This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Uyghur nationalism, or the East Turkestan independence movement, is the notion that the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group who primarily inhabit China's Xinjiang region (or "East Turkestan"), should form an independent state. Unlike the Han Chinese population, dominant throughout most of China, Uyghurs speak the Uyghur language and are generally Muslim.
The history of the region has become highly politicized, with nationalist Uyghur historians frequently overstating the extent of their group's respective ties to the region. In reality, it has been home to many groups throughout history, with East Asians arriving at least 3000 years ago, the Han arriving around 200-100 BC during the Han dynasty and the Uyghurs arriving from Mongolia in the 10th century. The Uyghurs were initially Buddhist but then were forced to convert to Islam by the Kara-Khanid Khanate (see History of Xinjiang).
By the 20th century Uyghurs made up the majority of the population. In 1933 and 1944 attempts were made--backed by the Soviets, Europeans, and Americans--to declare an independent republic, but the first of these collapsed and the second was absorbed into People's Republic of China in 1949.
Since then, a mass migration from the 1950s to the 1970s has brought millions of ethnic Han Chinese into Xinjiang. During the Cold War the Soviets spread propaganda trying to appeal to the Uyghurs and hoping to divide the region.
In the wake of the 21st century, with terrorist attacks across Europe and even the US (2004 Madrid train bombings and September 11 attacks) extremist Islamic terrorists have sought to sway the Uyghurs into attacking China as well. There have been a number of terrorist attacks on China since, part of the greater Xinjiang conflict and wider public unrest with Uyghurs even attacking Han Chinese (such as the July 2009 Ürümqi riots). So the PRC has been working to increase security in the region.
There is no single Uyghur agenda, and separatist organizations include both the World Uyghur Congress, led by Rabiya Kadeer, who lives in exile, and active terrorist organizations such as the Turkistan Islamic Party (often referred to as the "East Turkestan Islamic Movement" or ETIM) which often see the Uyghur struggle as part of a larger global jihad. Some groups, such as the East Turkestan Liberation Organization, are labelled as terrorists by China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan among others.
The TIP has frequently collaborated with Al-Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant to release terrorist videos threatening violent attacks on China and including racist remarks such as saying the Han and Buddhists have "small eyes."
The name "East Turkestan" was created by the Russian Sinologist Nikita Bichurin to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829. "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin, and not Xinjiang as a whole, with Dzungaria being excluded from the area consisting of "East Turkestan".
Xinjiang before the Qing dynasty did not exist as one unit. It consisted of the two separate political entities of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Eastern Turkestan). There was the Zhunbu (Dzungar region) and Huibu (Muslim region) Dzungharia or Ili was called Zhunbu 準部 (Dzungar region) Tianshan Beilu 天山北麓 (Northern March), "Xinjiang" 新疆 (New Frontier), Dzongarie, Djoongaria, Soungaria, or "Kalmykia" (La Kalmouquie in French). It was formerly the area of the Zunghar Khanate 準噶爾汗國, the land of the Dzungar Oirat Mongols. The Tarim Basin was known as "Tianshan Nanlu 天山南路 (southern March), Huibu 回部 (Muslim region), Huijiang 回疆 (Muslim frontier), Chinese Turkestan, Kashgaria, Little Bukharia, East Turkestan", and the traditional Uyghur name for it was Altishahr (Uyghur: التى شهر, ULY: Altä-shähär, USY: Алта-шаһар). It was formerly the area of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate 東察合台汗國, land of the Uyghur people before being conquered by the Dzungars. The Chinese Repository said that "Neither the natives nor the Chinese appear to have any general name to designate the Mohammedan colonies. They are called Kashgar, Bokhára, Chinese Turkestan, &c., by foreigners, none of which seem to be very appropriate. They have also been called Jagatai, after a son of Genghis khan, to whom this country fell as his portion after his father's death, and be included all the eight Mohammedan cities, with some of the surrounding countries, in one kingdom. It is said to have remained in this family, with some interruptions, until conquered by the Eleuths of Soungaria in 1683."
Between Jiayu Guan's west and Urumchi's East, an area of Xiniiang was also designated as Tianshan Donglu 天山東路 (Eastern March). The three routes that made up Xinjiang werea Tarim Basin (southern route), Dzungaria (northern route), and the Turfan Basin (eastern route with Turfan, Hami, and Urumqi).
Republic of ChinaEdit
Pan-Mongolian movements in XinjiangEdit
Mongols have at times advocated for the historical Oirat Dzungar Mongol area of Dzungaria in northern Xinjiang to be annexed to the Mongolian state in the name of Pan-Mongolism.
Legends grew among the remaining Oirats that Amursana had not died after he fled to Russia, but was alive and would return to his people to liberate them from Manchu Qing rule and restore the Oirat nation. Prophecies had been circulating about the return of Amursana and the revival of the Oirats in the Altai region. The Oirat Kalmyk Ja Lama claimed to be a grandson of Amursana and then claimed to be a reincarnation of Amursana himself, preaching anti-Manchu propaganda in western Mongolia in the 1890s and calling for the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. Ja Lama was arrested and deported several times. However, he returned to the Oirat Torghuts in Altay (in Dzungaria) in 1910 and in 1912 he helped the Outer Mongolians mount an attack on the last Qing garrison at Kovd, where the Manchu Amban was refusing to leave and fighting the newly declared independent Mongolian state. The Manchu Qing force was defeated and slaughtered by the Mongols after Khovd fell.
Ja Lama told the Oirat remnants in Xinjiang: "I am a mendicant monk from the Russian Tsar's kingdom, but I am born of the great Mongols. My herds are on the Volga river, my water source is the Irtysh. There are many hero warriors with me. I have many riches. Now I have come to meet with you beggars, you remnants of the Oirats, in the time when the war for power begins. Will you support the enemy? My homeland is Altai, Irtysh, Khobuk-sari, Emil, Bortala, Ili, and Alatai. This is the Oirat mother country. By descent, I am the great-grandson of Amursana, the reincarnation of Mahakala, owning the horse Maralbashi. I am he whom they call the hero Dambijantsan. I came to move my pastures back to my own land, to collect my subject households and bondservants, to give favour, and to move freely."
Ja Lama built an Oirat fiefdom centered on Kovd, he and fellow Oirats from Altai wanted to emulate the original Oirat empire and build another grand united Oirat nation from the nomads of western China and Mongolia, but was arrested by Russian Cossacks and deported in 1914 on the request of the Monglian government after the local Mongols complained of his excesses, and out of fear that he would create an Oirat separatist state and divide them from the Khalkha Mongols. Ja Lama returned in 1918 to Mongolia and resumed his activities and supported himself by extorting passing caravans, but was assassinated in 1922 on the orders of the new Communist Mongolian authorities under Damdin Sükhbaatar.
The part Buryat Transbaikalian Cossack Ataman Grigory Semyonov declared a "Great Mongol State" in 1918 and had designs to unify the Oirat Mongol lands, portions of Xinjiang, Transbaikal, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Tannu Uriankhai, Khovd, Hu-lun-pei-erh and Tibet into one Mongolian state. Agvan Dorzhiev tried advocating for Oirat Mongol areas like Tarbagatai, Ili, and Altai to get added to the Outer Mongolian state. Out of concern that China would be provoked, this proposed addition of the Oirat Dzungaria to the new Outer Mongolian state was rejected by the Soviets.
East Turkestan independence movementsEdit
A rebellion in Kashgar against Republic of China rule led to the establishment of the short-lived First East Turkestan Republic or Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (1933–1934). The Chinese Hui Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) crushed the Turkic First East Turkestan Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1933) and Battle of Kashgar (1934). Hui Muslim leaders like Ma Shaowu, General Ma Zhancang and General Ma Fuyuan fought the Turkic separatists.
Sheng Shicai, a secret member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, came into power after a military coup. He disobeyed the decree and order from the Chinese central government, but still ruled the region under the name of the Republic of China.
Sheng Shicai later became anti-Russian when he became aware of the Soviet's intent to control his government. He expelled Soviet advisors and executed many Han Communists. Joseph Stalin was very angry with his convert and dispatched troops to invade Xinjiang. The Soviet troops helped the rebellion at Ili (Yining City) during the Chinese civil war. The rebellion lead to the establishment of the Second East Turkistan Republic (1944–1949), which existed in three northern districts (Ili, Tarbaghatai, Altai) of Xinjiang province of the Republic of China with secret aid from the Soviet Union (Russia used consistent effort to annex Chinese territory since the 17th century). The majority of Xinjang remained under the control of the Republic of China.
After winning the Chinese civil war in 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Xinjiang from Republic of China forces and the Second East Turkestan Republic.
Pan-Turkic Jadidists and East Turkestan Independence activists Muhammad Amin Bughra and Masud Sabri rejected the Soviets and Sheng Shicai's imposition of the name "Uyghur people" upon the Turkic people of Xinjiang. They wanted instead the name "Turkic ethnicity" (Chinese: 突厥族; pinyin: tūjué zú) to be applied to their people. Masud Sabri also viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people. The names "Türk" or "Türki" in particular were demanded by Bughra as the real name for his people. He slammed Sheng Shicai for his designation of Turkic Muslims into different ethnicities, which could sow disunion among Turkic Muslims.
The usage of the name "Uyghur" for the modern ethnic group has led to anachronisms and falsehood when applied to history by both the PRC and Uyghur nationalists.
People's Republic of ChinaEdit
At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang. A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census, however a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han has been restored as of 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur. Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang. Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in southern Xinjiang oases (Tarim Basin) and only a few Uyghurs lived in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria).
Uyghur nationalists often incorrectly claim that 5% of Xinjiang's population in 1949 was Han, and that the other 95% was Uyghur, erasing the presence of Kazakhs, Xibes, and others, and ignoring the fact that Hans were around one third of Xinjiang's population at 1800, during the time of the Qing Dynasty.
In 1955 (the first modern census in China was taken in 1953), Uyghurs were counted as 73% of Xinjiang's total population of 5.11 million. Although Xinjiang as a whole is designated as a "Uyghur Autonomous Region", since 1954 more than 50% of Xinjiang's land area are designated autonomous areas for 13 native non-Uyghur groups. The modern Uyghur people experienced ethnogenesis especially from 1955, when the PRC officially recognized that ethnic category – in opposition to the Han – of formerly separately self-identified oasis peoples.
The People's Republic of China has directed the majority of Han migrants towards the sparsely populated Dzungaria (Junggar Basin), before 1953 most of Xinjiang's population (75%) lived in the Tarim Basin, so the new Han migrants resulted in the distribution of population between Dzungaria and the Tarim being changed. Most new Chinese migrants ended up in the northern region, in Dzungaria. Han and Hui made up the majority of the population in Dzungaria's cities while Uighurs made up most of the population in Kashgaria's cities. Eastern and Central Dzungaria are the specific areas where these Han and Hui are concentrated. China made sure that new Han migrants were settled in entirely new areas uninhabited by Uyghurs so as to not disturb the already existing Uyghur communities. Lars-Erik Nyman noted that Kashgaria was the native land of the Uighurs, "but a migration has been in progress to Dzungaria since the 18th century".
Both Han economic migrants from other parts of China and Uyghur economic migrants from southern Xinjiang have been flooding into northern Xinjiang since the 1980s.
Southern Xinjiang is where the majority of the Uyghur population resides, while it is in Northern Xinjiang cities where the majority of the Han (90%) population of Xinjiang reside. Southern Xinjiang is dominated by its nine million Uighur majority population, while northern Xinjiang is where the mostly urban Han population holds sway. This situation has been followed by an imbalance in the economic situation between the two ethnic groups, since the Northern Junghar Basin (Dzungaria) has been more developed than the Uighur south.
Since the Chinese economic reform from the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development, more Uyghurs have migrated to Xinjiang cities and some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang for independent economic advancement. Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur separatist terrorism from the 1990s, such as the 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings.
In the 1980s, 90% of Xinjiang Han lived in north Xinjiang (Jiangbei, historical Dzungaria). In the mid-1990s, Uyghurs made up 90% of the population of south Xinjiang (Nanjiang, historical Tarim). In 1980, the liberal reformist Hu Yaobang announced the expulsion of ethnic Han cadres in Xinjiang to eastern China. Hu was purged in 1987 for a series of demonstrations that he is said to have provoked in other areas of China. The prominent Xinjiang and national official Wang Zhen criticized Hu for destroying Xinjiang Han cadres' "sense of security", and for exacerbating ethnic tensions.
In the 1990s, there was a net inflow of Han people to Xinjiang, many of whom were previously prevented from moving because of the declining number of social services tied to hukou (residency permits). As of 1996, 13.6% of Xinjiang's population was employed by the publicly traded Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Bingtuan) corporation. 90% of the Bingtuan's activities relate to agriculture, and 88% of Bingtuan employees are Han, although the percentage of Hans with ties to the Bingtuan has decreased. Han emigration from Xinjiang has also resulted in an increase of minority-identified agricultural workers as a total percentage of Xinjiang's farmers, from 69.4% in 1982 to 76.7% in 1990. During the 1990s, about 1.2 million temporary migrants entered Xinjiang every year to stay for the cotton-picking season. Many Uyghur trading communities exist outside of Xinjiang; the largest in Beijing is one village of a few thousand.
In 2000, Uyghurs "comprised 45 per cent of Xinjiang's population, but only 12.8 per cent of Urumqi's population". Despite having 9% of Xinjiang's population, Urumqi accounts for 25% of the region's GDP, and many rural Uyghurs have been migrating to that city to seek work in the dominant light, heavy, and petrochemical industries. Hans in Xinjiang are demographically older, better-educated, and work in higher-paying professions than their Uyghur cohabitants. Hans are more likely to cite business reasons for moving to Urumqi, while some Uyghurs also cite trouble with the law back home and family reasons for their moving to Urumqi. Hans and Uyghurs are equally represented in Urumqi's floating population that works mostly in commerce. Self-segregation within the city is widespread, in terms of residential concentration, employment relationships, and a social norm of endogamy. As of 2010, Uyghurs constitute a majority in the Tarim Basin, and a mere plurality in Xinjiang as a whole.
Han and Hui mostly live in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria), and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan mountains (southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population.
After the declarations of independence of the constituent republics of the area of Central Asia(Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) from the Soviet Union in 1991, calls for the liberation of East Turkestan from China began to surface again from many in the Turkic population.
Those that use the term Uyghurstan tend to envision a state for the Uyghur people. Those groups that adopt this terminology tended to be allied with the Soviet Union while it still existed (Indeed, Russia incited and aided the rebellion in attempt to annex these regions in the future). Since then some of the leaders of these groups have remained in Russia, Kazakhstan or Kyrgyzstan, or have emigrated to Europe and North America. It is worth noting that none of these identities are exclusive. Some groups support more than one such orientation. It is common to support both an Islamic and Turkic orientation for Xinjiang, for example, the founders of independent Republic in Kashgar in 1933 used the names "Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkestan" and "Eastern Turkestan Republic at the same time.
Uyghur Muslim opposition to a Buddhist Aspara statue in Ürümqi in Xinjiang was cited as a possible reason for its destruction in 2012. A Muslim Kazakh viewed a giant Buddha statue near Ürümqi as "alien cultural symbols".
Uyghur views by oasisEdit
Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turpan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs. Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-Chinese region. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government. In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang. Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan soften the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children. Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca are encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979 to 1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan. Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them. There were 20,000 mosques representing a 5.8 times of increase in total in Xinjiang in 1989.:236ff. Until separatist disturbances flared in 1996, China was lenient and allowed people to ignore the rule prohibiting government officials from observing religion.:237ff. Newer, bigger mosques have been financially assisted in being built by the Chinese government in Urumqi.:238ff. While in southern Xinjiang China implements strong rules regarding religion, in Urumqi, China treats the Uyghurs and religion less harshly.:240ff.
