Insurgency in Northeast India

Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed separatist factions operating in some of India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as 14.29 miles (23.00 km) wide.

Insurgency in Northeast India
India-locator-map-NE.svg
Map of India with northeastern states highlighted red
Date1954–present
(68 years)
Location
Status Ongoing
Human rights violations by both sides[11]
Belligerents

 India

Supported by :

Separatist groups:

Other:
Supported by:
Commanders and leaders

Former:
G Bidai Surrendered
Arabinda Rajkhowa (POW)
Paresh Baruah
Anup Chetia (POW)
Kalalung Kamei
Arambam Samerendra
Angami Zapu Phizo 
Laldenga 
I. K. Songbijit Surrendered
Biswamohan Debbarma (POW)
Durga Minz Surrendered
Xabrias Khakha Surrendered
Prem Brahma Surrendered
Milton Burman (POW)
Tom Adhikary (POW)
Men Sing Takbi 
Pradip Terang Surrendered
Ranjit Debbarma (POW)
Strength
India 200,000 in Nagaland (1995)[12]
Bangladesh 70,000 (1992)[12]
Bhutan 8634 (2008)[13]
Myanmar Unknown
1,500 (2010)[14]
2,000 (2005)[15]
4,500 (2007)[16]
225 (2008)[17]
850 (2004)[18]
ACF: 350 (2005)[19]
Unknown
Casualties and losses
Since 1992: 2,762 killed[20]
13-36 killed, 43-68 injured[a][21][22][23][24]
Since 1992: 8,554 killed in India[20]
485-650 killed or captured in Bhutan[21][25]
Since 1992: 10,302 civilians killed[20]
Since 1979: 40,000 killed overall[26]

Northeastern India consists of seven states (also known as the Seven Sister States): Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. Tensions existed between insurgents in these states and the central government as well as amongst their native indigenous people and migrants from other parts of India and illegal immigrants. Government of India claims that Insurgency has seen rapid decline in recent years, with a 70 per cent reduction in insurgency incidents and an 80 per cent drop in civilian deaths in the Northeast in 2019 compared to 2013.[27]

The 2014 Indian general election had an 80% voter turnout in all northeastern states, the highest among all states of India according to Indian government. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the northeastern people in Indian democracy.[28] Eastern Army Commander Lt Gen Anil Chauhan claimed that as of 2020, the area of violence in the entire North East has shrunk primarily to an area which is the tri-junction between Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and north Nagaland.[29]

MizoramEdit

Mizo uprising (1966)Edit

MNF insurgency (1966-1986)Edit

Mizoram's tensions were largely due to the simmering Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people. In 1986, the Mizo accord ended the main secessionist movement led by the Mizo National Front, bringing peace to the region.[citation needed] Insurgency status is classified as partially active, due to secessionist/autonomy demands by the Chakmas and Brus. The Chakma and Reang tribes complain of religious and ethnic persecution, and complain that the dominant Mizo ethnic group, almost entirely Christian, wants to convert them to Christianity.[30]

ManipurEdit

Manipur's long tradition of independence can be traced to the foundation of the Kangleipak State in 1110. The Kingdom of Manipur was conquered by Great Britain following the brief Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891, becoming a British protectorate.[31]

Manipur became part of the Indian Union on 15 October 1949. Manipur's incorporation into the Indian state soon led to the formation of a number of insurgent organisations, seeking the creation of an independent state within the borders of Manipur, and dismissing the merger with India as involuntary.[32]

Despite the fact that Manipur became a separate state of the Indian Union on 21 January 1972, the insurgency continued.[31] On 8 September 1980, Manipur was declared an area of disturbance, when the Indian government imposed the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 on the region; the act currently remains in force.[32]

The parallel rise of Naga nationalism in neighbouring Nagaland led to the emergence of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) activities in Manipur. Clashes between the Isak-Muivah and Khaplang factions of the NSCN further aggravated tensions, as Kuki tribals began creating their own guerrilla groups in order to protect their interests from alleged Naga violations. Skirmishes between the two ethnic groups took place during the 1990s. Other ethnic groups such as the Paite, Vaiphei, Pangals and Hmars followed suit establishing militant groups.[32]

The Kuki National Army also maintains one armed wing in Manipur.

UNLF (1964-present)Edit

The first separatist faction known as the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) was founded on 24 November 1964.

Marxist & Maoist groups (1977-present)Edit

Between 1977 and 1980, the People's Liberation Army of Manipur (PLA), the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) and the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), were formed, immediately joining the war.[32]

NagalandEdit

Nagaland was created in 1963 as the 16th state of the Indian Union, before which it was a district of Assam. Active Naga-Kuki insurgent groups mainly demand full independence. The Naga National Council led by Phizo was the first group to dissent in 1947 and in 1956 they went underground.[citation needed]

NSCN insurgency (1980-present)Edit

The National Socialist Council of Nagaland was formed in 1980 to establish a Greater Nagaland, encompassing parts of Manipur, Nagaland, and the north Cachar hills (Assam). The NSCN split in 1988 to form two groups, NSCN(IM) and NSCN(K). As of 2015, both groups have observed a ceasefire truce with the Indian government.[33]

The National Socialist Council of Nagaland—Khaplang is the second faction with the same aim of a Greater Nagaland and was formed in 1988.[34][35][36][37]

Tripura (1978-2009)Edit

The insurgent groups in Tripura emerged at the end of the 1970s, as ethnic tensions between the Bangladeshi infiltration and the tribal native population who were outnumbered by the former, hailing from other parts of India and nearby Bangladesh, which resulted in their being reduced to minority status even threatening them economically, socially, culturally; this resulted in a clarion call for safeguarding tribal rights and cultures. Such being the extent of desperation, this naturally resulted in hatred and suspicion and their status is classified as active.

