tributed to Mong Mao

Local Dai chief was the leader of Luchuan Lu and they were the successors of "Guozhanbi". "Luchuan" is the name denoted by Yuan, and "Mong Mao" is self claim name.[24]

Si Kefa enthroned the chieftain of Luchuan Lu in 1340[25] and sent troops to surrounding state such Hsenwi, Mongyang, Mongmit. After that, he attacked Mangshi, Zhenxi, Pingmian, and Nandian. Yuan dynasty initiated wars in 1342, 1345, 1346, and 1347 to counterattack Luchuan, but all attempts failed. Luchuan conquered the surrounding states successively. In 1355, Si Kefa requested Yuan dynasty to canonize him. Yuan central government admitted his local regime and canonized Si Kefa to be the first Mong Mao Tusi. The central government set a division of "Pingmian Xuanwei Si" (平缅宣慰司) at Mong Mao to legalize the regime, and Mong Mao Tusi is the leader of Xuanwei Si.[15]:9–10

In 1382, the Ming dynasty military arrived at the Mong Mao Tusi and Si Lunfa surrendered. Ming granted him the title "Xuanwei Commissioner of Luchuan Pingmian" (麓川平缅宣慰使) and changed the division name "Luchuan Pingmian Xuanwei Si". In 1385, the leader of Jingdong renegaded the Mong Mao regime, and Si Lunfa sent troops to attack Jingdong.[26] But, Mu Ying, the general of Yunnan was protecting Jingdong leader.

The wars between Mong Mao regime and Yunnan local government occurred in 1387 and 1388. Finally, Mong Mao failed. In order to maintain the relationship with Ming, Si Lunfa sent a mission to Kunming to make peace. Mong Mao consented to compensate for the losses, and peace was restored.

After Si Lunfa died in 1399, a minister of Mong Mao launched a rebellion. The Ming government felt threatended and separated 14 Tusi regions from the Luchuan territory.[15]:11–13 During Si Xingfa's ruling in the 1410s, the Mong Mao territory decreased to include only modern Ruili, Mangshi and Namhkam.[27]

After Si Xingfa, Si Renfa was enthroned in 1413, he tried to restore the kingdom to its former glory. In 1439, a conflict between Mong Mao and Ming reoccurred. This was the beginning of Luchuan–Pingmian campaigns. In 1441, Ming sent troops to Mong Mao, and Si Renfa fled to Mongyang. Several wars occurred between 1443 and 1449, finally Mong Mao lost Dehong. The imperial family continued to live in Mongyang until they were attacked in 1604 by the Toungoo dynasty.[15]:13–16

Ming and Qing dynastiesEdit

 
Fang Zhengde(放正德), the 21st Mangshih Tusi
 
Manyun Customs

After Mong Mao kingdom declined, Chinese central government gained efficient control in the Dehong area. During Ming and Qing dynasties, central government canonized 10 Tusi in Dehong:[15]

Tusi established title family name modern
Mong Mao 1604[28]:80 Mongmao Anfu Si
勐卯安抚司
Kan () Ruili
Longchuan 1444[29]:44 Longchuan Xuanfu Si
陇川宣抚司
Duo () Longchuan
Nandian 1444[30]:73 Nandian Xuanfu Si
南甸宣抚司
Dao ()
Gong ()
Lianghe
Ganya 1403[31]:91 Ganya Zhangguan Si
干崖长官司 (1403-1444)
Ganya Xuanfu Si
干崖宣抚司 (1444-1955)
Dao () Yingjiang
Mangshih 1443[32]:21 Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si
芒市御夷长官司 (1443-1640)
Mangshi Anfu Si
芒市安抚司 (1640-1950)
Fang (放→方) Mangshi
Zhanda Chongzhen period[15]:180 Zhanda Vice Xuanfu Si
盏达副宣抚司
Si () Yingjiang
Zhefang 1584[32]:21 Zhefang Vice Xuanfu Si
遮放副宣抚司
Duo () Mangshi
Husa 1770[15]:227 Husa Zhangguan Si
户撒长官司
Lai () Longchuan
Lasa 1653[15]:240 Lasa Zhangguan Si
腊撒长官司
Gai () Longchuan
Mengban 1899[32]:21 Mengban Tu Qianzong
勐板土千总
Jiang () Mangshi
 
China–Myanmar border Dehong section, the solid line is the modern borderline, and the dotted lines are the outline of the areas which incorporate into Burma in 1897, and the red region is the "Namwan Assigned Tract".