In Xinjiang, Communist Party members and civil servants who are employees of the government are not allowed to participate in religious activities while ordinary private citizens are allowed to practice religion and fast in Ramadan, students in public government directed schools are discouraged from participating in religious activities but not banned from doing so, the policy pertains to all religions- members of the Communist party are not allowed to carry out Daoist practices like Feng Shui.
The Diplomat reported that although Uyghur's religious activities are curtailed, Hui Muslims are granted widespread religious freedom and that therefore the policy of the Chinese government towards Uyghurs in Xinjiang likely reflects "not a distaste for Islam as such, but it is an absolute neurosis towards the threat – serious or not – of territory loss, and with no small degree of xenophobia thrown in there as well." China banned a book titled Xing Fengsu (Sexual Customs) which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book. The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.
In 2007, anticipating the coming "Year of the Pig" in the Chinese calendar, depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV "to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities". This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million Muslims as pigs are considered unclean in Islam.
Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to violate this law and have their children educated in religion and attend mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam. China does not enforce the law against children attending mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang. Since the 1980s Islamic private schools have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there.[a]
Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the amount of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them.
Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. Religious freedom is present for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build mosques, and have their children attend mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang.
Hui religious schools are allowed and a massive autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader Hong Yan was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even as he admitted to attending an event where Osama bin Laden spoke and also came into contact with other fundamentalist clerics while studying about Islam for 5 years in Pakistan.
The Uyghur terrorist organization East Turkestan Islamic Movement's magazine Islamic Turkistan has accused the Chinese "Muslim Brotherhood" (the Yihewani) of being responsible for the moderation of Hui Muslims and the lack of Hui joining terrorist jihadist groups in addition to blaming other things for the lack of Hui Jihadists, such as the fact that for more than 300 years Hui and Uyghurs have been enemies of each other, no separatist Islamist organizations among the Hui, the fact that the Hui view China as their home, and the fact that the "infidel Chinese" language is the language of the Hui.
Even among Hui Salafis and Uyghur Salafis, there is little coordination or cooperation and the two take totally different political agendas, with the Hui Salafists content to carry out their own teachings and remain politically neutral.
Support for East Turkestan independenceEdit
The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion against the Republic of China. According to her autobiography, Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China, Rebiya Kadeer's father served with pro-Soviet Uyghur rebels under the Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion (Three Province Rebellion) in 1944–1946, using Soviet assistance and aid to fight the Republic of China government under Chiang Kai-shek. Kadeer and her family were close friends with White Russian exiles living in Xinjiang and Kadeer recalled that many Uyghurs thought Russian culture was "more advanced" than that of the Uyghurs and they "respected" the Russians a lot.
Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with Russia and then the Soviet Union. Many of them were educated in the Soviet Union and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region. As a result, many of the Turkic rebels fled to the Soviet Union and obtained Soviet assistance in creating the Sinkiang Turkic People's Liberation Committee (STPNLC) in 1943 to revolt against Kuomintang rule during the Ili Rebellion. The pro-Soviet Uyghur who later became leader of the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, Ehmetjan Qasim, was Soviet educated and described as "Stalin's man".
The Soviet Union incited separatist activities in Xinjiang through propaganda, encouraging Kazakhs to flee to the Soviet Union and attacking China. China responded by reinforcing the Xinjiang-Soviet border area specifically with Han Bingtuan militia and farmers. The Soviets massively intensified their broadcasts inciting Uyghurs to revolt against the Chinese via Radio Tashkent since 1967 and directly harbored and supported separatist guerilla fighters to attack the Chinese border, in 1966 the amount of Soviet sponsored separatist attacks on China numbered 5,000. The Soviets transmitted a radio broadcast from Radio Tashkent into Xinjiang on 14 May 1967, boasting of the fact that the Soviets had supported the Second East Turkestan Republic against China. In addition to Radio Tashkent, other Soviet media outlets aimed at disseminating propaganda towards Uyghurs urging that they proclaim independence and revolt against China included Radio Alma-Ata and the Alma-Ata published Sherki Türkistan Evazi ("The Voice of Eastern Turkestan") (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئاۋازى) newspaper. After the Sino-Soviet split in 1962, over 60,000 Uyghurs and Kazakhs defected from Xinjiang to the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, in response to Soviet propaganda which promised Xinjiang independence. Uyghur exiles later threatened China with rumors of a Uyghur "liberation army" in the thousands that were supposedly recruited from Sovietized emigres.
The Soviet Union was involved in funding and support to the East Turkestan People's Revolutionary Party (ETPRP), the largest militant Uyghur separatist organization in its time, to start a violent uprising against China in 1968. In the 1970s, the Soviets also supported the United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) to fight against the Chinese.
"Bloody incidents" in 1966–67 flared up as Chinese and Soviet forces clashed along the border as the Soviets trained anti-Chinese guerillas and urged Uyghurs to revolt against China, hailing their "national liberation struggle". In 1969, Chinese and Soviet forces directly fought each other along the Xinjiang-Soviet border.
The Soviet Union supported Uyghur nationalist propaganda and Uyghur separatist movements against China. The Soviet historians claimed that the Uyghur native land was Xinjiang and Uyghur nationalism was promoted by Soviet versions of history on turcology. Soviet turcologists like D.I. Tikhonov wrote pro-independence works on Uyghur history and the Soviet supported Uyghur historian Tursun Rakhimov wrote more historical works supporting Uyghur independence and attacking the Chinese government, claiming that Xinjiang was an entity created by China made out of the different parts of East Turkestan and Zungharia. These Soviet Uyghur historians were waging an "ideological war" against China, emphasizing the "national liberation movement" of Uyghurs throughout history. The Soviet Communist Party supported the publication of works which glorified the Second East Turkestan Republic and the Ili Rebellion against China in its anti-China propaganda war. Soviet propaganda writers wrote works claiming that Uyghurs lived better lives and were able to practice their culture only in Soviet Central Asia and not in Xinjiang. In 1979 Soviet KGB agent Victor Louis wrote a thesis claiming that the Soviets should support a "war of liberation" against the "imperial" China to support Uighur, Tibetan, Mongol, and Manchu independence. The Soviet KGB itself supported Uyghur separatists against China. Among some Uyghurs, the Soviet Union was viewed extremely favorably and several of them believed that people of Turkic origin ruled the Soviet Union, claiming that one of these Turkic Soviet leaders was Mikhail Gorbachev.
Uyghur nationalist historian Turghun Almas and his book Uyghurlar (The Uyghurs) and Uyghur nationalist accounts of history were galvanized by Soviet stances on history, "firmly grounded" in Soviet Turcological works, and both heavily influenced and partially created by Soviet historians and Soviet works on Turkic peoples. Soviet historiography spawned the rendering of Uyghur history found in Uyghurlar. Almas claimed that Central Asia was "the motherland of the Uyghurs" and also the "ancient golden cradle of world culture".
Xinjiang's importance to China increased after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, leading to China's perception of being encircled by the Soviets. The China supported the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet invasion, and broadcast reports of Soviet atrocities on Afghan Muslims to Uyghurs in order to counter Soviet propaganda broadcasts into Xinjiang, which boasted that Soviet minorities lived better and incited Muslims to revolt. Chinese radio beamed anti-Soviet broadcasts to Central Asian ethnic minorities like the Kazakhs. The Soviets feared disloyalty among the non-Russian Kazakh, Uzbek, and Kyrgyz in the event of Chinese troops attacking the Soviet Union and entering Central Asia. Russians were goaded with the taunt "Just wait till the Chinese get here, they'll show you what's what!" by Central Asians when they had altercations. The Chinese authorities viewed the Han migrants in Xinjiang as vital to defending the area against the Soviet Union. China opened up camps to train the Afghan Mujahideen near Kashgar and Khotan and supplied them with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of small arms, rockets, mines, and anti-tank weapons.
A chain of aggressive and belligerent press releases in the 1990s making false claims about violent insurrections in Xinjiang, and exaggerating both the number of Chinese migrants and the total number of Uyghurs in Xinjiang were made by the former Soviet supported URFET leader Yusupbek Mukhlisi.
After the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia added Russian suffixes to Russify their surnames and make them look Russian. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names when naming their children, in cities such as Qaramay and Urumqi.
The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (Turkistan Islamic Party) is allied with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan along with the Pakistani Taliban (Tehreek i Taliban Pakistan) and Al-Qaeda.
The organization renamed itself the Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) and abandoned usage of the name ETIM, although China still calls it by the name ETIM and refuses to acknowledge it as TIP. The Turkistan Islamic Party was originally subordinated to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) but then split off and declared its name as TIP and started making itself known by promoting itself with its Islamic Turkistan magazine and Voice of Islam media in Chinese, Arabic, Russian, and Turkish in order to reach out to global jihadists. Control over the Uyghur and Uzbek militants was transferred to the Pakistani Taliban from the Afghan Taliban after 2001, so violence against the militant's countries of origins can no longer restrained by the Afghan Taliban since the Pakistani Taliban does not have a stake in doing so. TIP's Ṣawt al-Islām (Voice of Islam) media arm has released many video messages. The full name of their media center is "Turkistan Islamic Party Voice of Islam Media Center" Uyghur: (تۈركىستان ئىسلام پارتىيىسى ئىسلام ئاۋازى تەشۋىقات مەركىزى) Arabic: («المركز الإعلامي للحزب الإسلامي التركستاني «صوت الإسلام).
The Shura Majlis of Al Qaeda included TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Haq al Turkistani. Al Qaeda also appointed TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Shakoor Turkistani as military commander of their forces in the FATA region of Pakistan.
Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri released a statement supporting Jihad in Xinjiang against Chinese, in the Caucasus against the Russians and naming Somalia, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan as places of warfare. Zawahiri endorsed "jihad to liberate every span of land of the Muslims that has been usurped and violated, from Kashgar to Andalusia, and from the Caucasus to Somalia and Central Africa". Uyghurs inhabit Kashgar, the city which was mentioned by Zawahiri. Zawahiri released another statement, saying: "My mujahideen brothers in all places and of all groups ... we face aggression from America, Europe, and Russia ... so it's up to us to stand together as one from East Turkestan to Morocco".
TIP released an image showing Al Qaeda leader Ayman al Zawahiri meeting with Hasan Mahsum, the original and first leader of the Turkistan Islamic Party. For a while after he died, Osama bin Laden's successor was believed by some to be the ETIM leader Abdul Shakoor Turkistani because jihadist organizations have been powerfully influenced by ETIM.
Al-Qaeda ideologue Mustafa Setmariam Nasar wrote in support of the East Turkestan Independence Movement. Mustafa Setmariam Nasar had met some of these Uyghurs in Afghanistan where they trained as mujahidin. In 2006 Kavkaz Center reported that Al-Qaeda media arm Al-Fajr released a video urging Muslims to go on Jihad in support of the East Turkestan Independence Movement.
Al-Qaeda aligned al-Fajr Media Center distributes TIP material.
Al-Qaeda member Abu Yahya al-Libi spoke in support of "Jihad" in "East Turkestan" against China.[nb 1] Turkistanis were among ten Al-Qaeda allies who were killed alongside Abu Sahil al-Libi and Abu Laith al-Libi. Al-Qaeda leader Atiyyatullah Al-Libi's advice was published in Turkistan Islamic Party's magazine "Turkistan Al-Islamiyya".
The TIP has some members of other ethnicities besides the Uighur, a TIP suicide bomber in Afghanistan who attacked American troops was Nuruddin, a Turkish militant and he advocated that Turks and Uighurs mount "Islamic flags at the White House and Beijing's Tiananmen Square" while a TIP Kazakh member named Uspan Batir made an appearance in a video and said
There is a line artificially drawn by the infidel in between us—saying you are from Kazakhstan, Turkistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan—there is a line drawn artificially by the infidel, my brothers ... The religion never came only to Kazakhs, it did not come only to Uighurs, and it did not come only to Arabs ... Do not separate. Allah said, you do not separate to say that "you are Kazakhstan, you are Turkistan and you are Uzbekistan."
The Turkish TIP suicide bomber Nuruddin called for expulsion of "Crusader" and "Buddhist" "infidels", and called "Andalusia, East Turkistan, Chechnya, South Africa" as "lands of Islam". Nuruddin said that Allah "blesses" the "Jihad" in Somalia, Iraq, Chechnya, Yemen and other places and that the "Muslim Mujahideen" were fighting NATO and America. Nuruddin asked for more Turkish foreign fighters. He also asked for funding from Turkish people. In Afghanistan there are other Turkish members of TIP. Ebu Bekir Et Turki committed the suicide attack along with Nuruddin. TIP released a video of the TIP fighters Usame El Kurdi and Ebu Bekir Turki singing a nasheed in Afghanistan. A TIP member from Kazakhstan called Abduşşehit Turkistani was killed in Afghanistan. Nuruddin called for the destruction of other religions and for the world to be dominated by Islam.
With the goal of establishing a Central Asian Islamic state, Uyghurs, Chechens, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kyrgyz Kazakhs, and other ethnicities flocked to serve under Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan leader Juma Namangani.
The Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria uses the Jihadist Shahada flag with the name of the group in Arabic below the shahada: (الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة أهل الشام) "Turkistan Islamic Party for the Support of the People of al-Sham". TIP in Syria also calls itself by the name of "Turkistan Islamic Party in the land of al-Sham" (الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني في بلاد الشام). A Jabhat al Nusra member named Abu Rabah helped Uyghur militants start their first camp in Syria and a Turkish language website based in Turkey was launched to recruit "Uyghur mujahideen" to fight in Syria for the Al-Qaeda affiliated Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party. TIP (ETIM) sent the "Turkistan Brigade" (Katibat Turkistani) (Arabic:كتيبة تركستاني) to take part in the Syrian Civil War, most noticeably in the 2015 Jisr al-Shughur offensive.[excessive citations] Al-Qaeda linked groups in Syria include the Syrian branch of the Chechen Caucasus Emirate, Uzbek militants, and the Turkistan Islamic Party. The leader of TIP (ETIM) in Syria was Abu Rida al-Turkestani (أبو رضا التركستاني). Abu Rida Al-Turkestani gave a speech during the offensive in Jisr al-Shughur inviting "Muslims" from "East Turkestan" to come to Sham in order to "kill" "Nusayris" (Alawites). Abu Rida al-Turkestani gave a speech denouncing America and claiming Muslims are oppressed "in the land of Afghanistan, and in Turkestan, and in Waziristan, and in Burma, and in Bilad ash-Sham" In May 2015 in Jisr al-Shugour the Syrian army killed Abu Rida al-Turkestani near a hospital. TIP (ETIM) members in Syria fight alongside the Al-Qaeda branch Al Nusrah Front since TIP is allied to Al-Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan and conducted suicide bombings for Nusrah Front. The Turkistan Islamic Party (Uighur), Al-Katibat al-Tawhid wal Jihad (Uzbek) and Junud al-Sham (Chechen) all coordinate with Al-Qaeda affiliate Jabhat Al-Nusra in Syria. Members of TIP have been killed in battle in Syria. TIP (ETIM) eulogized and applauded members of its organization who participated in suicide bombings and members who were killed in action in Jisr al Shughur. Members of the group helped other Jihadists enforce religious law in Idlib such as wrecking alcohol in stores and this was noted that with "support of Allah and by the strike of the fist of the Mujahideen from the Al Nusrah Front, Ahrar al Sham and Turkistan," that they undertook these actions by a Syrian Jihadist in Jaysh al Fateh. A Jabhat Al Nusra Jihadist called Abu Mohamed Al-Ansari interviewed by VICE News after the Idlib offensive said that "The battle was good, praise be to God. The brothers from all the groups started working together and coordinating. Each faction is responsible for a side. The majority were immigrant brothers from Turkestan. They are the ones who attacked the important points." The spokesman of Jabhat Al-Nusra Abu Maria al-Qahtani claimed that Muslims were "oppressed" in "Turkestan" and that Nusra needs to "defend" them. TIP (ETIM) joined in on the Jihadist offensive in the Al-Ghab plain along with Al-Qaeda affiliated Jund al Aqsa against the Syrian army, referring to the Syrian army by the disparaging name "Nusayri". In Idlib four villages were seized by the Turkistan Islamic Party around August 2015. and the TIP said they "met with the brothers in Jund al Aqsa". The villages of Al-Ziyarah, Mishk, and Tal Wassit were taken by the TIP in August 2015 and TIP boasted that "With the favor of Allah and his support our Mujahideen brothers took war booty from the infidels" (بفضل الله ونصره إخواننا المجاهدون أخذوا الغنائم من الكفار). TIP also seized the village of Zayzun in August. The village Qarqur was also taken by the TIP. A BMP was destroyed by TIP at Qarqur. The village of Mansura, Hama fell to the TIP which released a video showing battlefield wreckage and boasted that "these are the BMPs and the tanks of the infidels destroyed by the Mujahideen". (هذه ب م ب والدبابات للكفار دمرت من قبل المجاهدين). The villages of Muhambal, Msheirfeh, and Farikah fell to the TIP. The villages of Tal Himka (Tal Hamkeh), Tal Awar (تل عوار), Ziadiyah (زياديه) and Mahattat Zayzun w:ar:المحطة الحرارية (زيزون) fell to the TIP. The Turkistan Islamic Party and Jabhat Al-Nusra launched a joint operation which overran the Syrian military's Abu Dhuhur airbase during the Siege of Abu al-Duhur Airbase.[excessive citations] The Turkistan Islamic Party released photos of their Uyghur fighters at Abu Dhuhur.[excessive citations] At Abu Dhuhur, Sheikh Muhaysini (an Al-Qaeda linked Saudi cleric) took pictures with Turkistan Islamic Party which was released by Islam Awazi. Syrian regime military prisoners from Abu Dhuhur were exhibited in photos released by the Turkistan Islamic Party. A video released by Turkistan Islamic Party featured Junud al-Sham deputy leader Abu Bakr al Shishani. The Turkistan Islamic Party's Islam Awazi released photos of its fighters in Syria.
After the Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, TIP's Islam Awazi released photos and a video of its fighters in Al Ghab on the battlefield with captions that said: "standing up strongly to the Nusayri army and the Russians." (المجاهدين التركستانيين يتصدى بقوة للجيش النصيري ومن قبل الروس). A second video of the battle in al Ghab was released by TIP.[excessive citations] In response to the Russian-backed offensive by the Syrian Army, the Turkistan Islamic Party sent fighters to the Ghab Plain to support rebels in fighting against the Syrian Army, Iranian, and Hezbollah forces. The Syria-based, Al-Qaeda linked Saudi cleric Abdullah Muhammad Al-Muhaysini arranged for foreign fighters of multiple backgrounds to repeat the phrase "The Levant is the graveyard of the Russians", in a video message, among them was a fighter claiming to be from "East Turkestan".
TIP's Islam Awazi released a photo showing the corpse of a beheaded Syrian army soldier, captioned "The annihilation of one from the Nusayri regime gangs at the hands of the mujahideen – Ghamaam in Jebel Turkman" (هلاك أحد عصابات النظام النصيري على ايدي المجاهدين - غمام جبل التركمان ).
TIP released a photo of a rocket captioned "Side of the rocket which bombarded the mujahideen but did not explode due to the favor of Allah – Ghamaam in Jebel Turkman" (جانب من الصاروخ الذي استهدف المجاهدين ولم ينفجر بفضل لله - غمام جبل التركمان). TIP released photos of uniforms, weapons, and ammunition captioned "The war booty which was captured by the mujahideen from the axis – Ghamaam in Jebel Turkman"(الغنائم التي إغتنمها المجاهدون من محور غمام في جبل التركمان).
TIP's Islam Awazi media arm released photos of its members who carried out suicide bombings, Dadullah Turkistani and Abdulbasit (Turguncan) Turkistani. The TIP released pictures of dead Syrian soldiers they killed. Islam Awazi released photos of its own dead members killed in Syria, Abbas Turkistani, Ebu Firat Turkistani, Zübeyir Turkistani, Salim Turkistani, Abdul Muhsin Turkistani, and Ebu Jendel Turkistani.
Uyghur militant groups operate two Jihadist training camps in Syria. On 17 August 2013 the website Jihadology posted the March 2013 issue of TIP's Islamic Turkistan Arabic: (تركستان الإسلامية) Uyghur: (ئىسلامى تۈركىستان) magazine in which TIP displayed its fighters and their families, wives, and children in Syria on the side of the rebels.
One of Sayfullakh Shishani's fighters in Jabhat al-Nusra claimed that a united faction called al-Muhajireen was formed out of the unification of the Uyghur Turkistan, Uzbek Abu Salyaha and Al-Bukhari, Ahlu Sunnah wal-Jama'a, and Jaish al-Muhajireen wal Ansar.
Arab news agencies reported that the Uyghurs in TIP, the Chechens in Junud Al Sham, Jabhat Al Nusra and Ahrar al Sham are being coordinated by Turkish intelligence to work with the Army of Conquest.
Syrian Churches have been demolished by Turkistan Islamic Party Uyghur fighters, who exalted in the acts of destruction, and in Homs and Idlib battlefields the Turkistan Islamic Party cooperated with Uzbek brigades and Jabhat al-Nusra, Jabhat al-Nusra and IS (ISIL) compete with each other to recruit Uyghur fighters. In Jisr al-Shughur a Church's cross had a TIP flag placed on top of it after the end of the battle.
Turkish connections were used by Uyghur fighters to go into Syria and the humanitarian Uyghur Eastern Turkistan Education and Solidarity Association (ETESA) which is located in Turkey sent Uyghurs into Syria, endorsed the murder of the pro-China Imam Juma Tayir, applauded terrorist attacks in China, and posted on its website content from the terrorist organization TIP.
Fellow Al-Qaeda aligned Islamist organizations with the aim of a worldwide Islamic Caliphate cooperate with TIP (ETIM) whose own goal is an Islamic State, with TIP fighting against the militaries of Syria and Pakistan in addition to China and being assisted by Central Asian, Gulf, European, and North American based outfits and the TIP leader Abdullah Mansour used the words "mujahideen" and "jihadi operation" in a Uighur language video produced by TIP's Islam Awazi (Uyghur: ئىسلام ئاۋازى) Ṣawt al-Islām (Arabic:صوت الإسلام) Media Center when TIP took responsibility for the 29 October 2013 Tianmen Square terrorist attack.
In 2013 Islam Awazi released footage of Uyghur TIP members fighting against the Afghan National Army. Islam Awazi released a video of fighters training in eastern Afghanistan. A video released by Islam Awazi showed TIP members ambushing a bomb disposal unit in Afghanistan which was unarmed. One video released by Islam Awazi showed one of their members being knocked over and killed by the SPG-9 he was firing, accompanied by the phrase Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji'un in Arabic. TIP released old photos of Uyghur fighters in Afghanistan during the Taliban's rule. TIP released photos of dead Afghan soldiers they killed.
The Turkistan Islamic Party released a video titled "A Message to the Turkestanis" (رسالة الى التركستانيين) featuring Abdullah Al-Muhaysini, an Al-Qaeda cleric of Saudi origin. Muhaysini urged the "Turkistani Musims" to raise their children to love death like "infidels" love life. "Turkistani" is used as an alternate ethonym for "Uyghur" by some Uyghurs.
The Turkistan Islamic Party released a new video titled "Importance of Martyrdom Operations in Our Current Time" (أهمية العمليات الإستشهادية في زمننا الحاضر) (زامانىمىزدىكى پىدائىيلىق ئەمەلىيىتىنىڭ ئەھمىيىتى) by Abdullah al-Muhaysini.
The Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria released a "Visual Nasheed" (النشيد المرئي) titled "The Martyrs" (الشهداء) (شەھىدلەر) showing dead Turkistan Islamic Party militants who were killed in Syria along with descriptions of Jannah (جنة) (paradise) including Hoor (الحور) (virgins), saying that there would be 72 of them waiting for the dead "martyrs".
Camps training children for Jihad are being run by the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria. Photos of the child military training camps in Syria were released by the Turkistan Islamic Party, who labelled the children as "little mujahideen". Uyghur child soldiers being instructed in Sharia and training with guns were depicted in a video released by TIP.[excessive citations]
Photos of a training camp for Uyghur children run by the Turkistan Islamic Party were released by Islam Awazi. Photos released by Turkistan Islamic Party's Islam Awazi media which showed Uyghur militants along with Uyghur children in Syria, including one child holding an AK-47, the Uyghurs cooperated with Jabhat Al-Nusra and had pledged alleigance (bay'ah) to Taliban leader Mullah Omar. Another photo released by Islam Awazi showed Uyghur children training with AK-47's and with shahada headbands at a camp in the Afpak (Afghanistan-Pakistan) region. Pictures were released by Islam Awazi of Afghanistan-based Turkistan Islamic Party training children for Jihad. A video of a training camp in Waziristan in Pakistan's tribal areas showing children being trained with weapons was released by the Turkistan Islamic Party's Islam Awazi.
Photos released by TIP's Islam Awazi showed Uyghur children in Idlib, Syria, with AK-47s, reading Qurans, and Burqa clad women praying. The child soldiers were also shown engaging in religious studies.
The village of Az-Zanbaqi (الزنبقي) in Jisr al-Shughur's countryside has become a base for a massive amount of Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party militants and their families in Syria, estimated at around 3,500, military camps in the area are training hundreds of children from these families; Hezbollah media, Iranian media and Syrian government media accused Turkish intelligence of being involved in transporting these Uyghurs via Turkey to Syria, with the aim of using them first in Syria to help Jabhat Al-Nusra and gain combat experience fighting against the Syrian Army before sending them back to Xinjiang to fight against China if they manage to survive.[excessive citations]
TIP's Islam Awazi encouraged entire Uyghur families including women and children to emigrate abroad to perform "Jihad". Chinese authorities reported that they discovered that Uyghurs attempting to move to Turkey via Southeast Asia had radical Islamist materials on their phones.
The Uyghur diaspora in the Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Turkey, is the source of Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party Jihadists in Syria. A Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party fighter in Syria, Ibrahim Mansour, openly gave interviews to the Turkish media where he boasted to fighting the "Assad regime".
Islamic State of Iraq and the LevantEdit
The Islamic fundamentalist-Salafist-based movement, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant released a video featuring an 80 year old Uyghur man who came to join ISIS in Syria along with his grandchildren, wife, and daughter after he was inspired by his son who died in combat in Syria. The video featured Uyghur children singing about martyrdom and a 10 year old Uyghur child threatening China, saying : "O Chinese kuffar (non-believers), know that we are preparing in the land of the khilafah (caliphate) and we will come to you and raise this flag in Turkestan with the permission of Allah." The elderly Uyghur man said "'I made hijrah accompanied by my four grandsons, my daughter and my wife".
After Thailand deported Uyghurs back to China whom China suspected to have "been on their way to Turkey, Syria or Iraq to join jihad" , John Kirby, a United States State Department spokesman, slammed the move and said Thailand should "allow those remaining ethnic Uighurs to depart voluntarily to a country of their choice". TIP's "Islamic Turkistan" Twitter account condemned the deportation and called China and Thailand as "polytheist enemies of Allah" (أعداء الله المشركين).
The Turkish newspaper Today's Zaman Anakara Bureau Chief Abdullah Bozkurt said that the Islamist Erdoğan government in Turkey allowed Uyghur fighters to cross into Syria via Turkey and this was causing major problems in China-Turkey relations.[not in citation given]
Attempts at independenceEdit
The Ush rebelion in 1765 by Uyghurs against the Manchus occurred after Uyghur women were gang raped by the servants and son of Manchu official Su-cheng. It was said that Ush Muslims had long wanted to sleep on [Sucheng and son's] hides and eat their flesh. because of the rape of Uyghur Muslim women for months by the Manchu official Sucheng and his son. The Manchu Emperor ordered that the Uyghur rebel town be massacred, the Qing forces enslaved all the Uyghur children and women and slaughtered the Uyghur men.  Manchu soldiers and Manchu officials regularly having sex with or raping Uyghur women caused massive hatred and anger by Uyghur Muslims to Manchu rule.
Yaqub Beg establishment of KashgariaEdit
Also during the Dungan revolt, the Taranchi Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang initially cooperated with the Dungans (Chinese Muslims) when they rose in revolt, but turned on them, because the Dungans, mindful of their Chinese heritage attempted to subject the entire region to their rule. The Taranchi massacred the Dungans at Kuldja and drove the rest through Talk pass to the Ili valley.
First East Turkestan RepublicEdit
The first republic established by the Uighurs was short lived, the Uighur army was defeated by the Chinese Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), which destroyed the Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1934).
Second East Turkestan RepublicEdit
A Soviet backed state was created by Uighur rebels in northern Xinjiang. It was absorbed into the newly founded People's Republic of China in 1950.
Official Chinese position on the movementEdit
People's Republic of ChinaEdit
Republic of China (Taiwan)Edit
Chinese Muslim General Ma Bufang, the Republic of China's (Taiwan) ambassador to Saudi Arabia between 1957 and 1961,[when?] in response to a request by a former Uyghur Mufti living in Saudi Arabia, Abdul Ahad Hamed for accommodations to be granted to Uyghurs living outside of China who held Republic of China passports, sent the following letter, which rejected Abdul Ahad Hamed's demands and his usage of the term "East Turkestan", upholding the official position of the Republic of China (Taiwan) that Xinjiang was a part of China and that it did not recognize the East Turkestan Independence Movement.
With all due respect to your previous position in the Government of Sinkiang and to the confidence placed in you by His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, I hope that you will refrain from using expressions which should not be used by one who occupied the position of a mufti. We are all serving our beloved country trying to do our best for our countrymen. I also hope that you will refrain from using the expression "The Turkestani Nation" which was the creation of one Abdul Qayyum Khan while he was living in Germany. We are working for the welfare of the true people of Sinkiang not for the Turkestanis living outside Sinkiang or the followers of Abdul Qayyum Khan.
Ambassador of Nationalist China in Saudi Arabia
The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party, Organization for Freeing Eastern Turkistan, and the Islamic Party of Turkistan were outlawed by Kyrgyzstan's Lenin District Court and its Supreme Court in November 2003. Several Uyghur fighters were shot dead by Kyrgyzstan's security forces in January 2014.
Arab countries politically supported China in the OIC with especially Saudi Arabia and Egypt helping China squash any potential anti-Chinese motion by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation on the Uyghurs, Egypt viewed its own internal sectarian problems like China's and Sudan was also concerned about external interference in its internal problems as well, while Indonesia had to deal with its own internal Islamists and emphasized that there was no religious conflict but instead ethnic based disturbances in Xinjiang to calm the situation down. Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt helped China kill off a statement on the Xinjiang situation in the OIC. There has been no public reaction by the Arab League, Saudi Arabia and Iran on the situation and China has built stronger relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia due to their influence in the Islamic world.
Rebiya Kadeer claimed that Turkey is hampered from interfering with Uyghurs because it recognizes that its own Kurdish issue may get interfered with by China in retaliation. An appeal for Chinese products to be boycotted by Nihat Ergun failed in 2009.