The first militant outfit to form was Tripura National Volunteers (TNV), which was active until 1988.

The National Liberation Front of Tripura was formed in March 1989. During the period 1992 to 2001, a total of 764 civilians and 184 members of the security forces were killed in NLFT attacks. In 2019, it signed the Tripura Peace Accord to end the insurgency.

The All Tripura Tiger Force was formed by local aboriginal tribes in 1990, who were gradually outnumbered both directly and indirectly, even at the cost of being threatened for their survival economically and culturally, not to speak of their being reduced to minority population-wise; their sole aim is the expulsion of all Bangladeshi infiltration nearby Bangladesh.

Assam ConflictEdit

Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan and also due to its very close proximity to Burma. The main causes of the friction include anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s, and the simmering indigenous-migrant tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as "very active".[citation needed] The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA.[38]

BodolandEdit

ULFA (1990-present)Edit

The United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam for the indigenous people of Assam through an armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested.[38]

KLO (1995-present)Edit

The objective of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) is to carve out a separate Kamtapur Nation. The proposed state is to comprise six districts in West Bengal and four contiguous districts of Assam which are Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North and South Dinajpur and Malda of West Bengal and four contiguous districts of Assam – Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Dhubri and Goalpara. The KLO, in the beginning, was an unconcealed organisation, which was formed to address problems of the Koch Rajbongshi people, such as large-scale unemployment, land alienation, perceived neglect of Kamtapuri language, identity, and grievances of economic deprivation.[40]

MeghalayaEdit

The state of Meghalaya was separated from the state of Assam in 1971, in order to satisfy the Khasi, Synteng and Garo for a separate state. The decision was initially praised as an example of successful national integration into the wider Indian state.[41]

This, however, failed to prevent the rise of national consciousness among the local tribal populations, later leading to a direct confrontation between Indian nationalism and the newly created Garo and Khasi nationalisms. A parallel rise of nationalism in the other members of the Seven Sister States further complicated the situation, resulting in occasional clashes between rebel groups.[41]

The state wealth distribution system further fueled the rising separatist movements, as funding is practised through per-capita transfers, which largely benefits the leading ethnic group.[41]

The first militant outfit to emerge in the region was the Hynniewtrep Achik Liberation Council (HALC). It was formed in 1992, aiming to protect the interests of Meghalaya's indigenous population from the rise of non-tribal ("Dkhar") immigration.[42]

A conflict of interest soon led to a split of the HALC. The Garo members formed the Achik Matgrik Liberation Army (AMLA) while the joint Jaintia-Khasi alliance of Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC) was formed in 1993. The HNLC claims to represent the Khasi - Jaintia people, and its aim is to free Meghalaya from the alleged domination of the Garos and the outsiders (the "Dkhars").

The AMLA passed into obscurity, while the Achik National Volunteers Council (ANVC) took its place. The Garo-Khasi drift persisted as the HNLC had set up the goal of turning Meghalaya into an exclusively Khasi region; the ANVC, on the other hand, sought the creation of an independent state in the Garo Hills.[42]

A number of non-Meghalayan separatist groups have also operated in the region, including the United Liberation Front of Assam and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland among others.[43]

GNLA insurgency (2010-present)Edit

The most active outfit in the state is the Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA), which was formed in 2009.[44]

Other insurgent groupsEdit

In AssamEdit

  • DHD (1995-2009): The Dima Halam Daoga (DHD) is a descendant of the Dimasa National Security Force (DNSF), which ceased operations in 1995. Commander-in-Chief Jewel Gorlosa, refused to surrender and launched the Dima Halam Daogah. After the peace agreement between the DHD and the central government in the year 2003, the group further broke out and DHD(J) also known as Black Widow was born which was led by Jewel Gorlosa. The Black Widow's declared objective is to create Dimaraji nation for the Dimasa people in Dima Hasao only. However the objective of DHD (Nunisa faction) is to include parts of Cachar, Karbi Anglong, and Nagaon districts in Assam, and sections of Dimapur district in Nagaland. In 2009 the group surrendered en masse to the CRPF and local police, 193 cadres surrendering on 2009-09-12 and another 171 on the 13th.[46]

HmarEdit

The Hmar People's Convention-Democracy (HPC-D) is an armed insurgency group formed in 1995 to create an independent Hmar State in North East India. It is the offspring of the Hmar People's Convention (HPC), which entered into an agreement with the Government of Mizoram in 1994 resulting in the formation of the Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) in North Mizoram. Their recruited cadres are from the States where the Hmar people are spread – Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. The HPC(D) is demanding a separate administrative unit under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.[citation needed]

