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People's Anti-Imperialist Association

People's Anti-Imperialist Association[a] (Chinese: 民众反帝联合会; pinyin: Mínzhòng Fǎn Dì Liánhé Huì; Wade–Giles: Minchung Fan Ti Lienho Hui) was a political party in Xinjiang, China during the rule of Sheng Shicai, between 1935 and 1942.

People's Anti-Imperialist Association

Mínzhòng Fǎn Dì Liánhé Huì
PresidentSheng Shicai
FounderSheng Shicai
Founded1 August 1935 (1935-08-01)
DissolvedApril 1942 (1942-04)
HeadquartersÜrümqi, Xinjiang
NewspaperAnti-Imperialist War Front
Youth wingXinjiang's Youth
Women's wingXinjiang's Women
Membership (1939)10,000
IdeologySix Great Policies[1]
Political positionLeft-wing


The People's Anti-Imperialist Association was founded by Sheng Shicai in Ürümqi on 1 August 1935. The propaganda outlet of the Association was the Anti-Imperialist War Front. The Sinkiang's Youth and the Sinkiang's Women served as the Association's youth and women's wing respectively. The Association saw a large increase in membership. In 1935 it had 2,489 members, in 1937 the membership grew to 5,281, and in 1939 the Association's membership rose to 10,000.[5] The membership was nationally diverse, and included Han, Hui and various Turkic peoples.[1]

The ideology of the People's Anti-Imperialist Association were the "Six Great Policies", issued by Sheng in December 1934.[6] The Policies guaranteed his previously enacted "Great Eight-Point Manifesto"[7] and included "anti-imperialism, friendship with the Soviet Union, racial and national equality, clean government, peace and reconstruction".[7][6] Sheng referred to them as "a skillful, vital application of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism in the conditions of the feudal society of economically and culturally backward Sinkiang".[8] They served as the ideological basis of Sheng's rule.[9] With the proclamation of the Six Great Policies, Sheng adopted a new flag with a six-pointed star to represent these policies.[10]

With Sheng's rapprochement with the Central government, the Kuomintang spread throughout the province, replacing the People's Anti-Imperialist Association,[11] which was disbanded in April 1942.[12]


  1. ^ Also referred to as "the Anti-Imperialist Federation,[2] "the Anti-Imperialist Society"[3] or "the Anti-Imperialist Union".[4]


  1. ^ a b De Cordier 2016, p. 61.
  2. ^ Rahman 2005, p. 38.
  3. ^ Chaudhuri 2016, p. 59.
  4. ^ Brophy 2016, p. 256.
  5. ^ Chan 1983, p. 378.
  6. ^ a b Clarke 2011, p. 33.
  7. ^ a b Mansfield 1945, p. 3735.
  8. ^ Sheng 1939.
  9. ^ Chan 1983, p. 377.
  10. ^ Brophy 2016, p. 255.
  11. ^ Jacobs 2011, p. 350.
  12. ^ Dallin 1948, p. 362.



  • Brophy, David (2016). Uyghur Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674660373.
  • Chaudhuri, Debasish (2016). "China's Policy in Xinjiang, 1948–78". In Warikoo, K. (ed.). Xinjiang – China’s Northwest Frontier. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. ISBN 9781317290292.
  • Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia – A History. Abingdon-on-Thames: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781136827068.
  • Dallin, David J. (1948). Soviet Russia and the Far East. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0208009968.
  • Jacobs, Justin Matthew (2011). Empire besieged: the preservation of Chinese rule in Xinjiang, 1884–1971. San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego. ISBN 9781124814070.
  • Mansfield, Mike (1945). "Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang". Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 79th Congress First Session. 91. Washington D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Rahman, Anwar (2005). Sinicization Beyond the Great Wall: China's Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Kibworth Beauchamp: Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781904744887.


  • Chan, F. Gilbert (1983). "Sheng Shih-ts'ai's reform programs in Sinkiang: idealism or opportunism?". Journal of Modern History. 12: 365–385.
  • De Cordier, Bruno (2016). "International aid, frontier securitization and social engineering: Soviet-Xinjiang development cooperation during the Governorate of Sheng Shicai (1933–44)". Central Asian Affairs. 3: 49–76.
  • Nyman, Lars-Erik (1991). "Sinkiang 1934-1943: Dark decade for a pivotal puppet". Cahiers du Monde Russe. 32: 97–105. Available here.