Nick Holdstock in a New York Times interview claimed that no organization is taking responsibility for attacks in Xinjiang, and that there is not enough proof to blame any organization for the attacks, that most terrorism there is "unsubstantiated", and that posting internet videos online is the only thing done by the "vague and shadowy" ETIM.
Turkistanislamder complained that the veil and headscarf are banned in Uzbekistan under Islam Karimov's rule.
The Turkistan Islamic Party's magazine "Turkistān al-Islāmīyyah" Issue #14 endorsed attacks and killings against Chinese workers and referred to "Martyrdom Operations" against a police station and a "Martyr's Brigade".
In "Islamic Turkistan" Issue #12 photo of the founders of the First East Turkestan Republic including Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki was titled "Men who marked history in their blood" رجال سطروا التاريخ بدمائهم (1933–1352) featured with the caption "Founders of an independent islamic state in the Hijri year 1352 in East Turkestan" (مؤسسوا دولة إسلامية مستقلة عام 1352هـ في تركستان الشرقية).
TIP published a video showing Denis Mamdou Cuspert and Mohamed Mahmoud of Millatu-Ibrahim being applauded by IMU member Yassin Chouka.
Infighting between Uyghur separatistsEdit
During the First East Turkestan Republic, the Turkic nationalist ideology of the Republic led to hostility between different Muslim ethnic groups. The Uyghurs and Kirghiz, who were both Turkic Muslim peoples, fought against the Chinese Muslims of southern Xinjiang and sought to expel them with the Han Chinese. This led several Chinese Muslim Generals like Ma Zhancang, Ma Fuyuan, and Ma Hushan to fight against the Uyghur attempts and independence.
Argument for East Turkestan independenceEdit
The Uyghur American Association claims that Many Uyghurs face religious persecution and discrimination at the hands of the government authorities. Uyghurs who choose to practice their faith can use only a state-approved version of the Koran; They also claims that many nationalists are killed or tortured or jailed for their independence efforts, and even non-violent protesters have said to have been facing human rights abuses. They claim dress, language, and culture are slowly being eroded away as more and more ethnic Han are moving there in the Migration to Xinjiang. They claim religion and way of life are misunderstood and the government cracks down on any sign of resistance. The "Uyghur Human Rights Project" alleges that children under the age of 18 were banned from a mosque in southern Xinjiang.
Uyghur nationalists condemn Xinjiang reeducation camps operated by the Xinjiang local government for their unethical treatment of detainees since 2014 and unprecedentedly intensified since a hardline party leader, Chen Quanguo, took charge of the region in August 2016. These camps are operated secretly and outside of the legal system; people can be locked up without any trial. Local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps, claiming the detentions are a bid to counter extremism and terrorism.
It is estimated that Chinese authorities may have detained hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, Kazakhs and other ethnic Muslims, Christians and also foreign, especially Kazakhstani, citizens to be kept in these shrouded internment camps throughout the region.
Uyghur is the dominant language in southern Xinjiang while Mandarin is the dominant language in northern Xinjiang.
Argument against East Turkestan independenceEdit
China claims to have a historic claim on modern-day Xinjiang dating back two thousand years. East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, while the Uighur people arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, around the year 842. It fears that independence movements are largely funded and led by outside forces that seek to weaken China. China claims that despite such movements, Xinjiang has made great economic strides, building up its infrastructure, improving its education system and increasing the average life expectancy.
Uyghur independence activists express concern over the Han population changing the Uyghur character of the region, yet the historical native land of the Uyghurs is not the whole land of Xinjiang, but Tarim basin. Professor James A. Millward pointed out that the capital of Xinjiang Urumqi was even originally a Han and Hui (Tungan) city with few Uyghur people before recent Uyghur migration to the city, but foreigners mistakenly think that Urumqi was originally a Uyghur city and that the Chinese destroyed its Uyghur character and culture. Moreover, the Han and Hui mostly live in northern Xinjiang Dzungaria, and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan mountains (southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population. While a few people try to give a misportrayal of the historical Qing situation in light of the contemporary situation in Xinjiang with Han migration, and claim that the Qing settlements and state farms were an anti-Uyghur plot to replace them in their land, Professor James A. Millward pointed out that the Qing agricultural colonies in reality had nothing to do with Uyghur and their land, since the Qing banned settlement of Han in the Uyghur Tarim Basin and in fact directed the Han settlers instead to settle in the non-Uyghur Dzungaria and the new city of Urumqi, so that the state farms which were settled with 155,000 Han Chinese from 1760–1830 were all in Dzungaria and Urumqi, where there was only an insignificant amount of Uyghurs, instead of the Tarim Basin oases.
Uyghur nationalist historians such as Turghun Almas claim that Uyghurs were distinct and independent from Chinese for 6000 years, and that all non-Uyghur peoples are non-indigenous immigrants to Xinjiang. However, the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) established military colonies (tuntian) and commanderies (duhufu) to control Xinjiang from 120 BCE, while the Tang Dynasty (618–907) also controlled much of Xinjiang until the An Lushan rebellion. Chinese historians refute Uyghur nationalist claims by pointing out the 2000-year history of Han settlement in Xinjiang, documenting the history of Mongol, Kazakh, Uzbek, Manchu, Hui, Xibo indigenes in Xinjiang, and by emphasizing the relatively late "westward migration" of the Huigu (equated with "Uyghur" by the PRC government) people from Mongolia the 9th century. The name "Uyghur" was associated with a Buddhist people in the Tarim Basin in the 9th century, but completely disappeared by the 15th century, until it was revived by the Soviet Union in the 20th century.
Uyghur nationalists often incorrectly claim that 5% of Xinjiang's population in 1949 was Han, and that the other 95% was Uyghur, erasing the presence of Kazakhs, Xibes, and others, and ignoring the fact that Hans were around one third of Xinjiang's population at 1800, during the time of the Qing Dynasty. At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang. A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census, however a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han has been restored as of 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur. Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang. In northern Xinjiang, the Qing brought in Han, Hui, Uyghur, Xibe, and Kazakh colonists after they exterminated the Zunghar Oirat Mongols in the region, with one third of Xinjiang's total population consisting of Hui and Han in the northern are, while around two thirds were Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang's Tarim Basin.
In general, the wide variety of groups who seek independence can be distinguished by the type of government they advocate and the role they believe an independent East Turkestan should play in international affairs. Groups who use the term East Turkestan tend to have an orientation towards western Asia, the Islamic world, and Russia. These groups can be further subdivided into those who desire secularism, and identify with the struggle of secular Kemal Atatürk in Turkey, versus those who want an Islamic theocracy and identify with Saudi Arabia, the former Taliban government in Afghanistan, or Iran. In many cases the latter diminish the importance or deny the existence of a separate Uyghur ethnicity and claim a larger Islamic identity. These groups tend to see an independent East Turkestan in which non-Turkic, and especially non-Islamic minorities, such as the Han Chinese would play no significant role.
Some of the groups that support independence for East Turkestan have been labeled terrorist organizations by both the People's Republic of China, the United Nations and/or the United States. Pro-independence organizations overseas include the East Turkistan National Freedom Center, the East Turkistan Government in Exile, and the East Turkestan Liberation Organization (Transnational Hizb ut-Tahrir). The most noticeable event towards the East Turkistan Independence Movement was the establishment of the East Turkistan Government in Exile by a group of East Turkistani immigrants led by Anwar Yusuf Turani in Washington D.C. on 14 September 2004. The target audience of these organizations is generally the Western governments and public, as almost none of the websites are in Chinese or Uyghur, and most Uyghurs in China and Central Asia have never heard of them. The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM, also East Turkestan Islamic Party), which has claimed responsibility for attacks in Xinjiang, has been identified as a terrorist organization by the governments of China, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and the United States, as well as the United Nations.
Uyghur separatist leader Isa Alptekin met with the ultra-nationalist Pan-Turkic fascist leader Alparslan Türkeş. Alptekin used anti-Armenian language while in Turkey and claimed that innocent Turkish Muslims were massacred by Armenians.
There continues to be concern over tensions in the region, centering upon Uyghur cultural aspirations to independence, and resentment towards what Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch describe as repression of non-Han Chinese culture.
Conversely, many Han Chinese perceive PRC policies of ethnic autonomy as discriminatory against them (see autonomous entities of China). Independence advocates view Chinese rule in Xinjiang, and policies like the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps as Chinese imperialism. The US and the UN have labelled the East Turkestan Islamic Movement a terrorist group.
The tensions have occasionally resulted in major incidents and violent clashes during the PRC period. For example, in 1962, 60,000 Uyghur and Kazakh refugees fled northern Xinjiang into the Soviet Union to escape the famine and political purges of the Great Leap Forward era; in the 1980s there was a smattering of student demonstrations and riots against police action that took on an ethnic aspect; and the Baren Township riot in April 1990, an abortive uprising resulted in more than 50 deaths.
A police roundup of suspected separatists during Ramadan resulted in large demonstrations that turned violent in February 1997 in an episode known as the Ghulja Incident that led to at least 9 deaths. The Urumqi bus bombs of 25 February 1997, perhaps a response to the crackdown that followed the Ghulja Incident, killed 9 and injured 68. Speaking on separatist violence, Erkin Alptekin, a former East Turkestan National Congress chairman and prominent Uyghur activist, said "We must emphasise dialogue and warn our youth against the use of violence because it de-legitimises our movement". Despite much talk of separatism and terrorism in Xinjiang, especially after the 9-11 attacks in the United States and the US invasion of Afghanistan, the situation in Xinjiang was quiet from the late nineties through mid-2006. In 2005, Uighur author Nurmemet Yasin was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for inciting separatism following his publication of an allegorical short story, "The Blue Pigeon".
On 5 January 2007 the Chinese Public Security Bureau raided a suspected terrorist training camp in the mountains near the Pamir Plateau in southern Xinjiang. According to the reports, 18 terrorists were killed and another 17 captured in a gun battle between the East Turkestan Independence Movement and PRC forces. One police officer was killed and "over 1,500 hand grenades... were seized."
Many Islamic Mujahideen have come and committed terrorism in the Xinjiang autonomous region. It is feared by the National Government that radicalization of Chinese Uighurs by the Uighur Diaspora will occur. 2014,''China has jailed almost two dozen people including "wild imams" who preach illegally in the western region of Xinjiang where the government says Islamists are waging a violent campaign for a separate state.'' Supporters of the Uighur movement, criticized by China and her allies as supporters of international terrorism include Turkey.
In 2008, the Chinese government announced that several terrorist plots by Uyghur separatists to disrupt the 2008 Olympic Games involving kidnapping athletes, journalists and tourists were foiled. The security ministry said 35 arrests were made in recent weeks and explosives had been seized in Xinjiang province. It said 10 others were held when police smashed another plot based in Xinjiang back in January to disrupt the Games. However, Uyghur activists accused the Chinese of fabricating terror plots to crack down on the people of the region and prevent them airing legitimate grievances. Some foreign observers were also skeptical, questioning if China was inflating a terror threat to justify a clampdown on dissidents before the Olympics.
In the run-up to the Summer Olympics in Beijing, during which world attention was drawn by pro-Tibet protests along the Olympic torch relay, Uyghur separatist groups staged protests in several countries. According to the Chinese government, a suicide bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight in Xinjiang was thwarted in March 2008.
Four days before the Beijing Olympics, 16 Chinese police officers were killed and 16 injured in an attack in Kashgar by local merchants. Chinese police injured and damaged the equipment of two Japanese journalists sent to cover the story. Four days later a bombing in Kuqa killed at least two people.
On 27 August, two Chinese police officers were killed and seven more wounded near the city of Kashgar when their patrol was ambushed by at least seven militants, including one woman, wielding knives and automatic weapons. Apparently the patrol was lain upon in a corn field while acting on an erroneous tip from another woman that had been suspected of assisting militants. According to Uighur sources Chinese officials have been "cracking down" on ethnic Uighurs, detaining large numbers in recent weeks and view the incident as Uighurs resisting arrest. Reportedly, 33 people died in Xinjiang because of clashes in the month of August.
On 5 July 2009, riots broke out in Ürümqi, the capital of Xinjiang. The state media reported close to 150 people dead. While the riots occurred after a demonstration protesting the deaths of two Uyghurs in the June 2009 Shaoguan incident, the central government claimed that the riot had been masterminded by separatists abroad, particularly exiled leader Rebiya Kadeer.
2015 Bangkok bombingEdit
The 2015 Bangkok bombing is suspected to have been carried out by the Pan-Turkic neo-fascist Turkish ultra-nationalist organization Grey Wolves due to Thailand's deportation of Uyghur terrorist suspects back to China instead of allowing them to travel to Turkey for asylum, a Turkish man named Adem Karadag was arrested by the Thai police in connection to the bombing with Turkish passports and bomb making materials found in his apartment, the Grey Wolves are described by the media as a terrorist group and became famous for their assassinations and killings of journalists, liberals, and leftists in Turkey, their member Mehmet Ali Ağca's assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II, and their involvement in the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the Chechen war due to the Muslim and Turkic populations of those areas since their aim is the unification of all Muslim Turkic peoples into one state spanning from Central Asia to the Balkans.
Due to risk of terrorism and the manufacture of counterfeit passports, Uyghur foreigners in Thailand were placed under watch by Thailand Defence Minister Prawit Wongsuwon. Due to suspicion of terrorism, the Thai police were put on alert after the arrival of 2 Turkey based Uyghurs.
- List of active separatist movements in Asia
- East Turkistan Government in Exile
- East Turkestan Liberation Organization
- East Turkestan Islamic Movement
- Separatist movements of China
- Hong Kong independence movement
- Inner Mongolian independence movement
- Taiwan independence movement
- Tibetan independence movement
- World Uyghur Congress
- 2008 Uyghur unrest
- 2013 Xinjiang unrest
- Xinjiang conflict
- Affirmative action in China
- Human rights of ethnic minorities in China
- Burhan Shahidi, Xinjiang wushi nian [Fifty Years in Xinjiang], (Beijing, Wenshi ziliao, 1984).
- Clubb, O. E., China and Russia: The 'Great Game'. (NY, Columbia, 1971).
- Forbes, A. D. W. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republic Sinkiang, 1911–1949 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986).
- Gladney, Dru C. (2013). Separatism in China: The case of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Secessionism and Separatism in Europe and Asia: To have a state of one's own. Routledge. pp. 220–236.
- Hasiotis, A. C. Jr. Soviet Political, Economic and Military Involvement in Sinkiang from 1928 to 1949 (NY, Garland, 1987).
- Hierman, Brent (2007). "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988–2002". Problems of Post-Communism 54 (3): 48–62.
- Khakimbaev A. A., 'Nekotorye Osobennosti Natsional'no-Osvoboditel'nogo Dvizheniya Narodov Sin'tszyana v 30-kh i 40-kh godakh XX veka' [Some Characters of the National-Liberation Movement of the Xinjiang Peoples in 1930s and 1940s], in Materially Mezhdunarodnoi Konferentsii po Problemam Istorii Kitaya v Noveishchee Vremya, Aprel' 1977, Problemy Kitaya (Moscow, 1978) pp. 113–118.
- Lattimore, O., Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Asian Frontiers of China (Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1950).
- Rakhimov, T. R. 'Mesto Bostochno-Turkestanskoi Respubliki (VTR) v Natsional'no-Osvoboditel'noi Bor'be Narodov Kitaya' [Role of the Eastern Turkestan Republic (ETR) in the National Liberation Struggle of the Peoples in China], A paper presented at 2-ya Nauchnaya Konferentsiya po Problemam Istorii Kitaya v Noveishchee Vremya, (Moscow, 1977), pp. 68–70.
