Factors such as the massive state-sponsored migration of Han Chinese from the 1950s to the 1970s, government policies promoting Chinese cultural unity and punishing certain expressions of Uyghur identity, and heavy-handed responses to separatist terrorism have contributed to tension between Uyghurs, and state police and Han Chinese. This has taken the form of both frequent terrorist attacks and wider public unrest (such as the July 2009 Ürümqi riots).
Many involved also support the formation of an independent Uyghur state, with some claiming that the Second East Turkestan Republic was illegally incorporated into the People's Republic of China in 1949. Some terrorist groups see the conflict as part of a larger global jihad.
Xinjiang is a large central-Asian region within the People's Republic of China comprising numerous minority groups: 45% of its population are Uyghurs, and 40% are Han. Its heavily industrialised capital, Ürümqi, has a population of more than 2.3 million, about 75% of whom are Han, 12.8% are Uyghur, and 10% are from other ethnic groups.
In general, Uyghurs and the mostly Han government disagree on which group has greater historical claim to the Xinjiang region: Uyghurs believe their ancestors were indigenous to the area, whereas government policy considers present-day Xinjiang to have belonged to China since around 200 BC. According to PRC policy, Uyghurs are classified as a National Minority rather than an indigenous group—in other words, they are considered to be no more indigenous to Xinjiang than the Han, and have no special rights to the land under the law. During the Mao era the People's Republic oversaw the migration into Xinjiang of millions of Han, who dominate the region economically and politically.
Although current PRC minority policy, which is based on affirmative actions, has reinforced a Uyghur ethnic identity that is distinct from the Han population, many Uyghurs reportedly feel that they are slowly being eradicated as an ethnic and cultural group. Human Rights Watch describes a "multi-tiered system of surveillance, control, and suppression of religious activity" perpetrated by state authorities. It is estimated that over 100,000 Uyghurs are currently held in political "re-education camps." China justifies such measures as a response to the terrorist threat posed by extremist separatist groups. These policies, in addition to long-standing cultural differences, have sometimes resulted in resentment between Uyghur and Han citizens. On one hand, as a result of Han immigration and government policies, Uyghurs' freedoms of religion and of movement have been curtailed, while most Uyghurs argue that the government downplays their history and traditional culture. On the other hand, some Han citizens view Uyghurs as benefiting from special treatment, such as preferential admission to universities and exemption from the one-child policy, and as "harbouring separatist aspirations". Recently there have been attempts to restrict the Uyghur birth rate and increase the Han fertility rate in portions of Xinjiang to counteract Uyghur separatism.
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist Party allows Hui Muslims to have their children educated in Islam and attend mosques; the law is enforced for Uyghurs. After secondary education, China allows Hui students to study with an imam. China does not enforce the law against children attending mosques on non-Uyghurs outside Xinjiang. Since the 1980s Islamic private schools (Sino-Arabic schools (中阿學校)) have been permitted by the Chinese government in Muslim areas, excluding Xinjiang because of its separatist sentiment.[a]
Hui Muslims employed by the state, unlike Uyghurs, are allowed to fast during Ramadan. The number of Hui going on Hajj is expanding and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, but Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them. Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government with regard to religious freedom. Religious freedom exists for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build mosques and have their children attend them; more controls are placed on Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Hui religious schools are allowed, and an autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader was formed with the approval of the Chinese government. According to The Diplomat, Uyghur religious activities are curtailed but Hui Muslims are granted widespread religious freedom; therefore, Chinese government policy is directed towards stamping out the Uyghur separatist threat.
In the last two decades of the 20th century, Uyghurs in Turpan were treated favourably by China with regard to religion; while Kashgar and Hotan were subject to more stringent government control. Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turned a blind eye to the law, allowing Islamic education of Uyghur children. Religious celebrations and the Hajj were encouraged by the Chinese government for Uyghur Communist Party members, and 350 mosques were built in Turpan between 1979 and 1989. As as result, Han, Hui and the Chinese government were then viewed more positively by Uyghurs in Turpan. In 1989, there were 20,000 mosques in Xinjiang. Until separatist disturbances began in 1996, China allowed people to ignore the rule prohibiting religious observance by government officials. Large mosques were built with Chinese government assistance in Urumqi. While rules proscribing religious activities were enforced in southern Xinjiang, conditions were comparatively lax in Urumqi.
According to The Economist, in 2016 Uyghurs faced difficulties travelling within Xinjiang and live in fenced-off neighbourhoods with checkpoint entrances. In southern Urumqi, each apartment door has a QR code so police can easily see photos of the dwelling's authorised residents.
In 2017, new restrictions reported included people being fined heavily or subjected to programmes of "re-education" for refusing to eat during fasting in Ramadan, the detention of hundreds of Uyghurs as they returned from Islamic Middle Eastern pilgrimage, and many standard Muslim names, such as Muhammad, being banned for newborn children. In January 2018, Radio Free Asia released a report that alleged 120,000 Uyghurs deemed as "extremists" or political opponents were being held at "reeducation" camps in Kashgar by the government of China.
A United Front Work Department official acknowledged the existence of "vocational training centers" in Xinjiang. According to non-Chinese sources, these are internment camps for Uighurs, and in 2018 hold up to a million people. One location of these facilities is Turpan, which is has a razor wire topped wall and guard towers. The United States Department of State alleges that Kazakhs and other Muslims were also interned by the Chinese government in Xinjiang. In August 2018, a former interned Kazakh Chinese national gave testimony about the facilities in neighboring Kazakhstan. However, China denied the claims.