During the Ming dynasty, Sino-Burmese wars occurred twice in Dehong.[4]:18–19 In 1594, Yunnan grand coordinator Chen Yongbin (陈用宾) built up 8 border defense military checkpoints to guard international border between Dehong and Burmese Toungoo dynasty; these checkpoints formed the early borders between China and Myanmar.[33]

In 1658, the last emperor of Southern Ming dynasty , Zhu Youlang, passed the Nandian and Ganya Tusi and fled to Myanmar. He granted Ganya Tusi a marquess title. Ganya Tusi helped Youlang to flee but was completely annihilated in the tussle. Thereafter, all the Tusi in Dehong surrendered to the Qing dynasty in 1659. The war between Qing and Konbaung dynasty during 1765 to 1769 also extended to Dehong area.[4]:19–21

In 1875, a British translator, Augustus Raymond Margary, and his four personal staffs were murdered in west of Yingjiang County. This was an important non-governmental crisis in Sino-British relations and came to be known as the "Margary Affair". This event was followed by the signing of the Yantai Treaty.[4]:22

In 1894, during a Britain-China border convention,[Note 1] certain sections of the China–Myanmar border to the south of the "High Conical Peak"(尖高山) were delimited ,[34]:192 and an agreement was reached that the Qing dynasty should open two border ports between Burma and China: Manyun (蛮允) and Zhanxi (盏西).[35]:578 [4]:23

In 1897, another agreement was signed[Note 2], three parts of the area around Dehong were incorporated into Burma although the convention in 1894 had determined they were part of China,[34]:190 and four of the border checkpoints which established by Chen Yongbin in Ming dynasty were also incorporated into Burma.[4]:23 In this agreement, the British government leased the "Namwan Assigned Tract", also called "Meng-Mao triangular area" in southwest of Dehong with the rent of 1,000 Rupee a year.[34]:194 Finally, China didn't receive back this region and used it to exchange another area in west of Cangyuan in 1960.[36]

After Qing dynastyEdit

After Wuchang Uprising occurred in October 1911, Ganya Tusi Dao Anren (刀安仁) launched an uprising at Tengyue on 27 October 1911. Under the Republic of China, the Yunnan government tried to perish Tusi system and replace Tusi with state-appointed officials, but the Tusi officials opposed the change. Therefore, special administrative divisions were formed to support the period of transition. The administrative titles include Suppress Committee (弹压委员) and Deputy County (县佐) between 1911 and 1917, District and Deputy County between 1917 and 1932, and Administrative Bureau (设治局) after 1932.

The Tusi system existed until the land reform movement in 1955. The Administrative Bureaus after 1932 included Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Lianshan, and Lianghe - they were the predecessor of future counties.[4]:24–25

During the World War II, Dehong was an important strategic location for China. By 1938, the Burma Road was built and it was an important international transit channel after Japanese army blocked the eastern coast of China.[37] In 1939, Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company moved to Loiwing in south-west corner or Ruili, and it was the biggest aircraft manufacturing plant of China at that time.[38]

After World War IIEdit

The area was declared an autonomous region in 1953. In May 1956, it became an autonomous prefecture. In 1960, when inter-provincial migration took place many farmers came to Yunnan to farm bananas. This was during the "Great Leap Forward" when a biologist working for Mao Zedong wrote an article about the weather in Yunnan being very suitable for bananas to be planted. Before this, many Chinese were scared of going there because of an illness that lurked about. It was later discovered that this was an identifiable tropical disease. The farmers helped to get rid of the disease. They made clearings, roads, and space for fields and plantations.[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

Dehong stretches 122 km (76 mi) from east to west and 170 km (110 mi) from north to south, and its area is 11,526 km2 (4,450 sq mi).

DemographicsEdit

The population of Dehong in 2003 was 1.02 million, 48.17% of whom were Han Chinese, 51.83% were national minorities, mostly Dai and Jingpo.