- Shichor, Yitzhak. (2005). Blow Up: Internal and External Challenges of Uyghur Separatism and Islamic Radicalism to Chinese Rule in Xinjiang. Asian Affairs: An American Review. 32(2), 119—136.
- Taipov, Z. T., V Bor'be za Svobodu [In the Struggle for Freedom], (Moscow, Glavnaya Redaktsiya Vostochnoi Literaturi Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1974).
- Wang, D., 'The Xinjiang Question of the 1940s: the Story behind the Sino-Soviet Treaty of August 1945', Asian Studies Review, vol. 21, no.1 (1997) pp. 83–105.
- Wang, D., 'The USSR and the Establishment of the Eastern Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang', Journal of Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, vol.25 (1996) pp. 337–378.
- Yakovlev, A. G., 'K Voprosy o Natsional'no-Osvoboditel'nom Dvizhenii Norodov Sin'tzyana v 1944–1949', [Question on the National Liberation Movement of the Peoples in Xinjiang in 1944–1945], in Uchenie Zapiski Instituta Voctokovedeniia Kitaiskii Spornik vol.xi, (1955) pp. 155–188.
- Wang, D., Clouds over Tianshan: essays on social disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s, Copenhagen, NIAS, 1999
- Wang, D., Under the Soviet shadow: the Yining Incident: ethnic conflicts and international rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944–1949, Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press, 1999.
- The People's Republic, founded in 1949, banned private confessional teaching from the early 1950s to the 1980s, until a more liberal stance allowed religious mosque education to resume and private Muslim schools to open. Moreoever, except in Xinjiang for fear of secessionist feelings, the government allowed and sometimes encouraged the founding of private Muslim schools in order to provide education for people who could not attend increasingly expensive state schools or who left them early, for lack of money or lack of satisfactory achievements.
- Gardner Bovingdon (6 August 2010). The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. Columbia University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-231-51941-0.
- Wong, Edward (18 November 2008). "The Dead Tell a Tale China Doesn't Care to Listen To". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 11.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (9 July 2009). "A Brief History of the Uighurs". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- "East Turkistan". World Uyghur Congress. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- "Borders | Uyghurs and The Xinjiang Conflict : East Turkestan Independence Movement". apps.cndls.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- "Devastating Blows: Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Post 9/11: labeling Uighurs terrorists. 17 (2): 16. April 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- Kennedy, Lindsey; Paul, Nathan. "China created a new terrorist threat by repressing this ethnic minority". qz.com. Quartz. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth. "Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China". apcss.org. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Islamic groups banned in Kyrgyzstan Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine Central Asia Caucasus Institute
- "CCTV International". www.cctv.com.
- "Terror list with links to al-Qaeda unveiled". www.chinadaily.com.cn.
- East Turkistan Liberation Organization (ETLO) Globalsecurity.org
- "Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- "Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 34.
- Michell 1870, p. 2.
- Martin 1847, p. 21.
- Fisher 1852, p. 554.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica 1894, p. 681.
- Millward 2007, p. 97.
- Millward 1998, p. 21.
- "Recit Officiiel de La Conquete du Turkestan par les Chinois (1758–1760)". Bulletin de la Section de géographie. Volume 10. 1896. p. 122.
- Bridgman & Williams 1837, p. 273.
- Mentelle, Malte-Brun & de Halle 1804, p. 144.
- Mentelle, Malte-Brun & de Halle 1804, p. 160.
- Millward 1998, p. 23.
- Millward 1998, p. 24.
- Millward 1998, p. 126.
- Millward 2007, p. 98.
- Znamenski 2011, pp. 27, 28, 29.
- Ostasiatische Seminar 1982, p. 164.
- Lattimore 1955, p. 57.
- Croner 2009, p. 11.
- Croner 2010, p. 11.
- Pegg 2001, p. 268.
- Sinor 1990, p. 5.
- Baabar 1999, p. 139.
- Mongolia Society 1970, p. 17.
- Perdue 2009, p. 493.
- Palmer 2011, p. 59.
- Dupree & Naby 1994, p. 55.
- Znamenski 2011, p. 40.
- Znamenski 2011, p. 41.
- Andreyev 2003, p. 139.
- Andreyev 2014, p. 285.
- Znamenski 2011, p. 138.
- Znamenski 2011, p. 141.
- Sanders 2010, p. 188.
- Morozova 2009, p. 39.
- Paine 1996, pp. 316–317.
- Andreyev 2014, p. 274.
- Andreyev 2014, p. 275.
- "Old Sterile Death Leaves its Mark over Sinkiang". Life. Time. 15 (24): 99. 13 December 1943. ISSN 0024-3019.
- Wei, C. X. George; Liu, Xiaoyuan (2002). Exploring Nationalisms of China: Themes and Conflicts. Greenwood. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-313-31512-1.
- Millward 2007, p. 209.
- Reed & Raschke 2010, p. 7.
- Millward 2007, p. 306.
- Toops, Stanley (May 2004). Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949 (PDF). Working Papers (Report). Washington, D.C.: East–West Center. p. 1.
- Starr 2004, p. 243.
- Millward 2007, p. 104.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 197.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 199.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 43–46.
- Hopper & Webber 2009, p. 176.
- Pletcher 2011, p. 318.
- Falkenheim, Victor C. (27 March 2013). "Xinjiang". Encyclopaedia Britannica (online ed.).
- Martyn 1978, p. 358.
- Ethnological information on China & 196?, p. 2.
- Ethnological information on China & 196?, p. 7.
- Rudelson 1997, p. 38.
- Nyman 1977, p. 12.
- Harris 2004, p. 42.
- Guo 2007, p. 220.
- Guo 2009, p. 164.
- Howell 2009, p. 37.
- Hopper & Webber 2009, pp. 173–175.
- Hasmath, Reza (2018). "What explains the rise of majority-minority tensions and conflict in Xinjiang?". Central Asian Survey. doi:10.1080/02634937.2018.1496067.
- Sautman 2000, p. 241.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 53.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 56.
- Sautman 2000, p. 242.
- Sautman 2000, p. 246.
- Sautman 2000, p. 257.
- Hopper & Webber 2009, pp. 178–179.
- Hopper & Webber 2009, p. 184.
- Hopper & Webber 2009, pp. 187–188.
- Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. (2003). 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 [Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China] (Report). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 7-105-05425-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Dasgupta, Saibal (22 August 2012). "Mystery grips Urumqi as Apsara statue demolished". The Times of India. TNN.
- Dasgupta, Saibal (22 August 2012). "'Flying Apsara' statue razed in China". The Times Of India. p. 14.
- Wind, Beige (4 August 2014). "Dispatches From Xinjiang: The Rise Of Buddhism In The Far West". Beijing Cream.
- Rudelson 1997, p. 31.
- Rudelson 1997, pp. 45–47.
- Central Asia Monitor 1993, p. 19.
- Mackerras 2003, p. 118.
- Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 202.
- Rudelson 1997, p. 81.
- Rudelson 1997, p. 129.
- Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 205.
- Finley, Joanne N. Smith (2013). The Art of Symbolic Resistance: Uyghur Identities and Uyghur-Han Relations in Contemporary Xinjiang. BRILL. ISBN 9789004256781. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- 陈杰人：中国新疆的"斋月之冤" [Chen Jie: China's Xinjiang "Ramadan injustice"]. zaobao.csg (in Chinese). 14 July 2015.
- Crane, Brent (22 August 2014). "A Tale of Two Chinese Muslim Minorities". The Diplomat.
- Gladney, Dru C. (1991). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic. Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-674-59496-8.
- Schein, Louisa (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8223-2444-7.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2005). "Alterity Motives". In Nyíri, Pál; Breidenbach, Joana (eds.). China Inside Out: Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism. Central European University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-963-7326-14-1.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2013). "The Salafiyya Movement in Northwest China: Islamic Fundamentalism among the Muslim Chinese?". In Manger, Leif (ed.). Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-136-81857-8.
- Sautman, Barry (2000). "Legal Reform and Minority Rights in China". In Nagel, Stuart (ed.). Handbook of Global Legal Policy. CRC Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-8247-7892-7.
- Tanner, Harold Miles (2009). China: A History. Hackett. p. 581. ISBN 0-87220-915-6.
- Gladney 2004, p. 232.
- Lim, Louisa (6 February 2007). "Ban Thwarts 'Year of the Pig' Ads in China". National Public Radio.
- Alles, Elisabeth; Cherif-Chebbi, Leila; Halfon, Constance-Helene (2003). "Chinese Islam: Unity and Fragmentation" (PDF). Religion, State & Society. 31 (1): 14. doi:10.1080/0963749032000045837.
- Senate (U S) Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). State Dept (U S) (ed.). Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004. Government Printing Office. pp. 159–160. ISBN 0-16-072552-6.
- Szadziewski, Henryk. "Religious Repression of Uyghurs in East Turkestan". Venn Institute. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- Versteegh, Kees; Eid, Mushira (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Bril l. p. 383. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6.
- Beech, Hannah (12 August 2014). "If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?". Time.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 149.
- Savadove, Bill (17 August 2005). "Faith Flourishes in an Arid Wasteland; Muslim Sect in Ningxia Accepts Beijing's Authority and Is Allowed to Build a Virtual Religious State". South China Morning Post.
- Zenn, Jacob (17 March 2011). "Jihad in China? Marketing the Turkistan Islamic Party". Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 9 (11).
- Zenn, Jacob (February 2013). "Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Central Asia: A Compendium of Recent Jamestown Analysis" (PDF): 57. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
- "Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection". Mouqawamah Music. 28 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015.
- Kadeer 2009, p. 9.
- Kadeer 2009, p. 13.
- Forbes 1986, p. 173.
- Forbes 1986, p. 174.
- Starr 2004, p. 138.
- Starr 2004, p. 139.
- Forbes 1986, p. 188.
- Dickens, Mark (1990). "The Soviets in Xinjiang: 1911–1949". Oxus Communications.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 141–142.
- Dillon 2003, p. 57.
- Clarke 2011, p. 69.
- Dillon 2008, p. 147.
- Nathan, Andrew James; Scobell, Andrew (2013). China's Search for Security (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-51164-7.
- Reed & Raschke 2010, p. 37.
- Ryan, William L. (2 January 1969). "Russians Back Revolution in Province Inside China". The Lewiston Daily Sun. Associated Press.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (27 May 2010). "Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street". Transitions Online.
- Burns, John F. (6 July 1983). "On Soviet-China Border, the Thaw is Just a Trickle". The New York Times.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 37.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 38.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 39.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 40.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 41.
- Wong, John; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2002). China's Post-Jiang Leadership Succession: Problems and Perspectives. World Scientific. p. 172. ISBN 981-270-650-X.
- Liew, Leong H.; Wang, Shaoguang, eds. (2004). Nationalism, Democracy and National Integration in China. Taylor & Francis. p. 175. ISBN 0-203-40429-7.
- Wang, Gungwu; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2008). China and the New International Order (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 240. ISBN 0-203-93226-9.
- Rudelson 1997, p. 62.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 42.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 33.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 4.
- Clarke 2011, p. 76.
- "Radio war aims at China Moslems". The Montreal Gazette. 22 September 1981.
- Meehan, Dallace L., Lieutenant Colonel (May – June 1980). "Ethnic Minorities in the Soviet Military implications for the decades ahead". Air University Review. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014.
- Clarke 2011, p. 78.
- Starr 2004, p. 149.
- Starr 2004, p. 158.
- Wayne 2007, p. 46.
- Millward 2007, p. 341.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 115.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 117.
- Zenn, Jacob (23 May 2014). "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists". China Brief. Jamestown Foundation. 14 (10).
- Potter, Philip B. K. (Winter 2013). "Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications" (PDF). Strategic Studies Quarterly: 71–74.
- Foreign Terrorist Organizations (PDF) (Report). US State Department. 2005. p. 237.
- Winterbottom, Vaughan (14 August 2013). "No end in sight to Xinjiang unrest". China Outlook.
- Zenn, Jacob (24 June 2013). "On the Eve of 2014: Islamism in Central Asia". Current Trends in Islamist Ideology. Hudson Institute.
- Zenn, Jacob (2 October 2013). "Increasing Numbers of Central Asian Jihadists in Syria". Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst.
- "Islamic Turkistan". Jihadology. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (23 October 2012). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents a new video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī [Turkistan Islamic Party]: "The Sisters in the Way of God"". Jihadology.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (12 March 2015). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents a new video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī [Turkistan Islamic Party]: "Lovers of Paradise #15"". Jihadology.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (26 May 2013). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents a new video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī [Turkistan Islamic Party]: "The Sacrifices for the Sake of God"". Jihadology.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (18 February 2013). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents Issue #12 of Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī's [Turkistan Islamic Party] magazine: "Turkistān al-Islāmīyyah"". Jihadology.
- Roggio, Bill (23 January 2010). "US airstrike killed 15 Turkistan Islamic Party fighters in Afghanistan". Long War Journal.
- Roggio, Bill (25 August 2012). "Turkistan Islamic Party leader thought killed in US drone strike". Long War Journal.
- "Zawahiri endorses war in Kashmir but says don't hit Hindus in 'Muslim lands'". Indian Express. Reuters. 17 September 2013.
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (13 August 2015). "Ayman al-Zawahiri's Pledge of Allegiance to New Taliban Leader Mullah Muhammad Mansour". Jihad Intel. Middle East Forum.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna (15 August 2015). "Why Zawahri's Pledge To Taliban Could Be A Boon For IS". Under the Black Flag. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- "Al-Qaeda urges fight against West and Russia". al Arabiya. Reuters. 2 November 2015.
- Mukhopadhyay, Sounak (2 November 2015). "Al Qaeda Chief Hints Joining Hands With ISIS In War Against Russia, US". International Business Times.
- Knecht, Eric (1 November 2015). "Al Qaeda chief urges militant unity against Russia in Syria". Reuters. Ali Abdelaty.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (1 November 2015). "New video message from Dr. Ayman al-Ẓawāhirī: "To Unite for the Liberation of Jerusalem"". Jihadology.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (16 September 2015). "First Turkistan Islamic Party emir Hasan Mahsum with current Al Qaeda emir Ayman al Zawahiri. Probably in the 90s" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Rehman, Zia Ur (13 June 2012). "China concerned about Uyghur rebels operating in Pakistan". The Friday Times. XXIV (17).
- Al Suri, Abu Mus'ab (1999). "Muslims in Central Asia and The Coming Battle of Islam". Self-published.
- Lia, Brynjar (2008). Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of Al-Qaida Strategist Abu Musʻab Al-Suri. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70030-6.
- "Jihad in Eastern Turkestan Documented on Video", Kavkaz Center, 12 November 2006
- "TIP Enters Jihadist Mainstream". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- "Şeyh Ebu Yahya El Libi: Doğu Türkistan'a Sahip Çıkın!!". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- Pantucci, Raffaello (23 June 2011). "Turkistan Islamic Party Video Attempts to Explain Uyghur Militancy to Chinese". Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 9 (25).
- "Şeyh Ebu Yahya El Libi: Islam Cemaati Mucahitlerine Nasihatler". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 4 March 2016. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
- "Şeyh Ebu Yahya El Libî'nin Türkistan İslam Cemaati Mücahitlerine Nasihatleri". Ümmet-i İslam. 27 May 2015.
- Zenn, Jacob (10 October 2014). "An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq". China Brief. The Jamestown Foundation. 14 (19).
- "تركستان الإسلامية ، العدد الثاني عشر ، صفر 1434 صفحة 45 نصيحة الشيخ أبي يحيى الليبي رحمه اللـه لمجاهدي تركستان [جديد]" (PDF). azelin.files.wordpress.com. February 2013.