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Difficult to navigate; too much detail with not enough insight. Trends are more important than events – perhaps a timeline isn't the ideal format? If someone could make a table that would help. (October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The history of the region has become highly politicized, with both Chinese and nationalist Uyghur historians frequently overstating the extent of their groups' respective ties to the region. In reality, it has been home to many groups throughout history, with the Uyghurs arriving from Central Asia in the 10th century. During the Qing dynasty, cultural differences and colonialist policies led to repeated rebellions from a Muslim majority against Chinese minority rule.[additional citation(s) needed]
After the 1928 assassination of Yang Zengxin, governor of the semi-autonomous Kumul Khanate in east Xinjiang under the Republic of China, he was succeeded by Jin Shuren. On the death of the Kamul Khan Maqsud Shah in 1930, Jin abolished the Khanate entirely and took control of the region as warlord. Corruption, appropriation of land, and the commandeering of grain and livestock by Chinese military forces were all factors which led to the eventual Kumul Rebellion that established the First East Turkestan Republic in 1933. In 1934 it was conquered by warlord Sheng Shicai with the aid of the Soviet Union. Sheng's leadership was marked by heavy Soviet influence, with him openly offering Xinjiang's valuable natural resources in exchange for Soviet help in crushing revolts, such as in 1937. Although already in use,[b] it was in this period that the term "Uyghur" was first used officially over the generic "Turkic", as part of an effort to "undermine potential broader bases of identity" such as Turkic or Muslim. In 1942, Sheng sought reconciliation with the Republic of China, abandoning the Soviets.
In 1944 the Ili Rebellion led to the Second East Turkestan Republic. Though direct evidence of Soviet involvement remains circumstantial, and rebel forces were primarily made up of Turkic Muslims with the support of the local population, the new state was dependent on the Soviet Union for trade, arms, and "tacit consent" for its continued existence. When the Communists defeated the Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War, the Soviets helped the Communist People's Liberation Army recapture it, and it was absorbed into the People's Republic in 1949.
The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region was established in 1955.
From the 1950s to the 1970s, a state-orchestrated mass migration into Xinjiang has raised the number of Han from 7% to 40% of the population, exacerbating ethnic tensions. On the other hand, a declining infant-mortality rate, improved medical care and a laxity in China's one-child policy have helped the Uyghur population in Xinjiang grow from four million in the 1960s to eight million in 2001.
In 1968 the East Turkestan People's Party was the largest militant Uyghur separatist organization, and may have received support from the Soviet Union. During the 1970s, the Soviets supported the United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) to fight the Chinese.
Xinjiang's importance to China increased after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which led to China's perception of being encircled by the Soviets. China supported the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet invasion and broadcast reports of Soviet atrocities committed on Afghan Muslims to Uyghurs to counter Soviet broadcasts to Xinjiang that Soviet Muslim minorities had a better life. Anti-Soviet Chinese radio broadcasts targeted Central Asian ethnic minorities, such as the Kazakhs. The Soviets feared disloyalty by the non-Russian Kazakh, Uzbek and Kyrgyz in the event of a Chinese invasion of Soviet Central Asia, and Russians were taunted by Central Asians: "Just wait till the Chinese get here, they'll show you what's what!" Chinese authorities viewed Han migrants in Xinjiang as vital to defense against the Soviet Union. China established camps to train the Afghan mujahideen near Kashgar and Hotan, investing hundreds of millions of dollars in small arms, rockets, mines and anti-tank weapons. During the 1980s student demonstrations and riots against police action assumed an ethnic aspect, and the April 1990 Baren Township riot has been acknowledged as a turning point.
1990s to 2007Edit
China's "Strike Hard" campaign against crime, beginning in 1996, saw thousands of arrests, executions, and "constant human rights violations", as well as marked reduction in religious freedom. These policies, and a feeling of political marginalisation, contributed to the fermentation of groups who carried out numerous guerrilla operations, including sabotage and attacks on police barracks, and occasionally even acts of terrorism including bomb attacks and assassinations of government officials.
A February 1992 Urumqi bus bombing, attributed to the Shock Brigade of the Islamic Reformist Party, resulted in three deaths.
A police roundup and execution of 30 suspected separatists during Ramadan resulted in large demonstrations in February 1997, characterized as riots by Chinese media and peaceful by Western media. The demonstrations culminated in the 5 February Ghulja incident, in which a People's Liberation Army (PLA) crackdown led to at least nine deaths and possibly more than 100. The 25 February Ürümqi bus bombings killed nine people and injured 68. Responsibility for the attacks was acknowledged by Uyghur exile groups.
In Beijing's Xidan district, a bus bomb killed two people on 7 March 1997; Uyghur separatists claimed responsibility for the attack. Uyghur participation in the bombing was dismissed by the Chinese government, and the Turkish-based Organisation for East Turkistan Freedom admitted responsibility for the attack. The bus bombings triggered a change in policy, with China acknowledging separatist violence. The situation in Xinjiang quieted until mid-2006, although ethnic tensions remained.
According to Vaughan Winterbottom, although the Turkistan Islamic Party distributes propaganda videos and its Arabic Islamic Turkistan magazine (documented by Jihadology.net and the Jamestown Foundation) the Chinese government apparently denied the party's existence; China claimed that there was no terrorist connection to its 2008 bus bombings as the TIP claimed responsibility for the attacks. In 2007, police raided a suspected TIP terrorist training camp. The following year, an attempted suicide bombing on a China Southern Airlines flight was thwarted and the Kashgar attack resulted in the death of sixteen police officers four days before the beginning of the Beijing Olympics.
During the night of 25–26 June 2009, in the Shaoguan incident in Guangdong, two people were killed and 118 injured. The incident reportedly triggered the July 2009 Ürümqi riots; others were the September 2009 Xinjiang unrest and the 2010 Aksu bombing, after which 376 people were tried. The July 2011 Hotan attack led to the deaths of 18 civilians. Although the attackers were Uyghurs, Han and Uyghurs were victims. That year, six ethnic Uyghur men unsuccessfully attempted to hijack an aircraft heading to Ürümqi, a series of knife and bomb attacks occurred in July and the Pishan hostage crisis occurred in December. Credit for the attacks was professed by the Turkistan Islamic Party.
