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Ma Chengxiang (1914–1991) (simplified Chinese: 马呈祥; traditional Chinese: 馬呈祥; pinyin: Mǎ Chéngxiáng; Wade–Giles: Ma Chêng-hsiang, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﭼْﻊ ﺷِﯿْﺎ‎)[2] was a Chinese Muslim general in the National Revolutionary Army. He was the son of Ma Qing (馬慶) and nephew of generals Ma Buqing and Ma Bufang. A daughter of Ma Buqing was married to him. He commanded Hui cavalry in Xinjiang, the 5th cavalry army. Ma was a member of the Chinese Nationalist Kuomintang party and a hardliner.[3][4][5] Ma Chengxiang commanded the Xinjiang First Cavalry Division, which was formerly stationed in Gansu where it was known as the Fifth Cavalry Army.

Ma Chengxiang, 馬呈祥
AllegianceFlag of the Republic of China Republic of China
Years of service1936 - 1969
RankLieutenant General
Unit5th Cavalry Army[1]
Battles/warsIli Rebellion, Pei-ta-shan Incident, Chinese Civil War, Ningxia Campaign

He commanded Chinese Muslim troops against the Uighur armies of the Second East Turkestan Republic during the Ili Rebellion[6][7][8] and against the People's Liberation Army in Xinjiang, Ningxia, and Gansu. His cavalry was deployed during the Ningxia Campaign. Ma Chengxiang, the nationalist cavalry commander in Xinjiang, led 200-300 civilians and military men such as officers and soldiers and their families fleeing China to settle in Saudi Arabia, with his uncle, Ma Bufang.[9] His family fled Qinghai to go to Hong Kong as a stopover, then fled to Egypt.[10]

According to Jack Chen, Ma Chengxiang used his Chinese Muslim cavalry to put down a revolt of Uyghurs during an uprising in 1948 in Turfan.[11]

Elite Qinghai Chinese Muslim cavalry were sent by the Chinese Kuomintang to destroy the Mongols and the Russians in 1947 during the Pei-ta-shan Incident.[12][13]

Ma was appointed as the commander of all the cavalry forces of the Kuomintang in Xinjiang. When the Communists invaded Xinjiang, Ma fled via the Pamirs in 1950 through India, then reached Egypt. Later, Ma Chengxiang returned to Taiwan, Republic of China in 1950, where his father Ma Buqing had fled. Ma Bufang stayed in Egypt. He resumed his job as a General and was elected to the Seventh Central Committee of the Kuomintang. He also became the Deputy General Officer Commanding Penghu Defense Command in 1956 and was appointed to the Planning Commission for the Recovery of the Mainland.[2]

While Ma had fled to Taiwan, Han Youwen defected to the Communists.[14][15][16][17][18][18][19] One of Ma Chengxiang's Hui officers, Ma Fuchen 馬輔臣, defected to the Communists.[20][21]

Han Youwen wrote a letter to Ma Chengxiang after nearly 40 years of no contact.[15][22][23] Ma Chengxiang met Han Youwen in Hong Kong.[24]


  • 1943 General Officer Commanding 5th Cavalry Army
  • 1947 General Officer Commanding 1st Cavalry Division
  • 1949 General Officer Commanding Cavalry Forces in Xinjiang


  1. ^ Charles D. Pettibone (May 2013). The Organization and Order of Battle of Militaries in World War II: Volume VIII ? China. Trafford Publishing. pp. 322–. ISBN 978-1-4669-9646-5.
  2. ^ a b Steen Ammentorp (2000–2009). "The Generals of WWII Generals from China Ma Chengxiang". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  3. ^ David D. Wang (1999). Under the Soviet shadow: the Yining Incident : ethnic conflicts and international rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. pp. 373, 453. ISBN 962-201-831-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  4. ^ Marc Gaborieau; Véronique Bouillier; Catherine Servan Schreiber (2004). De l'Arabie à l'Himalaya: chemins croisés : en hommage à Marc Gaborieau. Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 395. ISBN 2-7068-1767-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  5. ^ Jeremy Brown; Paul Pickowicz (2007). Dilemmas of victory: the early years of the People's Republic of China. Harvard University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-674-02616-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember, Human Relations Area Files, inc, Ian A. Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Springer. p. 115. ISBN 0-306-48321-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Jeremy Brown; Paul Pickowicz (2007). Dilemmas of victory: the early years of the People's Republic of China. Harvard University Press. p. 192. ISBN 0-674-02616-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  11. ^ Jack Chen (1977). The Sinkiang story. Macmillan. p. 263. ISBN 0-02-524640-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  12. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 214. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  13. ^ Dickens, Mark. "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949". Oxus Communications. Archived from the original on 2008-10-23. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2012-09-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2012-09-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2011-04-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

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