- "Libi Lectures TIP Fighters on Unity in Posthumously Released Message". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- Roggio, Bill (3 March 2016). "Osama Bin Laden's Files: Abu Laith al Libi killed alongside 'Arabs, Tajiks, and Turkistanis'". Long War Journal.
- "Şeyh Atiyyetullah El Libi'nin Türkistan İslam Cemaati eski emiri Abdulşekur Damolla'ya Nasihatleri". Ümmet-i İslam. 1 March 2015.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Türkiyeli Müslümanlara Nasihat". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Mücahitleri Eleştirenlere Nasihat". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 23 October 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati Şehidi Nureddin el-Kürdî'den Mücahidleri Eleştirenlere Nasihat". Ümmet-i İslam. 17 April 2015.
- "Suicide Bomber Calls Turkish Muslims to the Battlefield in TIP Video". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- "TIP Fighter Urges Muslims in Turkey to Contribute to Jihad". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- "TIP Video Shows Training, Attacks of Turkish Fighters in Afghanistan". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- "TIP Video Shows Attacks, Gives Memorial for Slain Official Abdul Aziz". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2014.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati Mücahidi Şehit Abduşşehit Turkistani'nin Hayatı". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 23 March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- Roggio, Bill (26 May 2013). "Turkistan Islamic Party touts suicide bombings in Afghanistan". Long War Journal.
- Rashid, Ahmed (14 January 2002). "They're Only Sleeping: Why militant Islamicists in Central Asia aren't going to go away". The New Yorker.
- "الصينيون الأويغور... "انغماسيّو أردوغان" الجدد". أسرار. 19 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Promoting Cause, Inciting for Jihad". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 6 June 2014.
- Tuba 4 Ilan 1. Internet Archive. 18 August 2015.
- Raziman. Internet Archive. 23 September 2015.
- mensure. Internet Archive. 31 August 2015.
- Junud Ash Sham (22 April 2015). A short video showing the opening of yesterdays ongoing battle in Jisr ash-Shugur. YouTube.
- Weiss, Caleb (23 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria involved in new Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- Weiss, Caleb (30 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party had significant role in recent Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video on its Participation in Jisr al-Shughour". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 1 May 2015.
- Turkistan/Chechnya group releases combat footage of capture of Jsir Shurour. LiveLeak.com. 2 May 2015.
- [Combat edit] NEW Hizb al-Islami at-Turkistan release – Routing SAA brigade from a city in Idlib (August, 2015). LiveLeak.com. 3 August 2015.
- "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria fighting alongside Junud al Sham in Idlib". The Line of Steel. 24 April 2015.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (29 September 2015). "US counterterrorism efforts in Syria: A winning strategy?". Long War Journal.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (30 June 2014). "Syria: The Epicenter of Future Jihad". The Washington Institute.
- "Turkestan Islamic Party in Syria". The Line of Steel. 27 December 2014.
- ghiriblargha-jennet-bolsun4-kisim. Internet Archive. 22 August 2015.
- طوبى للغرباء 1 :. Internet Archive. 25 August 2015.
- "مقتل المتزعم العسكري لما يسمى الحزب الاسلامي التركستاني في الاشتباكات مع الجيش السوري في محيط مشفى جسر الشغور". Al-Ahed News. 26 May 2015.
- خــاص (26 May 2015). "تفاصيل: الجيش السوري يقتل أحد أبرز قادة "القاعدة" العسكريين". الحدث نيوز.
- "Turkistan Islamic Party Fighters Killed In Syria". The Line of Steel. 19 July 2015.
- @lamloma3 (26 May 2015). "تم دعس الخنزير ابو رضا التركستاني قائد ما يسمى الحزب الاسلامي التركستاني التابع لجبهة النصرة في جسر الشغور بريف ادلب" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "More on Turkestan Islamic Party in Syria". The Line of Steel. 1 January 2015.
- Lister, Charles (11 September 2015). "Al-Qa'ida Plays a Long Game in Syria". Combating Terrorism Center Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center. 8 (9): 13–18. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- "Katibat al Tawhid wal Jihad involved in Jisr al Shughur fight". The Line of Steel m. 5 October 2015.
- "Turkestan Islamic Party Fighters Killed In Syria". The Line of Steel. 7 July 2015.
- Weiss, Caleb (20 July 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria conducted suicide bombings at Jisr al Shughur". Long War Journal.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (20 July 2015). "Jihadist front established to represent foreign fighters in Syria". Long War Journal.
- Jihadists vs. the Assad Regime: Syria's Rebel Advance. YouTube. 26 May 2015.
- "Jihadists vs. the Assad Regime: Syria's Rebel Advance". Vice News. 27 May 2015.
- "Imgur: The most awesome images on the Internet". Imgur.
- "Al-Nusra's Abu Maria al-Qahtani has released a statement on their future goals and international relations. : syriancivilwar". reddit.
- Weiss, Caleb (9 August 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria takes part in battle for the Al Ghab plain". Long War Journal.
- "TIP Division in Syria Claims Liberating Four Areas in Idlib". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 6 August 2015.
- @MENASTREAM (9 August 2015). "#TurkistanIslamicParty in #Syria takes part in battle for the #AlGhab plain" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (6 August 2015). "From a few days ago, but the Turkistan Islamic Party in #Syria says it took four villages in Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (6 August 2015). "Also says its guys "met with the brothers in Jund al Aqsa"" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- ziyare. Internet Archive. 12 August 2015.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - إصدار تحرير الزيارة، ميشك، تل واسط في إدلب. Internet Archive. 25 August 2015.
- zeyzun. Internet Archive. 7 August 2015.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Yeni Video: "Kara Kur 'un Fethi"". KüreselAnaliz. 11 August 2015. Archived from the original on 11 August 2015.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - إصدار تحرير قرقور. Internet Archive. 25 August 2015. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016.
- "Type 63: A collection of Musings on Middle East Conflict".
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - تحرير المنصورة. Internet Archive. 1 September 2015.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - الإصدار المرئي الضخم تحرير محمبل وفريكة وتل خطاب. Internet Archive. 24 August 2015.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة أهل الشام - اصدار تحرير تل حمكة وتل عوار وزياديه ومحطة زيزون. Internet Archive. 20 August 2015.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (9 September 2015). "Syrian regime airbase in Idlib falls to Al Nusrah Front, allies". Long War Journal.
- "TIP's Syria Division Releases Video on Joint Operation with Nusra Front to Capture Abu Duhur Air Base". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 September 2015.
- "TIP Division in Syria Claims Role in Capturing Abu Duhur Air Base, Provides Photos". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 10 September 2015.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Yeni Video "Ebu Zuhur'un Fethi"". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 13 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Ebu Zuhur'un Fethi Hakkında Beyanat". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 10 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (13 September 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "The Liberation of Abū al-Ẓuhūr Military Airport"". Jihadology.
- Weiss, Caleb (10 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party releases photos from captured Syrian regime airbase". Long War Journal.
- Terrormonitor.org [@Terror_Monitor] (9 September 2015). "#SYRIA Turkistan Islamic Party Fighters In Abu Dhuhur Military Airbase" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Terrormonitor.org [@Terror_Monitor] (9 September 2015). "More Pictures Of Turkistan Islamic Party Fighters In Abu Dhuhur Military Airbase" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (13 September 2015). "Scenes from the joint TIP/Nusrah/Jund al Aqsa op at Abu Dhuhur airbase #Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (13 September 2015). "Scenes from the joint TIP/Nusrah/Jund al Aqsa op at Abu Dhuhur airbase #Idlib (2)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (13 September 2015). "Scenes from the joint TIP/Nusrah/Jund al Aqsa op at Abu Dhuhur airbase #Idlib (3)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (13 September 2015). "Scenes from the joint TIP/Nusrah/Jund al Aqsa op at Abu Dhuhur airbase #Idlib (4)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Weiss, Caleb (10 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party releases photos from captured Syrian regime airbase". Long War Journal.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (9 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party also takes a photo with Sheikh Muhaysini at Abu Dhuhur airbase" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (9 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party with captured regime soldiers at Abu Dhuhur airbase in #Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- The Daily Conflict [@ConflictReports] (2 June 2015). "The #Syrian branch Of the "#TurkistanIslamicParty" in action. This shit show has no end" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Weiss, Caleb (14 October 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party shows fighters on frontlines in northwestern Syria". Long War Journal.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (10 October 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party on the frontlines in the Al Ghab plain #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- [Combat edit] Turkistan Islamic Party attacking SAA positions in al-Ghab plains, Idlib – Hell cannon/ATGM (Enemies visible) (October, 2015). Liveleak.com. 18 October 2015.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (17 October 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Scenes From the Recent Fighting in Sahl al-Ghāb #1"". Jihadology.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (24 October 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Scenes From the Recent Fighting in Sahl al-Ghāb #2"". Jihadology.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (21 October 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party releases more photos from the frontlines in the Al Ghab plain #Hama #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Türkistan İslam Partisi'nden Yeni Video "Ğab Ovası Operasyonu 2"". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 24 October 2015. Archived from the original on 30 October 2015.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- [Combat edit] Turkistan Islamic Party attacking SAA positions in al-Ghab plains, Idlib – [Part 2] – (October, 2015). LiveLeak.com. 16 November 2015.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (9 November 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Scenes From the Recent Fighting in Sahl al-Ghāb #3"". Jihadology.
- [Combat edit] Turkistan Islamic Party attacking SAA positions in al-Ghab plains, Idlib – [Part 3] – (November, 2015). LiveLeak.com. 16 November 2015.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (14 November 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Scenes From the Recent Fighting in Sahl al-Ghāb #4"". Jihadology.
- [Combat edit] Turkistan Islamic Party attacking SAA positions in al-Ghab plains, Idlib – [Part 4] – (November, 2015). LiveLeak.com. 16 November 2015.
- "Syrian rebels pour men and missiles into frontlines". The Fiscal Times.
- sahil-ghab. Internet Archive. 17 October 2015.
- Foreign Fighters in Syria: Syria Will Be the Graveyard of the Russians. Middle East Media Research Institute. 13 October 2015. #5133.
- H e b a [@HK2307] (3 November 2015). "U.S backed 'moderate rebels' behead a Syrian Soldier in Ghammam" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (3 November 2015). "TIP behead a Syrian soldier while US backed "Syrian" rebels sit around, fire TOWs & complain about Hezbollah/Iran" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- GEOrge [@ArtWendeley] (2 November 2015). "Unexploded Volcano rocket shown by #TIP in #Latakia" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- @turkstanIslamia (3 November 2015). "الصاروخ الذي استهدف المجاهدين ولم ينفجر بفضل الله في غمام لجبل التركمان ولله الحمد والمنة!" [The missile that targeted the Mujahideen did not explode thanks to God, to mount an alarmist Turkmen All praise be to Allah !] (Tweet) (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 24 January 2016 – via Twitter.
- @turkstanIslamia (3 November 2015). "الغنائم التي اغتنمها المجاهدون من محور غمام في جبل التركمان الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني في بلاد الشام «صوت الإسلام»" [Spoils Agtinmha Mujahideen of the axis of alarmist in Mount Turkmen] (Tweet) (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 11 January 2016 – via Twitter.
- @turkstanIslamia (3 November 2015). "الغنائم التي اغتنمها المجاهدون في غمام لجبل التركمان الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة أهل الشام" [Spoils Agtinmha Mujahideen in an alarmist Mount Turkmen, Turkestan Islamic Party, to support the people of Syria] (Tweet) (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 11 January 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- East Turkestan [@east_turkestan_] (17 August 2015). "Shabbiyahs(Assad Soldiers) who were killed by Syria branch of Turkestan Islamic Movement" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- Brooks-Pollock, Tom (19 September 2015). "Syria civil war: Islamist rebels 'execute 56 government troops' following capture of air base". The Independent.
- "Insurgents killed 56 government troops at captured air base: Syria monitor". Reuters. 19 September 2015.
- Bulos, Nabih (19 September 2015). "Militants execute 56 Syrian regime soldiers at captured airbase". The Telegraph.
- ""الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني" فصيل جديد يقود عمليات رئيسية في شمال سوريا" ["Turkistan Islamic Party" a new faction is leading major operations in northern Syria]. Syriahr.com (in Arabic). 22 September 2015.
- Roggio, Bill; Weiss, Caleb (21 June 2015). "Over 100 jihadist training camps identified in Iraq and Syria". Long War Journal.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (17 August 2013). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents Issue #13 of Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī's [Turkistan Islamic Party] magazine: "Turkistān al-Islāmīyyah"". Jihadology.
- "Turkistān al-Islāmīyyah Magazine". Jihadology. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna (2 May 2014). "Report: Major Chechen, Uzbek, Uighur Factions Unite". From Chechnya To Syria Tracking Russian-speaking Foreign Fighters In Syria.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna (23 April 2015). "Muslim Shishani & His Military Emir Reappear In Jisr Al-Shugur". From Chechnya To Syria Tracking Russian-speaking Foreign Fighters In Syria.
- بلوط, محمد (2 June 2015). "تأهب ميداني لإعادة فتح معركة إدلب" [Alert field to re-open the battle of Idlib]. As-Safir (in Arabic). p. 1.
- Gurcan, Metin (9 September 2015). "How the Islamic State is exploiting Asian unrest to recruit fighters". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (1 May 2015). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents a new video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī [Turkistan Islamic Party] in Bilād al-Shām: "Conquest of Jisr al-Shaghūr"". Jihadology.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - عملية تحرير جـسر الشغور. Internet Archive. 24 August 2015.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (18 September 2015). "Al Nusrah Front, allies strike 2 Shiite towns in Idlib province". Long War Journal.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna; Anvar, Barno (21 September 2015). "The Last Moments Of A Suicide Bomber In Syria". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- Zenn, Jacob (10 October 2014). "An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq". China Brief. The Jamestown Foundation. 14 (19).
- Gunaratna, Rohan (January – February 2014). "Global Threat Assessment" (PDF). Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis. Singapore: International Center for Political Violence and Terrorism, Nanyang Technological University. 6 (1): 4.
- NEW: Uyghur Mujahidin firing ANA bases & Shooting at AH-1 Cobra in Eastern Afghanistan 2013. LiveLeak.com. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- Islam Awazi: 'The Lions of War – 1' Operations in Eastern Afghanistan. LiveLeak.com. 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- Islam Awazi: Ambush of a Unarmed Bomb Disposal Unit [Graphic]. LiveLeak.com. 5 August 2015.
- Islam Awazi: Taliban SPG-9 Fail. LiveLeak.com. 5 August 2015. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- East Turkestan [@east_turkestan_] (17 August 2015). "Afgan soldiers who were killed by Afghanistan branch of Turkesten Islamic Movement" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (1 December 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Dr. 'Abd Allah bin Muḥammad al-Muḥaysinī: A Message to Turkistānīs"". Jihadology.
- "Şeyh Abdullah El Muheysini'den Doğu Türkistanlı Müslümanlara Risale". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Cite error: The named reference
own wordswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Balci, Bayram (Winter 2004). "The Role of the Pilgrimage in Relations between Uzbekistan and the Uzbek Community of Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Central European Studies Review. 1 (1): 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (19 December 2015). "New video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Dr. 'Abd Allah bin Muḥammad al-Muḥaysinī: The Importance of Martyrdom Operations in Our Current Time"". Jihadology.
- "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (26 December 2015). "New video nashīd from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "The Martyrs"". Jihadology.