On 28 February 2012, an attack in Yecheng killed 24 and injured 18. On 24 April 2013, clashes in Bachu occurred between a group of armed men and social workers and police near Kashgar. The violence left at least 21 people dead, including 15 police and officials. According to a local government official, the clashes broke out after three other officials reported that suspicious men armed with knives were hiding in a house outside Kashgar. Two months later, on 26 June, 27 people were killed in riots in Shanshan; seventeen were killed by rioters, and the other ten were alleged assailants who were shot dead by police in the township of Lukqun.
In 2014, eleven members of an organization said to be an anti-China Uyghur group were killed by Kyrgyz security. They were identified as Uyghurs by their appearance, and their personal effects indicated that they were separatists.
On 1 March a group of knife-wielding terrorists attacked the Kunming Railway Station, killing 31 and injuring 141. China blamed Xinjiang militants for the attack, and over 380 people were arrested in the following crackdown. A captured attacker and three others were charged on 30 June. Three of the suspects were accused of "leading and organising a terror group and intentional homicide". They did not participate in the attack, since they had been arrested two days earlier. On 12 September, a Chinese court sentenced three people to death and one to life in prison for the attack. The attack was praised by ETIM.
On 18 April, a group of 16 Chinese citizens identified as ethnic Uyghurs engaged in a shootout with Vietnamese border guards after seizing their guns when they were being detained to be returned to China. Five Uyghurs and two Vietnamese guards died in the incident. Ten of the Uyghurs were men, and the rest were women and children.
Twelve days later, two attackers stabbed people before detonating their suicide vests at an Ürümqi train station. Three people, including the attackers, were killed.
On 22 May, two suicide car bombings occurred after the occupants threw explosives from their vehicles at an Ürümqi street market. The attacks killed 43 people and injured more than 90, the deadliest attack to date in the Xinjiang conflict. On 5 June, China sentenced nine people to death for terrorist attacks in Xinjiang.
According to the Xinhua News Agency, on 28 July 37 civilians were killed by a gang armed with knives and axes in the towns of Elixku and Huangdi in Shache County and 59 attackers were killed by security forces. Two hundred fifteen attackers were arrested after they stormed a police station and government offices. The agency also reported that 30 police cars were damaged or destroyed and dozens of Uyghur and Han Chinese civilians were killed or injured. The Uyghur American Association claimed that local Uyghurs had been protesting at the time of the attack. Two days later, the moderate imam of China's largest mosque was assassinated in Kashgar after morning prayers.
On 21 September, Xinhua reported that a series of bomb blasts killed 50 people in Luntai County, southwest of the regional capital Urumqi. The dead consisted of six civilians, four police officers and 44 "rioters".
On 12 October, four Uyghurs armed with knives and explosives attacked a farmers' market in Xinjiang. According to police, 22 people died (including police officers and the attackers).
On 29 November, 15 people were killed and 14 injured in a Shache County attack. Eleven of the killed were Uyghur militants.
On 18 September 2015 in Aksu, an unidentified group of knife-wielding terrorists attacked sleeping workers at a coalmine and killed 50 people. The Turkistan Islamic Party has claimed responsibility for the attack. On 18 November, a 56-day manhunt for the attackers reportedly concluded with Chinese security forces cornering them in a mountain hideout. Twenty-eight assailants were killed, and a sole survivor surrendered to authorities. The security forces forced their targets out with flamethrowers and gunned them down.
Anti-China protests in TurkeyEdit
On 4 July 2015, about 2,000 Grey Wolves linked to the MHP who were protesting China's fasting ban in Xinjiang mistakenly attacked South Korean tourists in Istanbul; China issued a travel warning to its citizens traveling to Turkey. A Uyghur employee of a Chinese restaurant was beaten by protesters. This event negatively impacted China–Turkey relations.
2015 Bangkok bombingEdit
The Bangkok bombing is suspected to have been carried out by the Turkish terrorist organisation known as the Grey Wolves in response to Thailand's deportation of 100 Uyghur asylum-seekers back to China. A Turkish man was arrested by Thai police in connection with the bombing and bomb-making materials were found in his apartment. Due to the terrorist risk and counterfeiting of passports, Uyghur foreigners in Thailand were placed under surveillance by Defence Minister Prawit Wongsuwon and Thai police were placed on alert after the arrival of two Turkish Uyghurs.
On 30 August 2016, the Kyrgyzstan Chinese Embassy was struck by a suicide bombing by an Uyghur, according to Kyrgyz news. The suicide bomber was the only fatality from the attack. The casualties included wounds suffered by Kyrgyz staff members and did not include Chinese. A Kyrgyzstan government agency pointed the finger at Nusra allied Syrian based Uyghurs.
Police killed 4 militants who carried out a bombing on 28 December 2016 in Karakax.
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) is an Islamic extremist terrorist organisation seeking the expulsion of China from "East Turkestan". Since its emergence in 2007 it has claimed responsibility for a number of terrorist attacks, and the Chinese government accuses it of over 200, resulting in 162 deaths and over 440 injuries. Hundreds of Uyghurs are thought to reside in Pakistan and Afghanistan and to have fought alongside extremist groups in conflicts such as the Syrian Civil War. However, the exact size of the Turkistan Islamic Party remains unknown and some experts dispute its ability to orchestrate attacks in China, or that is exists at all as a cohesive group.