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Mangshi (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
31.0
(87.8)
33.4
(92.1)
35.2
(95.4)
35.6
(96.1)
34.9
(94.8)
34.4
(93.9)
35.3
(95.5)
35.0
(95.0)
33.4
(92.1)
29.7
(85.5)
27.4
(81.3)
35.6
(96.1)
Average high °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
23.9
(75.0)
27.3
(81.1)
29.5
(85.1)
29.5
(85.1)
28.7
(83.7)
28.0
(82.4)
29.0
(84.2)
29.1
(84.4)
27.8
(82.0)
25.0
(77.0)
22.4
(72.3)
26.9
(80.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.5
(58.1)
17.9
(64.2)
21.1
(70.0)
23.3
(73.9)
24.2
(75.6)
23.9
(75.0)
24.2
(75.6)
23.5
(74.3)
21.5
(70.7)
17.3
(63.1)
13.7
(56.7)
19.8
(67.7)
Average low °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
7.7
(45.9)
10.7
(51.3)
14.7
(58.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
20.4
(68.7)
17.8
(64.0)
12.5
(54.5)
8.1
(46.6)
15.1
(59.2)
Record low °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.5
(34.7)
3.6
(38.5)
7.5
(45.5)
13.2
(55.8)
16.8
(62.2)
15.9
(60.6)
17.6
(63.7)
14.5
(58.1)
9.3
(48.7)
5.5
(41.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.7
(0.54)
26.6
(1.05)
26.9
(1.06)
65.4
(2.57)
154.3
(6.07)
287.5
(11.32)
360.1
(14.18)
317.7
(12.51)
187.0
(7.36)
137.9
(5.43)
49.8
(1.96)
11.8
(0.46)
1,638.7
(64.51)
Average relative humidity (%) 78 72 66 67 75 84 87 86 84 83 82 81 79
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

AdministrationEdit

Dehong is divided into three counties and two county level cities:

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Mangshi City 芒市 Máng Shì 389,891 2,987 131
Ruili City 瑞丽市 Ruìlì Shì 180,627 1,020 177
Lianghe County 梁河县 Liánghé Xiàn 154,175 1,159 133
Yingjiang County 盈江县 Yíngjiāng Xiàn 305,167 4,429 69
Longchuan County 陇川县 Lǒngchuān Xiàn 181,580 1,931 94

The prefectural government seat is Mangshi.

EconomyEdit

Dehong is one of the 3 primary regions for coffee cultivation in Yunnan.[39] The main coffee planter and processor is Hogood Coffee, which operates a contracting scheme with local farmers.[40] Hogood contracts farm land from smallholders on which it plants seedlings, and then re-contracts with farmers to purchase the coffee beans at harvest.[40]

Further readingEdit

  • Luo, Yongxian. A Grammar of Dehong, Southwest China. Canberra, ACT: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1999. ISBN 0-85883-496-0

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The convention in English language named Convention between China and Great Britain giving effect to Article Ⅲ of the Convention of 24 July 1886 relative to Burmah and Thibet, and in Chinese language named 《续议滇缅界、商务条款
  2. ^ The agreement in English language named Agreement between China and Great Britain Modifying the Convention of 1 March 1894 relative to Burmah and Thibet, and in Chinese language named 《续议缅甸条约附款

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 卫岗 简历 [Curriculum vitae of Wei Gang]. people.com.cn (in Chinese). People's Daily Online, local government leader database. Retrieved 2018-08-16.
  2. ^ 王俊强 简历 [Curriculum vitae of Wang Junqiang]. people.com.cn (in Chinese). People's Daily Online, local government leader database. Retrieved 2018-08-16.
  3. ^ Li Cheng (李赪) (2012). 《云南统计年鉴2017》 [Statistical Yearbook of Yunnan 2017] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-8267-1.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 德宏傣族景颇族自治州志编纂委员会 (1994). 《德宏州志·综合卷》 [Annals of Dehong Prefecture · Integrated Volume] (in Chinese). Mangshi: Dehong Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 7-8052-5248-3.
  5. ^ a b Luo Jinzhong (罗进忠) (2012). 《云南省2010年人口普查资料》 [People Census Reference of Yunnan 2010] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6548-3.
  6. ^ a b c Executive chief editor: Tian Qiyun (田启云); 德宏傣族景颇族自治州志编纂委员会 (2017). 《德宏年鉴2017》 [Yearbook of Dehong 2017] (in Chinese). Mangshi: Dehong Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-5558-0726-1.
  7. ^ Niu Ruchen (牛汝辰) (2016). 《中国地名掌故词典》 [Dictionary of etymology of Chinese places name] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Social Publisher. ISBN 978-7-5087-5238-9.
  8. ^ Records of the Grand Historian - volume 123, Annals of Dayuan, Wikisource (in Chinese)
  9. ^ Lou, Zichang (2006). 论古代滇越并非腾越——兼论滇越国不是傣族先民建立的国家 [The Ancient Dianyue Kingdom neither Tengyue Kingdom nor Found by the Dai People——The Ancient Dianyue Kingdom was not Founded by the Dai People]. Journal of Wenshan Teachers College (in Chinese). 19 (3): 40–44. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9200.2006.03.009.
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