- Weiss, Caleb (4 September 2015). "Saudi al Qaeda cleric showcases training camp for children in Syria". Long War Journal.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Photos of Fighters, Camp for Children". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 30 June 2014.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Photo Album Featuring Young Boys in Training Camp". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 8 July 2015.
- "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria Shows "Little Mujahideen" in New Video". The Line of Steel. 4 July 2015.
- Caleb Weiss [@weissenberg7] (4 July 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria with what it calls "little mujahideen." TIP known to operate training camps for kids" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@weissenberg7] (4 July 2015). "Another one" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Roggio, Bill; Weiss, Caleb (24 September 2015). "Uighur jihadist group in Syria advertises 'little jihadists'". Long War Journal.
- Nadir Suret 9. Internet Archive. 23 September 2015.
- Terrormonitor.org [@Terror_Monitor] (24 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party Release Photos Of Their 'CUBS' Training Camp In Jisr al-Shughur, #Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- Ibrahim al-Assil [@iAssil] (25 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) releases video of "cubs" training camp in #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Joanna Paraszczuk [@joaska_] (4 January 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party (ethnic Uighurs) child training camp in #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Terrormonitor.org [@Terror_Monitor] (7 June 2015). "#TurkistanIslamicParty #Syria Branch Recruit More Then [sic] 150 Child Soldiers – Report" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Hassan Ridha [@sayed_ridha] (25 September 2015). "Child soldiers being trained by the Turkestan Islamic Party in #Jisr_Shughour #Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Charles Lister [@Charles_Lister] (24 September 2015). "What #China worries about – Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP / ETIM) "cubs" training camp in Jisr al-Shughour, Syria:" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Joanna Paraszczuk [@joaska_] (3 January 2015). "Uighur Turkistan Islamic Party militants in #Syria (bay'ah to Mullah Omar, work w JAN)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Caleb Weiss [@Weissenberg7] (3 January 2015). "@joaska_ Wouldn't be surprised if they run a camp for kids in Syria like they do in AfPak all the time" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Terrormonitor.org [@terror_monitor] (17 August 2015). "#Turkistan Islamic Party (#TIP) Child Soldiers Training For #Jihad In #Afghanistan" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Roggio, Bill (24 April 2013). "Turkistan Islamic Party releases video of children in training". Long War Journal.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - صور من أرض الملاحم 3. Internet Archive. 20 August 2015.
- الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة اهل الشام - صور من أرض الملاحم 7. Internet Archive. 25 August 2015.
- Terrormonitor.org [@terror_monitor] (27 August 2015). "#Turkistan Islamic Party (#TIP) Posted Photos Of Children Celebrating With Guns" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Catch them young – Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) Child Soldiers Training For Jihad In Afghanistan". Asian Defence News. 28 August 2015.
- Carlos da Jackal [@IIiCH_SANCHEZ] (9 June 2015). "#TurkistanIslamicParty #Syria Young Mujaheeds" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- AjinLa Kurdistan [@AjinlaKurdistan] (9 September 2015). "@ajaltamimi @ArjDnn Islamic emirate of #Idlib" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Terrormonitor.org [@Terror_Monitor] (9 September 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party Child Soldiers" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- قرية الزنبقي السورية أقرب إلى الصين منها الى دمشق + صور [Syrian Alzenbaka village closer to China, including to Damascus] (in Arabic). 3 September 2015.
- من قرية الزنبقي السورية، هنا الصين.. 3500 مستوطن!. Syria alhadath- سورية الحدث. 3 September 2015.
- قناة الميادين (3 September 2015). الميادين - الأخبار - قرية الزنبقي السورية أقرب إلى الصين منها الى دمشق. قناة الميادين. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- داعش جلب آلاف المقاتلين مع عائلاتهم إلى الرقة. YouTube. 3 September 2015.
- 3500 إيغوري من الصين يعيشون في قرية الزنبقة بجسر الشغور بعد ترحيل سكانها السوريين! [3,500 Uighurs from China living in the village of tulip bridge vacancy after the deportation of the Syrian population]. Syria Now (in Arabic). 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- ستبدو السماء السوريّة (كفروة) خاروف العيد .. السلوك الأمريكي إزاء دمشق كسلوك الرايخ الثالث .. بقلم: المحامي محمد احمد الروسان. Dam Press. 19 September 2015.
- MEMRI [@MEMRIReports] (30 September 2015). "Video: #Uyghur Families Colonize Syrian Village ow.ly/SPBnZ #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Uyghur Families Colonize Syrian Village. Middle East Media Research Institute. 3 September 2015. Clip #5089.
- "Türkistan İslam Cemaati Mücahidesi Bacı'dan "Ümmetin Erkeklerine Serzeniş"". Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015.
- "Uyghurs sold as 'cannon fodder' for extremist groups: China". Asia Times. Reuters. 11 July 2015.
- "Uygur Ajan Rabia Kadir, Doğu Türkistanlı Mücahidleri İhbar Etti". Islah Haber. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- "Rabia Kadir Gammazcı Çıktı!". Furkan Haber. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016.
- "Doğu Türkistan Vakfı Resmi Web Sitesi". Doğu Türkistan Vakfı. 6 December 2014.
- "Uighur involved in fight against Syrian regime". Anadolu Agency. 1 December 2014.
- "80-year-old Chinese man joins Islamic State". The Rakyat Post. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Setiawan, Teguh (3 June 2015). "Muhammad Amin, Serdadu ISIS Tertua asal Tiongkok". Inilah.com.
- Muhaimin (4 June 2015). "Usia 80 Tahun, Inilah Militan ISIS Tertua asal China". SindoNews.com.
- "[VIDEO] - Usia Sudah 80 Tahun, Kakek Asal Cina Ini Bergabung dengan ISIS". Tribun Jabar. 4 June 2015.
- Crowcroft, Orlando (3 June 2015). "The oldest Isis jihadi: 80-year-old Chinese grandfather fights for Islamic State in Syria". International Business Times.
- Oldest IS*IS jihadi 80 year old grandfather fights in Syria (video) (in Uyghur, Arabic, and English). 3 June 2015.
- The Oldest Jihadi Of ISIS Who Flees China With his Family (video) (in Uyghur, Arabic, and English). 3 June 2015.
- Prince, Sam (2 June 2015). "WATCH: 80-Year-Old ISIS Soldier Gives Interview". Heavy.com.
- Singh, Bajinder Pal (29 August 2015). "Why we need to worry about the Grey Wolves of Turkey". Daily O.
- "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016.
- Abdullah Bozkurt [@abdbozkurt] (1 May 2016). "#China made a decision to work closely with #Turkey starting in 2007/8 to secure Ankara's help in integrating Uighurs in #Xinjiang region" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0804797927.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0231139241.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0231139241.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 0804797927.
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1871). Accounts and papers of the House of Commons. Ordered to be printed. p. 35. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Page 52, Ismail, Mohammed Sa'id, and Mohammed Aziz Ismail. Moslems in the Soviet Union and China. Translated by U.S. Government, Joint Publications Service. Tehran, Iran: Privately printed pamphlet, published as vol. 1, 1960 (Hejira 1380); translation printed in Washington: JPRS 3936, 19 September 1960.
- Page 53, Ismail, Mohammed Sa'id, and Mohammed Aziz Ismail. Moslems in the Soviet Union and China. Translated by U.S. Government, Joint Publications Service. Tehran, Iran: Privately printed pamphlet, published as vol. 1, 1960 (Hejira 1380); translation printed in Washington: JPRS 3936, 19 September 1960.
- Karagiannis, Emmanuel (2010). Political Islam in Central Asia: The Challenge of Hizb Ut-Tahrir. Routedge. pp. 67, 112. ISBN 978-0-415-55399-5.
- Dzyubenko, Olga (24 January 2014). "Kyrgyzstan says kills 11 Uighur militants near Chinese border". Reuters.
- Blanchard, Ben (14 February 2014). "China says 11 'terrorists' killed in new Xinjiang unrest". Reuters.
- Kyrgyzstan troops kill Uighur militants near Chinese border. News Direct. 25 February 2014 – via Youtube.
- Kyrgyzstan troops kill Uighur militants near Chinese border. TomoNews US. 27 February 2014 – via YouTube.
- "Xinjiang: PRC Scrambles to Avoid Anti-Islam Image Abroad and Kill OIC Declaration". WikiLeaks.org. 17 July 2009.
- "Xinjiang: China Reportedly Defeated OIC Statement on Uighurs, Seeking Observership". WikiLeaks.org. 31 July 2009.
- Al-Tamimi, Naser M. (5 September 2013). China-Saudi Arabia Relations, 1990–2012: Marriage of Convenience Or Strategic Alliance?. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-134-46153-0.
- Sun, Yun (6 November 2014). "Uighur refugees in Southeast Asia stoke Chinese worries". The Interpreter. Lowly Institute for Public Policy.
- "HRW condemns Malaysia for deporting Uighurs". Refugees Global Press Review. UNHCR. Agence France Presse. 3 February 2013.
- "Rights group criticizes Malaysia's secret deportation of 6 Uighur Chinese seeking asylum". Refugees Global Press Review. UNHCR. Associate Press. 4 February 2013.
- "Malaysia secretly deported six Chinese Muslims to face uncertain fate under Beijing". Harakah Daily. 4 February 2013 – via Suara Sarawak.
- "Rights group criticizes Malaysia's secret deportation of 6 Uighur Chinese seeking asylum". Montreal Gazette. 4 February 2013 – via Oppenheimer.McGill.ca.
- Kadeer, Rebiya (2009). Dragon Fighter One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China. Kales Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-9798456-1-1.
- Cetingulec, Tulay (9 October 2014). "Will Kuwaiti diplomat's road rage hurt Turkish economy?". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- "Military to Military: Seymour M. Hersh on US intelligence sharing in the Syrian war". London Review of Books. 38 (1): 11–14. 7 January 2016.
- Johnson, Ian (13 August 2015). "Q. and A.: Nick Holdstock on Xinjiang and 'China's Forgotten People'". The New York Times.
- "Account Suspended".[dead link]
- 23 تركستان الإسلامية ، العدد الرابع عشر ، ربيع الأول 1435 صفحة (PDF) (in Uyghur). Archived from the original on 4 October 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "German IMU Spokesman Praises Millatu-Ibrahim Officials in TIP Video". Jihadist Threat. SITE Intelligence Group. 15 January 2015.
- "The Government-in-Exhile of East Turkistan Republic". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- Cite error: The named reference
2011 Kadeerwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Lary, Diana (1974). Region and nation: the Kwangsi clique in Chinese politics, 1925–1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-521-20204-3.
- "Crackdown on Xinjiang Mosques, Religion". Radio Free Asia. 14 August 2008.
- "China Bans Officials, State Employees, Children From Mosques". Uyghur Human Rights Project. 6 February 2006. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
- "'Permanent cure': Inside the re-education camps China is using to brainwash Muslims". www. businessinsider.com. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- "China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region". www.hrw.org. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
- "China detains thousands of Muslims in re-education camps". www.ucanews.com. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "High Numbers of Uyghurs Targeted for Re-Education Camps". Voice of America. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
- "Xinjiang's "transformation through education" camps". www. lowyinstitute.org. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "Why are Muslim Uyghurs being sent to re-education camps". www. aljazeera.com. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "How Should the World Respond to Intensifying Repression in Xinjiang?". www. chinafile.com. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "A Surveillance State Unlike Any the World Has Ever Seen". www.spiegel.de. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "NGOs note 'staggering' rise in arrests as China cracks down on minorities in Muslim region". www.hongkongfp.com. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "Rights groups criticise sharp rise in arrests in China's Xinjiang province". www.irishtimes.com. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
- "China steps up surveillance on Xinjiang Muslims". www.ft.com. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "Thousands of Uyghur Muslims detained in Chinese 'political education' camps". www.edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "China Runs Region-wide Re-education Camps in Xinjiang for Uyghurs And Other Muslims". www.rfa.org. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Securing Xinjiang: China adds security component to belt and road initiative". www.globalvillagespace.com. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "100 Christians sent to 're-education' camps in Xinjiang". www.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- "China's crackdown on Christians: Terrifying 're-education' camps REVEALED". www.express.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Xinjiang Surveillance Expands to Non-Uyghur Muslims". www.chinadigitaltimes.net. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China's 're-education' camps". www.independent.co.uk. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Kazakhstan National Missing, Believed Detained in China, Amid Ongoing Crackdown". www. rfa.org. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Kazakhstan Confronts China Over Disappearances". www. rferl.org. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "What's behind China's anti-Kazakh campaign?". www.opendemocracy.net. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "China incarcerates thousands of Muslims". www. csmonitor.com. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Gu, Bo (11 August 2011). "Relations between Uighurs and Han Chinese not all bad". NBC News. Behind The Wall.
- Cite error: The named reference
Celticwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- China White Paper on Xinjiang 26 May 2004
- Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth (Spring 2008). "Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China". Asian Affairs. 35 (1): 15–29. doi:10.3200/aafs.35.1.15-30. JSTOR 27821503.
- Millward 1998, pp. 77–78, 133–134.
- Millward 2007, p. 23.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 25, 30–31.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 25–26.
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 28.
- Starr 2004.
- "Background". Devastating Blows: Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang (Report). Human Rights Watch. April 2005.
- "China Protests Establishment of Uighur Government-in-Exile in Washington – 2004-09-21". Voice of America. 29 October 2009.
- Gladney 2004, pp. 246–247.
- Cody, Edward (10 May 2006). "China demands that Albania return ex-U.S. detainees". Washington Post.
- "Country Reports: East Asia and Pacific Overview". United States Department of State. 30 April 2008.
- "Governance Asia-Pacific Watch". United Nations. April 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2007.
- Ansari, Massoud (August 2007). "The New Face of Jihad". News Line. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009.
- "Country Reports". United States Department of State. 27 April 2004.
- "İsa Yusuf Alptekin". Hur Gokbayrak. 3 January 2005. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "İsa Yusuf Alptekin'i Rahmet ve Minnetle Yad Ediyoruz…" [We're Isa Yusuf Alptekin Grace and thankfully Yad]. Turk Islam Davasi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Doğu Türkistan Vakfı Resmi Web Sitesi". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "mithatuyanikeskipazar78". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "İsa Yusuf Alptekin ve Türkiye'nin Siyasal Hayatına Etkileri". Konya Yenigun. 5 January 2015.
- "İsa Yusuf Alptekin ve Türkiye'nin Siyasal Hayatına Etkileri". Doğu Türkistan Vakfı.
- "Doğu Türkistan Kültür ve Dayanışma Derneği Genel Merkezi - Gökbayrak Dergisi, 44.Sayı, Kasım-Aralık / 2001". Gok Bayrak. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch Backgrounder. Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2001.
- Priniotakis, Manolis (19 December 2001). "China's Secret Separatists:". The Prospect.
- McDonald, Hamish (12 November 2005). "China battles to convince terror sceptics". The Age. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014.
- "Chinese police destroy terrorist camp in Xinjiang, one policeman killed". China Central Television. 10 January 2007.
- "Çin, Mücahitleri Yakalamak Adına Doğu Türkistan'da Halka Zulmediyor". Dogu Turkistan Bulteni. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015.
- "China bans Ramadan fasting in mainly Muslim region". Al-Jazeera. 18 June 2015.
- "China targets 'wild imams' in mass public sentencing". Reuters. 11 November 2014.
- Tiezzi, Shannon (28 July 2015). "Uyghur Issues Cast Pall Over Turkey-China Relations". The Diplomat.
- "China 'foils Olympic terror plot'". BBC News. 10 April 2008.
- on YouTube
- Davis, Elizabeth Van Wie (18 April 2008). "China confronts its Uyghur threat". Asia Times.