The TIP is often assumed to be the same as the earlier East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), which has been effectively defunct since the death of its leader Hasan Mahsum in 2003. Although the names are often used synonymously, and China exclusively uses ETIM, the link between the two is still unproven.
The TIP are believed to have links to al-Qaeda and affiliated groups such as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and the Pakistani Taliban. Philip B. K. Potter writes that despite the fact that "throughout the 1990s, Chinese authorities went to great lengths to publicly link organizations active in Xinjiang—particularly the ETIM—to al-Qaeda [...] the best information indicates that prior to 2001, the relationship included some training and funding but relatively little operational cooperation." Meanwhile, specific incidents were downplayed by Chinese authorities as isolated criminal acts. However, in 1998 the group's headquarters were moved to Kabul, in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, while "China’s ongoing security crackdown in Xinjiang has forced the most militant Uyghur separatists into volatile neighboring countries, such as Pakistan," Potter writes, "where they are forging strategic alliances with, and even leading, jihadist factions affiliated with al-Qaeda and the Taliban." The East Turkestan Islamic Movement dropped "East" from its name as it increased its domain. The U.S. State Department have listed them as a terrorist organisation since 2002, and as having received "training and financial assistance" from al-Qaeda.
A number of members of al-Qaeda have expressed support for the TIP, Xinjiang independence, and/or jihad against China. They include Mustafa Setmariam Nasar, Abu Yahya al-Libi, and current al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri who has on multiple occasions issued statements naming Xinjiang (calling it "East Turkestan") as one of the "battlegrounds" of "jihad to liberate every span of land of the Muslims that has been usurped and violated." Additionally, the al-Qaeda aligned al-Fajr Media Center distributes TIP promotional material.
Andrew McGregor, writing for the Jamestown Foundation, notes that "though there is no question a small group of Uyghur militants fought alongside their Taliban hosts against the Northern Alliance [...] the scores of terrorists Beijing claimed that Bin Laden was sending to China in 2002 never materialized" and that "the TIP’s “strategy” of making loud and alarming threats (attacks on the Olympics, use of biological and chemical weapons, etc.) without any operational follow-up has been enormously effective in promoting China’s efforts to characterize Uyghur separatists as terrorists."
Hundreds of Uyghurs fleeing China through Southeast Asia have been deported back by the governments of Thailand, Malaysia, and others, drawing condemnation from the U.S., the UN refugee agency, and human rights groups. The U.S. State Department said deported Uyghurs "could face harsh treatment and a lack of due process" while the UNHCR and Human Rights Watch have called the deportations a violation of international law.
Following the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, China reportedly lobbied Egypt, Saudi Arabia and others to prevent a statement by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation condemning China's response to the unrest.
Turkish Trade and Industry Minister Nihat Ergun urged Turks to boycott Chinese goods in response to China's behaviour in Xinjiang. However, according to Rebiya Kadeer, Turkey is hampered in substantially interfering with the Uyghurs because its own Kurdish issue could trigger retaliatory interference from China.
- The People's Republic, founded in 1949, banned private confessional teaching from the early 1950s to the 1980s, until a more liberal stance allowed religious mosque education to resume and private Muslim schools to open. Moreoever, except in Xinjiang for fear of secessionist feelings, the government allowed and sometimes encouraged the founding of private Muslim schools in order to provide education for people who could not attend increasingly expensive state schools or who left them early, for lack of money or lack of satisfactory achievements.
- The First East Turkestan Republic had considered the name "Uyghuristan", with some early coins bearing that name, but settled on the "East Turkestan Republic" on the basis that there were other Turkic peoples in Xinjiang and the new government.
- Millward, James (2004). "Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment" (PDF). Policy Studies. 6: 6. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "China: The Evolution of ETIM". Stratfor. 13 May 2008.
- Potter, Philip B. K. (Winter 2013). "Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications" (PDF). Strategic Studies Quarterly. 7 (4): 71–74.
- Reed & Raschke (2010), p. 37.
- Associate Professor Department of International Relations Jae Ho Chung; Jae Ho Chung; Tao-chiu Lam (16 October 2009). China's Local Administration: Traditions and Changes in the Sub-National Hierarchy. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-135-20372-6.
- Wong, Edward (25 August 2009). "Chinese President Visits Volatile Xinjiang". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- Collins, Gabe (23 January 2015). "Beijing's Xinjiang Policy: Striking Too Hard?". The Diplomat.
China’s long-running Uighur insurgency has flared up dramatically of late, with more than 900 recorded deaths in the past seven years.
- Martina, Michael; Blanchard, Ben (20 November 2015). "China says 28 foreign-led 'terrorists' killed after attack on mine". Reuters.
China’s government says it faces a serious threat from Islamist militants and separatists in energy-rich Xinjiang, on the border of central Asia, where hundreds have died in violence in recent years.
- Ismail, Mohammed Sa'id; Ismail, Mohammed Aziz (1960) [Hejira 1380], Muslims in the Soviet Union and China (Privately printed pamphlet), 1, Translated by U.S. Government, Joint Publications Service, Tehran, Iran, p. 52 translation printed in Washington: JPRS 3936, 19 September 1960.
- Dwyer, Arienne M. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur identity, Language, Policy, and Political discourse (PDF) (Report). Policy Studies 15. East West Center.
- "Borders | Uyghurs and The Xinjiang Conflict : East Turkestan Independence Movement". apps.cndls.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- "Devastating Blows: Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Post 9/11: labeling Uighurs terrorists. 17 (2): 16. April 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- Phillips, Tom (25 January 2018). "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". the Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Huang, Echo. "China is confiscating the passports of citizens in its Muslim-heavy region". Quartz. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Kennedy, Lindsey; Paul, Nathan. "China created a new terrorist threat by repressing this ethnic minority". qz.com. Quartz. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- "East Turkistan". World Uyghur Congress. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- (in Chinese) 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料，民族出版社 ("Year 2000 China census materials: Ethnic groups population". Minzu Publishing House)，2003/9 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
- Gladney, Dru C. (2004). "The Chinese Program of Development and Control, 1978–2001". In S. Frederick Starr. Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 112–114. ISBN 978-0-7656-1318-9.
- Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam (16 February 2000). "Uyghur "separatism": China's policies in Xinjiang fuel dissent". Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- Jiang, Wenran (6 July 2009). "New Frontier, same problems". The Globe and Mail. p. parag. 10. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
But just as in Tibet, the local population has viewed the increasing unequal distribution of wealth and income between China's coastal and inland regions, and between urban and rural areas, with an additional ethnic dimension. Most are not separatists, but they perceive that most of the economic opportunities in their homeland are taken by the Han Chinese, who are often better educated, better connected, and more resourceful. The Uyghurs also resent discrimination against their people by the Han, both in Xinjiang and elsewhere.
- Ramzy, Austin (14 July 2009). "Why the Uighurs feel left out of China's boom". Time. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Larson, Christina (9 July 2009). "How China Wins and Loses Xinjiang". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2005). Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han nationalist imperatives and Uyghur discontent (PDF). Political Studies 15. Washington: East-West Center. p. 4. ISBN 1-932728-20-1.
- Dillon, Michael (2004). Xinjiang – China's Muslim Far Northwest. RoutledgeCurzon. p. 51. ISBN 0-415-32051-8.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2005). Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han nationalist imperatives and Uyghur discontent (PDF). Political Studies 15. Washington: East-West Center. p. 19. ISBN 1-932728-20-1.
- "Borders | Uyghurs and The Xinjiang Conflict : East Turkestan Independence Movement". apps.cndls.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- "China's Minorities and Government Implementation of the Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law". Congressional-Executive Commission on China. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
[Uyghurs] live in cohesive communities largely separated from Han Chinese, practice major world religions, have their own written scripts, and have supporters outside of China. Relations between these minorities and Han Chinese have been strained for centuries.
- Sautman, Barry (1997). "Preferential policies for ethnic minorities in China: The case of Xinjiang" (PDF). Working Papers in the Social Sciences. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (32): 35. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Moore, Malcolm (7 July 2009). "Urumqi riots signal dark days ahead". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2005). Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han nationalist imperatives and Uyghur discontent (PDF). Political Studies 15. Washington: East-West Center. pp. 34–5. ISBN 1-932728-20-1.
- Sautman, Barry (1997). "Preferential policies for ethnic minorities in China: The case of Xinjiang" (PDF). Working Papers in the Social Sciences. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (32): 29–31. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Pei, Minxin (9 July 2009). "Uighur riots show need for rethink by Beijing". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
Han Chinese view the Uighurs as harbouring separatist aspirations and being disloyal and ungrateful, in spite of preferential policies for ethnic minority groups.
- "The government in Xinjiang is trying to limit Muslim births". The Economist. 7 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Alles, Elisabeth; Cherif-Chebbi, Leila; Halfon, Constance-Helene (2003). "Chinese Islam: Unity and Fragmentation" (PDF). Religion, State & Society. 31 (1): 14.
- Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2005), p. 160.
- Szadziewski, Henryk (19 March 2013). "Religious Repression of Uyghurs in East Turkestan". Venn Institute. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- Versteegh & Eid (2005), p. 383
- Su Jinbao (8 November 2015). "Chinese-Arabic School Muslim Students Graduation Ceremony 临夏中阿学校第二十二届毕业典礼 金镖阿訇讲话2007" – via YouTube.
- Su Jinbao (8 November 2015). "Chinese Muslim Makes a Speech in Islamic Girls' School 老华寺女校举行演讲仪式 上集" – via YouTube.
- nottc (11 September 2011). "Muslim in China, Graduation ceremony of a Islamic girls' school" – via YouTube.
- Beech, Hannah (12 August 2014). "If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?". Time. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2005).
- Bovingdon (2010).
- Savadove, Bill (17 August 2005). "Faith Flourishes in an Arid Wasteland". South China Morning Post.
- Crane, Brent (22 August 2014). "A Tale of Two Chinese Muslim Minorities". The Diplomat.
- Rudelson (1997), pp. 46-47.
- "Central Asia Monitor". 1993: 19.[full citation needed]
- Mackerras (2003), p. 118.
- Svanberg & Westerlund (2012), p. 202.
- Rudelson (1997), p. 81.
- Rudelson (1997), p. 129.
- Svanberg & Westerlund (2012), p. 205.
- Finley (2013), p. 236.
- Finley (2013), p. 237.
- Finley (2013), p. 238.
- Finley (2013), p. 240.
- "Xinjiang: The race card". The Economist. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "An American agency denounces the treatment of Muslims in China". The Economist. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "China Bans List of Islamic Names, Including 'Muhammad', in Xinjiang Region". Bloomberg News. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Around 120,000 Uyghurs Detained For Political Re-Education in Xinjiang's Kashgar Prefecture". Radio Free Asia. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Phillips, Tom (25 January 2018). "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Regencia, Ted. "Escape from Xinjiang: Muslim Uighurs speak of China persecution". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- Dou, Eva; Page, Jeremy; Chin, Josh (17 August 2018). "China's Uighur Camps Swell as Beijing Widens the Dragnet". Wall Street Journal. United States. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Finnegan, Conor (17 August 2018). "US says number of Muslim minorities in Chinese internment camps may be 'in the millions'". ABC News. United States. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Rauhala, Emily (17 August 2018). "New evidence emerges of China forcing Muslims into 'reeducation' camps". Washington Post. United States. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Nebehay, Stephanie. "China rejects allegations of detaining million Uighurs in camps in..." U.S. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- Gardner Bovingdon (6 August 2010). The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. Columbia University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-231-51941-0.
- Wong, Edward (18 November 2008). "The Dead Tell a Tale China Doesn't Care to Listen To". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Benson (1990), p. 34.
- Forbes (1986), p. 45.
- Forbes (1986), pp. 46.
- Millward (2007), p. 341.
- Dillon (2014), p. 36.
- Starr (2004), p. 80.
- Starr (2004), p. 78.
- Benson (1990), p. 40–41.
- Bhattacharji, Preeti. "Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Guerif, Valentine. "Making States, Displacing Peoples: A Comparative Perspective of Xinjiang and Tibet in the People's Republic of China" (PDF). Refugee Studies Centre. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Howell, Anthony; Fan, C. Cindy. "Migration and Inequality in Xinjiang: A Survey of Han and Uyghur Migrants in Urumqi" (PDF). Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Veeck et al. (2011), pp. 102–103.
- Dillon (2003), p. 57.
- Clarke (2011), p. 69.
- Nathan & Scobell (2008), p. 278.
- Clarke (2011), p. 76.
- "Radio war aims at China Moslems". The Montreal Gazette. 22 September 1981. p. 11.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (28 May 2010). "China and Kazakhstan: A Two-Way Street". Bloomberg Businessweek. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015.
- Meehan, Dallace L., LCol (May 1980). "Ethnic Minorities in the Soviet Military: implications for the decades ahead". Air University Review. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014.
- Clarke (2011), p. 78.
- Starr (2004), p. 149, 159.
- Shawn M. Patrick (20 May 2010). The Uyghur Movement: China’s Insurgency in Xinjiang (PDF) (Report). School of Advanced Military Studies. p. 32. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Castets, Rémi (2003). "The Uyghurs in Xinjiang – The Malaise Grows". China Perspectives. French Centre for Research on Contemporary China. 49.
- on YouTube
- "Xinjiang to intensify crackdown on separatists". China Daily News. 25 October 2001.
- "China: Remember the Gulja massacre? China's crackdown on peaceful protesters". Amnesty International. 2 January 2007.
- "China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch. October 2001.
- Lecturer in Modern Chinese History in the Department of East Asian Studies Michael Dillon; Michael Dillon (23 October 2003). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-1-134-36096-3.
- James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 333–. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
- Debata (2007), p. 170.
- Dru C. Gladney. "Internal Colonialism and the Uyghur Nationality: Chinese Nationalism and its Subaltern Subjects". Cemoti.revues.org. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
- Hierman, Brent (May 2007). "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988–2002". Problems of Post-Communism. 54 (3): 48–62. doi:10.2753/PPC1075-8216540304.
- "Raid by Chinese Kills 18 At Alleged Terror Camp". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
- Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth (18 April 2008). "China confronts its Uyghur threat". Asia Times Online.
- Jacobs, Andrew (5 August 2008). "Ambush in China Raises Concerns as Olympics Near". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Guangdong toy factory brawl leaves 2 dead, 118 injured -- china.org.cn". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 2016-11-01.
- "China prosecuted hundreds over Xinjiang unrest". London: The Guardian. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- Choi, Chi-yuk (22 July 2011). "Ban on Islamic dress sparked Uygur attack". South China Morning Post. Hotan, China.
- Krishnan, Ananth (21 July 2011). "Analysts see Pakistan terror links to Xinjiang attack". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Seven 'kidnappers' killed in China's Xinjiang". BBC News. 2011-12-29. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- Lee, Raymond (20 February 2014). "Unrest in Xinjiang, Uyghur Province in China". Al Jazeera Center for Studies.
- "Deadly knife attack reported in China". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-10-17.
- "China's Xinjiang hit by deadly clashes". BBC News. 24 April 2013.
- "Violence in western Chinese region of Xinjiang kills 21". CNN. 24 April 2013.
- "21 dead in Xinjiang terrorist clash". CNTV. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Violence erupts in China's restive Xinjiang". Al Jazeera. 24 April 2013.
- "State media: Violence leaves 27 dead in restive minority region in far western China". Washington Post. 26 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013.
- "Two 'plane hijackers' die in China's Xinjiang". BBC News. 2 July 2012.
- Oliver, Amy (2 July 2012). "Two men suspected of trying to hijack a flight in China were beaten to death by passengers". The Daily Mail.
- "Chinese embassy blast: Car bomb attack in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan". BBC.com.
- "Kyrgyzstan says kills 11 Uighur militants near Chinese border". Reuters. 24 January 2014.
- "Unidentified Assailant kills 29 at Kunming Railway Station in China". Biharprabha News. Indo-Asian News Service.
- Blanchard, Ben (1 March 2014). "China blames Xinjiang militants for station attack". Chicago Tribune. Reuters.
- "China charges four in Kunming attack, sentences 113 on terror crimes". Reuters. 30 June 2014.
- "Four sentenced in China over Kunming station attack". BBC News. Reuters. 12 September 2014.
- "Three get death for China train station attack". Reuters. 12 September 2014.
- "「東トルキスタンイスラム運動」、昆明の無差別殺傷事件を支持＝新疆政策の再検討を要求―仏メディア". Record China. 19 March 2014.
- Wong, Edward (20 April 2014). "Deadly Clash Reported on Border of China and Vietnam". The New York Times.
- Wong, Edward (21 April 2014). "Vietnam Returns Migrants to China After Deadly Border Clash". The New York Times.
- "Seven killed in China-Vietnam border shootout". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 April 2014.
- "Shooting sounds alarm for cross-border activities". Global Times. 21 April 2014.