- "16 Chinese police officers killed in attack". The Globe and Mail. 4 August 2008.[dead link]
- "Behind the scenes: Internet police out in force for the Olympics". CNN. 7 August 2008.
- "Blasts kill two in China's restive Xinjiang". Reuters. Xinhua. 10 August 2008.
- https://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080828/ap_on_re_as/china_uighur_clash_4. Retrieved 29 August 2008. Missing or empty
- https://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080829/wl_asia_afp/chinaxinjiangunrestoly2008_080829153907. Retrieved 29 August 2008. Missing or empty
- Sherwell, Philip (29 August 2015). "Bangkok bombing: Was it the Grey Wolves of Turkey?". The Telegraph.
- Murdoch, Lindsay (30 August 2015). "Bangkok bombing: Who are the Turkish terrorist group the Grey Wolves?". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Rossington, Ben (27 August 2015). "Bangkok bombings: Police probe 'Grey Wolves' link to attack which killed 20". The Mirror.
- Cunningham, Susan (24 August 2015). "Thailand's Shrine Bombing - The Case For Turkey's Grey Wolves". Forbes.
- "Break in Bangkok blast case? Police arrest possible suspect". Asia Times. 29 August 2015. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Lefevre, Amy Sawitta; Niyomyat, Aukkarapon (27 August 2015). "Thai police look into Turkish connection in Bangkok blast". Reuters.
- "Police arrest Erawan blast suspect". Bangkok Post. 29 August 2015.
- Nanuam, Wassana (7 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance". Bangkok Post.
- "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance". Thailand News. 7 April 2016.
- "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance in Thailand". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 7 April 2016.
- Balasubramanian, Jaishree (7 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen tourists placed under surveillance in Thailand". India Today. Press Trust of India.
- Charuvastra, Teeranai (8 April 2016). "Uighur, Chechen Militants in Thailand to Stage Attacks, Memo Warns". Khaosod.
This article incorporates text from Accounts and papers of the House of Commons, a publication from 1871 now in the public domain in the United States.
- Andreyev, Alexandre (2003). Soviet Russia and Tibet: The Debarcle of Secret Diplomacy, 1918–1930s. Volume 4 of Brill's Tibetan Studies Library, V.4 (illustrated ed.). Brill. ISBN 90-04-12952-9.
- Andreyev, Alexandre (2014). The Myth of the Masters Revived: The Occult Lives of Nikolai and Elena Roerich. Brill. ISBN 90-04-27043-4.
- Baabar (1999). Kaplonski, Christopher (ed.). Twentieth Century Mongolia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). White Horse Press. ISBN 1-874267-40-5.
- Linguistic Typology, Volume 2. Association for Linguistic Typology. Mouton de Gruyter. 1998.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Islamic Culture, Volumes 27-29. Islamic Culture Board. Deccan. 1971. ISBN 0-8420-1704-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Ethnological information on China. Volume 16; Volume 620 of JPRS (Series). CCM Information Corporation. n.d. [196?].
- "Turkestan". The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. Volume 23 (9 ed.). Maxwell Sommerville. 1894. p. 681.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1-2. Contributor: University of Cambridge. Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit. The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge. 2002. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch. Shanghai : Printed at the "Celestial Empire" Office 10-Hankow Road-10.: The Branch. 1876. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai (1876). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch. Shanghai : Printed at the "Celestial Empire" Office 10-Hankow Road-10.: Kelly & Walsh. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1871). Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Volume 51. H.M. Stationery Office. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1914). Papers by Command, Volume 101. H.M. Stationery Office. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section, George Walter Prothero (1920). Handbooks Prepared Under the Direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office, Issues 67-74. H.M. Stationery Office. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section (1973). George Walter Prothero (ed.). China, Japan, Siam. Volume 12 of Peace Handbooks, Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section. ISBN 0-8420-1704-6. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2007). Situating the Uyghurs Between China and Central Asia. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-7041-4.
- Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880–1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-16675-0.
- Biran, Michal (2005). The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84226-6.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2010). The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51941-0.
- Benson, Linda; Svanberg, Ingvar C. (1998). China's Last Nomads: The History and Culture of China's Kazaks (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-782-8.
- Benson, Linda (1990). The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-509-7.
- BURNS, john f. (6 July 1983). "ON SOVIET-CHINA BORDER, THE THAW IS JUST A TRICKLE". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Bretschneider, E. (1876). Notices of the Mediæval Geography and History of Central and Western Asia. Trübner & Company. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Bridgman, Elijah Coleman; Williams, Samuel Wells (1837). The Chinese Repository, Vol. V, From May 1836 to April 1837 (reprint ed.). Canton: Maruzen Kabushiki Kaisha.
- Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia - A History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-136-82706-4. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Clarke, Michael Edmund (2004). In the Eye of Power: China and Xinjiang from the Qing Conquest to the 'New Great Game' for Central Asia, 1759–2004 (PDF) (Thesis). Griffith University, Brisbane: Dept. of International Business & Asian Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2011.
- Croner, Don (2009). "False Lama – The Life and Death of Dambijantsan" (PDF). dambijantsan.doncroner.com. Ulaan Baatar: Don Croner. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Croner, Don (2010). "Ja Lama – The Life and Death of Dambijantsan" (PDF). dambijantsan.doncroner.com. Ulaan Baatar: Don Croner. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Crowe, David M. (2014). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-137-03701-6. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Dankoff, Robert (2008). From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi. Isis Press. ISBN 978-975-428-366-2.
- Debata, Mahesh Ranjan (2007). China's Minorities: Ethnic-religious Separatism in Xinjiang. Central Asian Studies Programme (illustrated ed.). Pentagon Press. ISBN 81-8274-325-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dickens, Mark (1990). "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911–1949". OXUS COMMUNICATIONS. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Dillon, Michael (2008). Contemporary China – An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-29054-3. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dillon, Michael (2003). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-36096-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dupree, Louis; Naby, Eden (1994). Black, Cyril E. (ed.). The Modernization of Inner Asia. Contributor: Elizabeth Endicott-West (reprint ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-87332-779-9. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe; Millward, James A (2004). New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-36222-6. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1 (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3-447-04091-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Fairbank, John K., ed. (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10, Late Ch'ing 1800–1911, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21447-5. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Fisher, Richard Swainson (1852). The book of the world, Volume 2. J. H. Colton.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 (illustrated ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Gernet, Jacques (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2004). Dislocating China: Reflections on Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-29776-7.
- Gorelova, Liliya M., ed. (2002). Handbook of Oriental Studies Section 8 Uralic & Central Asian Studies, Manchu Grammar. Volume Seven Manchu Grammar. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 90-04-12307-5. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Gunaratna, Rohan; Acharya, Acharya; Pengxin, Wang (2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan US. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- Guo, Sujian; Guo, Baogang (2007). Guo, Sujian; Guo, Baogang (eds.). Challenges facing Chinese political development (illustrated ed.). Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-2094-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Guo, Baogang; Hickey, Dennis V., eds. (2009). Toward Better Governance in China: An Unconventional Pathway of Political Reform (illustrated ed.). Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-4029-9. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Harris, Rachel (2004). Singing the Village: Music, Memory and Ritual Among the Sibe of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-726297-X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Hansen, Valerie (2012). The Silk Road: A New History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3.
- Hopper, Ben; Webber, Michael (2009), "Migration, Modernisation and Ethnic Estrangement: Uyghur migration to Urumqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, PRC", Inner Asia, Global Oriental Ltd, 11 (2): 173–203, doi:10.1163/000000009793066460
- Howell, Anthony J. (2009). Population Migration and Labor Market Segmentation: Empirical Evidence from Xinjiang, Northwest China. Michigan State University. ProQuest. ISBN 1-109-24323-5. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Juntunen, Mirja; Schlyter, Birgit N., eds. (2013). Return To The Silk Routes (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 1-136-17519-9. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Kadeer, Rebiya (2009). Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China. Kales. ISBN 978-0-9798456-1-1.
- Kaltman, Blaine (2007). Under the Heel of the Dragon: Islam, Racism, Crime, and the Uighur in China. Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-89680-254-4.
- Kim, Hodong (2004). Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864–1877 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-6723-8.
- Kim, Kwangmin (2008). Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing Central Asia, 1696--1814. University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 1-109-10126-0 – via ProQuest.
- Lattimore, Owen (1955). Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia. Brill Archive.
- Lorge, Peter (2006). War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-37286-8.
- Levene, Mark (2008). "Empires, Native Peoples, and Genocides". In Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Oxford and New York: Berghahn. pp. 183–204. ISBN 1-84545-452-9. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Liu, Tao Tao; Faure, David (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-402-3. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Mackerras, Colin (2003). China's Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-39288-5.
- Marks, Robert B. (2011). China: Its Environment and History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1-4422-1277-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Martin, Robert Montgomery (1847). China; Political, Commercial, and Social: In an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government. Volume 1 of China, Political, Commercial, and Social: In an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government, China, Political, Commercial, and Social: In an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government. J. Madden.
- Martyn, Norma (1987). The silk road. Methuen. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Mentelle, Edme; Malte-Brun, Malte Conrad Brun (dit Conrad); de Halle, Pierre-Etienne Herbin (1804). Géographie mathématique, physique & politique de toutes les parties du monde. Volume 12. H. Tardieu. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13924-1.
- Morozova, Irina Y. (2009). Socialist Revolutions in Asia: The Social History of Mongolia in the 20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 1-135-78437-X. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Nan, Susan Allen; Mampilly, Zachariah Cherian; Bartoli, Andrea, eds. (2011). Peacemaking: From Practice to Theory. Volume One. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-313-37576-3. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Nan, Susan Allen; Mampilly, Zachariah Cherian; Bartoli, Andrea, eds. (2011). Peacemaking: From Practice to Theory [2 volumes]: From Practice to Theory. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-313-37577-1.
- Newby, L. J. (2005). The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations With Khoqand C.1760-1860. Volume 16 of Brill's Inner Asian Library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 90-04-14550-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Nyman, Lars-Erik (1977). Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918–1934. Volume 8 of Lund studies in international history. Esselte studium. ISBN 91-24-27287-6. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Paine, S. C. M. (1996). Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-724-0. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Palmer, James (2011). The Bloody White Baron: The Extraordinary Story of the Russian Nobleman Who Became the Last Khan of Mongolia (reprint ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02207-3. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Parker, Charles H. (2010). Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age, 1400–1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-139-49141-5. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Pegg, Carole (2001). Mongolian Music, Dance, & Oral Narrative: Performing Diverse Identities, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98030-3. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Perdue, Peter C. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01684-X. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Perdue, Peter C. (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-04202-6. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Perdue, Peter C. (October 1996). "Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century China, Russia, and Mongolia". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 30 (4 Special Issue: War in Modern China): 757–793. doi:10.1017/s0026749x00016796. JSTOR 312949.
- Pletcher, Kenneth, ed. (2010). The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 1-61530-182-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Pletcher, Kenneth, ed. (2011). The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places (illustrated ed.). The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-61530-134-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Pollard, Vincent, ed. (2011). State Capitalism, Contentious Politics and Large-Scale Social Change. Volume 29 of Studies in Critical Social Sciences (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 90-04-19445-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Powers, John; Templeman, David (2012). Historical Dictionary of Tibet (illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-7984-0. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Prakash, Buddha (1963). The modern approach to history. University Publishers. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Rahul, Ram (2000). March of Central Asia. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-109-4. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Reed, J. Todd; Raschke, Diana (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-313-36540-7.
- Roberts, John A.G. (2011). A History of China (revised ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-34411-9. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Michell, Robert (1870). "Eastern Turkestan and Dzungaria, and the rebellion of the Tungans and Taranchis, 1862 to 1866". In Romanovski, M. (ed.). Notes on the Central Asiatic Question. Calcutta, India: Office of Superintendent of Government Printing.
- Rudelson, Justin Jon; Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam (1992). Bones in the Sand: The Struggle to Create Uighur Nationalist Ideologies in Xinjiang, China (reprint ed.). Harvard University.
- Rudelson, Justin Jon (1997). Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10786-2.
- RYAN, William l. (2 January 1969). "Russians Back Revolution in Province Inside China". The Lewiston Daily Sun. p. 3. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Sanders, Alan J. K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia. Volume 74 of Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East (3, illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-7452-0. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Sautman, Barry (2000). "Is Xinjiang an Internal Colony?". Inner Asia. Brill. 2 (2): 239–271. doi:10.1163/146481700793647788. JSTOR 23615559.
- Scharff, David E.; Scharff, Jill Savege (2011). The Interpersonal Unconscious. Jason Aronson. ISBN 978-0-7657-0870-0.
- Seymour, James D.; Anderson, Richard (1999). New Ghosts, Old Ghosts: Prisons and Labor Reform Camps in China. Socialism and Social Movements Series. Contributor: Sidong Fan (illustrated, reprint ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0510-4.
- Shelton, Dinah C (2005). Shelton, Dinah (ed.). Encyclopedia of genocide and crimes against humanity, Volume 3 (illustrated ed.). Macmillan Reference. ISBN 0-02-865850-7. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Aspects of Altaic Civilization III: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, June 19-25, 1987. Volume 3 of Aspects of Altaic civilization / ed. by Denis Sinor.
- Sinor, Denis, ed. (1990). Volume 145 of Indiana University Uralic and Altaic series, Indiana University Bloomington. Contributor: Indiana University, Bloomington. Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-7007-0380-2. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Skrine, C.P.; Nightingale, Pamela (2013) . Macartney at Kashgar: New Light on British, Chinese and Russian Activities in Sinkiang, 1890–1918. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-57609-6.
- Starr, S. Frederick, ed. (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1318-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Svanberg, Ingvar; Westerlund, David (2012). Islam Outside the Arab World. Routledge. ISBN 1-136-11330-4. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Tamm, Eric (2013). The Horse that Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road, and the Rise of Modern China. Counterpoint. ISBN 1-58243-876-5. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (28 May 2010). "China and Kazakhstan: A Two-Way Street". Bloomberg Businessweek. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (28 May 2010). "Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street". Gazeta.kz. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (27 May 2010). "Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street". Transitions Online. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tyler, Christian (2004). Wild West China: The Taming of Xinjiang. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3533-3.
- Universität Bonn. Ostasiatische Seminar (1982). Asiatische Forschungen, Volumes 73-75. O. Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-02237-X. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Walcott, Susan M.; Johnson, Corey, eds. (2013). Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China to the Caspian Sea. Routledge. ISBN 1-135-07875-0. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Wayne, Martin I. (2007). China's War on Terrorism: Counter-Insurgency, Politics and Internal Security. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-10623-8. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Westad, Odd Arne (2012). Restless Empire: China and the World Since 1750 (illustrated ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02936-1.
- Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century" (PDF). Modern China. Sage Publications. 32 (Number 1): 3–30. doi:10.1177/0097700405282349. JSTOR 20062627. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Znamenski, Andrei (2011). Red Shambhala: Magic, Prophecy, and Geopolitics in the Heart of Asia (illustrated ed.). Quest Books. ISBN 0-8356-0891-3. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- The Mongolia Society Bulletin: A Publication of the Mongolia Society, Volume 9. Contributor: Mongolia Society. The Society. 1970. Retrieved 24 April 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Mongolia Society (1970). Mongolia Society Bulletin, Volumes 9-12. Mongolia Society. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Central Asia Monitor. Contributor: Institute for Democratic Development. Central Asia Monitor. 1993. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Radio war aims at China Moslems". The Montreal Gazette. UPI. 22 September 1981. p. 11. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Universität Bonn. Ostasiatische Seminar (1982). Asiatische Forschungen, Volumes 73-75. O. Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-02237-X. Retrieved 24 April 2014.