- "7 die in shooting at China-Vietnam border". World Uyghur Congress. 19 April 2014 – via Washington Post.
- "Deadly China blast at Xinjiang railway station". BBC. 30 April 2014.
- Li, Jing; Wan, Adrian (30 April 2014). "Security tightened after three killed in bomb, knife attack at Urumqi train station". South China Morning Post.
- "Urumqi car and bomb attack kills dozens". The Guardian. 22 May 2014.
- Jacobs, Andrew (23 May 2014). "Residents Try to Move On After Terrorist Attack in China". The New York Times.
- Denyer, Simon (22 May 2014). "Terrorist attack on market in China's restive Xinjiang region kills more than 30". The Washington Post.
- Bodeen, Christopher (5 June 2014). "China Sentences 9 Persons to Death for Xinjiang Attacks". Time. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
- "Xinjiang violence: China says 'gang' killed 37 last week". BBC News. 3 August 2014.
- Levin, Dan. "At Least 50 Killed in Xinjiang Violence, Officials Say". The New York Times.
- "22 Killed in Farmers' Market Attack in Xinjiang's Kashgar Prefecture". Radio Free Asia. 18 October 2014.
- "China says 15 killed in "terrorist attack" in Xinjiang". Yahoo! News. 29 November 2014 – via Agence-France Presse.
- "عملية أظهرت عجز سلطات الصين" (PDF). تركستان الإسلامية. No. العدد 19. رجب - 1437 هـ. p. 25. Check date values in:
- "Chinese forces 'kill 17 in Xinjiang' after colliery attack". BBC News. 18 November 2015.
- "VIDEO: Turkish nationalists protesting China attack Korean tourists in Istanbul". Hurriyet Daily News. Doğan News Agency. 4 July 2015.
- "Turks protesting against China attack Koreans 'by mistake'". Malay Mail. Agence France-Presse. 5 July 2014.
- "China says tourists attacked in Turkey during anti-China protests". Reuters. 5 July 2015.
- Plis, Ivan (30 June 2015). "Turks Protesting China Pick Random Chinese Restaurant, Trash It". Daily Caller.
- "Beijing troubled by Turkish anti-China protests". Anadolu Agency. 7 June 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Murdoch, Lindsay (30 August 2015). "Bangkok bombing: Who are the Turkish terrorist group the Grey Wolves?". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Cunningham, Susan (30 August 2015). "Thailand's Shrine Bombing - The Case For Turkey's Grey Wolves". Forbes Magazine.
- "Police arrest Erawan blast suspect". Bangkok Post. 29 August 2015.
- Nanuam, Wassana (7 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance". Bangkok Post.
- "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance". Thailand News. 7 April 2016.
- "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance in Thailand". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 7 April 2016.
- Balasubramanian, Jaishree (7 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance in Thailand". Inida Today. Press Trust of India.
- Charuvastra, Teeranai (8 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen Militants in Thailand to Stage Attacks, Memo Warns". Khaosod.
- O'Grady, Siobhán (30 August 2016) [12:35 pm]. "Questions of Responsibility Loom After Attack on Chinese Embassy in Kyrgyzstan". Foreign Policy.
- NECHEPURENKO, IVAN (30 August 2016). "Suicide Bomber Attacks Chinese Embassy in Kyrgyzstan". The New York Times. MOSCOW.
- Dzyubenko, Olga (7 September 2016). "Kyrgyzstan says Uighur militant groups behind attack on China's embassy". Reuters. BISHKEK.
- "Five dead in attack in China's Xinjiang". Reuters. 28 December 2016.
- "Knife-wielding attackers kill five in China's Xinjiang: govt". Reuters. 14 February 2017.
- "China knife attack: Eight dead in Xinjiang region". BBC News. 15 February 2017.
- Bashir, Shaykh (1 July 2008). "Why Are We Fighting China?" (PDF). NEFA Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Kaiman, Jonathan (25 November 2013). "Islamist group claims responsibility for attack on China's Tiananmen Square". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Weiss, Caleb (30 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party had significant role in recent Idlib offensive". The Long War Journal.
- Mehsud, Saud; Golovnina, Maria (14 March 2014). "From his Pakistan hideout, Uighur leader vows revenge on China". Reuters. DERA ISMAIL KHAN/ISLAMABAD.
- Johnson, Ian. "Q. and A.: Nick Holdstock on Xinjiang and 'China's Forgotten People'". Sinosphere Blog. New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Zenn, Jacob (23 May 2014). "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists". China Brief. Jamestown Foundation. 14 (10).
- A. Acharya; R. Gunaratna; W. Pengxin (21 June 2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- Foreign terrorist organizations (PDF) (Report). U.S. State Department. p. 237. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Individuals and Entities Designated by the State Department Under E.O. 13224". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (aliases Abu Musab al-Suri and Umar Abd al-Hakim) (1999). "Muslims in Central Asia and The Coming Battle of Islam".
- "Turkistan Islamic Party Video Attempts to Explain Uyghur Militancy to Chinese". Raffaello Pantucci. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Zenn, Jacob (29 April 2016). "An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq | The Jamestown Foundation". Jamestown.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Zawahiri endorses war in Kashmir but says don't hit Hindus in 'Muslim lands'". The Indian Express. Reuters. 17 September 2013.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (13 August 2015). "Ayman al-Zawahiri's Pledge of Allegiance to New Taliban Leader Mullah Muhammad Mansour". Middle East Forum.
- "Al-Qaeda urges fight against West and Russia". Cairo: Al Arabiya. Reuters. 2 November 2015.
- Abdelaty, Ali; Knecht, Eric (1 November 2015). Williams, Alison, ed. "Al Qaeda chief urges militant unity against Russia in Syria". Reuters.
- Shih, Gerry (2016-09-10). "Rising Uighur militancy changes security landscape for China". Associated Press. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- "TIP Enters Jihadist Mainstream | Articles & Analysis". News.siteintelgroup.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- McGregor, Andrew (11 March 2010). "Will Xinjiang's Turkistani Islamic Party Survive the Drone Missile Death of its Leader?". Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 8 (10).
- Putz, Catherine. "Thailand Deports 100 Uyghurs to China". The Diplomat (11 July 2015). Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Foreign reaction: Thailand condemned over Uighur". Bangkok Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "HRW condemns Malaysia for deporting Uighurs". www.unhcr.org. Agence France Presse.
- "Xinjiang: PRC scramble to avoid anti-Islam image abroad and kill OIC declaration". Wikileaks. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Xinjiang: China reportedly defeated OIC statement on Uighurs, seeking observership". Wikileaks. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Turkey attacks China 'genocide'". BBC News. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Kadeer (2009), p. 273.
- Terri Moon Cronk (7 Feb 2018). "U.S. Forces Strike Taliban, East Turkestan Islamic Movement Training Sites". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 8 Feb 2018.
- "Consolidated TEXT: 32002R0881 — EN — 10.10.2015". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Acharya, Arabinda; Gunaratna, Rohan; Pengxin, Wang (2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- Al-Tamimi, Naser M. (2013). China-Saudi Arabia Relations, 1990-2012: Marriage of Convenience Or Strategic Alliance?. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-46153-0.
- Bellér-Hann, Ildikó, ed. (2007). Situating the Uyghurs Between China and Central Asia (illustrated ed.). Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-7041-4. ISSN 1759-5290. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Benson, Linda (1990). The Ili Rebellion: the Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-509-7.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2010). The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-2315-1941-9.
- Bulag, Uradyn E. (2010). Collaborative Nationalism: The Politics of Friendship on China's Mongolian Frontier. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-0433-1.
- Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia - A History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-1368-2706-4. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Debata, Mahesh Ranjan (2007). China's Minorities: Ethnic-religious Separatism in Xinjiang. Pentagon Press. ISBN 978-81-8274-325-0.
- Dillon, Michael (2014). Xinjiang and the Expansion of Chinese Communist Power: Kashgar in the Early Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-64721-8.
- Dillon, Michael (2008). Contemporary China - An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 1-1342-9054-3. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dillon, Michael (2003). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. ISBN 1-1343-6096-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Finley, Joanne N. Smith (2013). The Art of Symbolic Resistance: Uyghur Identities and Uyghur-Han Relations in Contemporary Xinjiang. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-25678-1.
- Forbes, Andrew D. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949 W. (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-5514-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Gladney, Dru C. (1991). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic. Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 978-0-674-59496-8.
- Gladney, Dru C. (1996). Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-59497-5.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-29776-7.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2013). "The Salafiyya Movement in Northwest China: Islamic Fundamentalism among the Muslim Chinese?". In Manger, Leif. Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-81857-8.
- Harris, Rachel (2004). Singing the Village: Music, Memory and Ritual Among the Sibe of Xinjiang. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1972-6297-9.
- Kadeer, Rebiya (2009). Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China. Alexandra Cavelius (illustrated ed.). Kales Press. ISBN 0-9798-4561-0. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Karagiannis, Emmanuel (2009). Political Islam in Central Asia: The Challenge of Hizb Ut-Tahrir. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-23942-8.
- Liew, Leong H.; Wang, Shaoguang, eds. (2004). Nationalism, Democracy and National Integration in China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0203404297. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Mackerras, Colin (2003). China's Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation. Routledge. ISBN 1-1343-9288-5. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-2311-3924-1. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Nathan, Andrew James; Scobell, Andrew (2013). China's Search for Security. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-2315-1164-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Reed, J. Todd; Raschke, Diana (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-3133-6540-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Rudelson, Justin Jon (1997). Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-2311-0786-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Safran, William (1998). Nationalism and ethnoregional identities in China. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-7146-4921-X.
- Sautman, Barry (2000). "Legal Reform and Minority Rights in China". In Nagel, Stuart. Handbook of Global Legal Policy. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-7892-7.
- Schein, Louisa (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X.
- Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). U.S. State Department, ed. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004 (Report). Government Printing Office. ISBN 0-1607-2552-6.
- Starr, S. Frederick, ed. (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Steele, Jonathan (24 October 1984). Soviet Power. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-52813-3.
- Svanberg, Ingvar; Westerlund, David (2012). Islam Outside the Arab World. Routledge. ISBN 1-136-11330-4. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Tanner, Harold Miles (2009). China: a history. Hackett. ISBN 0-87220-915-6.
- Iredale, Robyn R.; Bilik, Naran; Guo, Fei (2003). China's minorities on the move: selected case studies. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1023-X.
- Veeck, Gregory; Pannell, Clifton W.; Smith, Christopher J.; Huang, Youqin (2011). China's Geography: Globalization and the Dynamics of Political, Economic, and Social Change. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-6784-9.
- Versteegh, Kees; Eid, Mushira (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6.
- Wang, Gungwu; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2008). China and the New International Order (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-203-93226-9. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Wayne, Martin I. (2007). China's War on Terrorism: Counter-Insurgency, Politics and Internal Security. Routledge. ISBN 1134106238. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wong, John; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2002). China's Post-Jiang Leadership Succession: Problems and Perspectives. World Scientific. ISBN 9-812-70650-X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Central Asia Monitor. Contributor Institute for Democratic Development. Central Asia Monitor. 1993. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司); Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司) (2003). 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 [Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China] (in Chinese). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社). ISBN 7-105-05425-5.
- Nyíri, Pál; Breidenbach, Joana (2005). China Inside Out: Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-14-1.