TanilandEdit

The National Liberation Council of Taniland (NLCT) was active along the Assam – Arunachal Pradesh border, and its members belong to the Tani groups of people which are demanding Taniland. The group enjoys no support from the local population of Arunachal Pradesh who are fiercely pro-India and the group is all but defunct now.[48][49] The Tani groups are one of the ethnic groups of northeast India (variously known as Mising in Assam and Adi, Nyishi, Galo, Apatani, Tagin, in Arunachal Pradesh) in India as well as the Lhoba in China who live along the frontier of India.[50]

Spillover in BhutanEdit

Following the 1990 Operations Rhino and Bajrang, Assamese separatist groups relocated their camps to Bhutan.[51] In 1996 the Bhutan government became aware of a large number of camps on its southern border with India. The camps were set up by four Assamese separatist movements: the ULFA, NDFB, Bodo Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF) and Kamtapur Liberation Organization (KLO). The camps also harboured separatists belonging to the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) and the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF).[52]

India then exerted diplomatic pressure on Bhutan, offering support in removing the rebel organisations from its soil. The government of Bhutan initially pursued a peaceful solution, opening dialogue with the militant groups on 1998. Five rounds of talks were held with ULFA, three rounds with DNFB, with KLO ignoring all invitations sent by the government. In June 2001 ULFA agreed to close down four of its camps; however, the Bhutanese government soon realized that the camps had simply been relocated.[51]

By 2003 the talks had failed to produce any significant result. On 14 July 2003, military intervention was approved by the National Assembly.[51] On 13 December 2003, the Bhutanese government issued a two-day ultimatum to the rebels. On 15 December 2003, after the ultimatum had expired, Operation All Clear – the first operation ever conducted by the Royal Bhutan Army – was launched.[53]

By 3 January 2004, the Royal Bhutan Army had killed about 120 militants. They managed to capture several senior ULFA commanders. Large numbers of rebels fled to Bangladesh and India. Militants also were dislodged from all 30 camps and 35 observation posts, with the camps burned and razed to the ground.[52][54]

Between 2008 and 2011, Royal Bhutan Police and Royal Bhutan Army personnel undertook numerous actions against alleged north Indian militants. Several firefights occurred while Bhutan military personnel were required to dispose of several explosive devices and destroyed a number of guerrilla camps.[55]

Spillover in MyanmarEdit

The Indo-Burmese border was drawn over the homeland of many ethnic groups, such as the Mizos/Chins and the Nagas, with communities with strong ethnic ties living on both sides of the border. Several separatist groups have operated out of Myanmar, crossing into India via the porous border. [56]

India-Myanmar military cooperation dates back to the 1960s when the Tatmadaw intercepted Naga and Mizo rebels heading to China for training. Indian support for the pro-democracy movement in the 1980s had caused the Tatmadaw to stop their operations against the northeastern rebel groups. [57]

After the 2015 Manipur ambush, India conducted surgical strikes against NSCN-K camps inside Myanmar, and inflicted significant casualties.[58]

In February and June 2019, Indian army and the Burmese Tatmadaw carried out joint operations Sunrise and Sunrise II, targeting in co-ordination several militant groups along the Indo-Burma border including the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO), the NSCN-K, the United Liberation Front of Assam (I) and the National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB).[59] In February, Burmese troops stormed the NSCN-K headquarters at Taga. The Indian army reciprocated by starting a major operation against the Arakan Army in south Mizoram. [57]

AlliancesEdit

CorComEdit

In Manipur the following militant groups have come together as the CorCOM[60][61] which is a short name for Coordination Committee.[62]

CorCom is on the extremist organisations list of the Government of India, and is responsible for many bombings usually associated with Indian holidays and elections.[63]

WESEA ForumEdit

Some of the above-mentioned militant groups have formed an alliance to fight against the governments of India, Bhutan and Myanmar. They use the term "Western Southeast Asia" (WESEA)[64][65] to describe the region in which they operate: Northeast India, Bhutan, North Bengal and Myanmar. These groups include:[66][67]

United National Liberation Front of WESEAEdit

Nine militant groups of the northeast, including the NSCN (Khaplang) and the ULFA faction led by Paresh Baruah, have come together to form a new unified front known as UNLFW during a meeting held in Myanmar in early 2015.[68][69] Besides the NSCN (K) and ULFA-Independent, other groups that participated in the meeting held at Taga in Sagaing division of Myanmar earlier this month were the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), Kanglei Yawol Kunna Lup (KYKL), the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (Songbijit faction) (NDFB).

All Muslim United Liberation Forum of AssamEdit

The MULTA is said to be part of the AMULFA, an organization that rejects separatism in favor of sharia law.[47]

Counter-insurgencyEdit

In 1955, an order of the day from the then Chief of Army Staff Rajendrasinhji Jadeja to troops fighting insurgency in the north-east read,[70]

You must remember that all the people of the area in which you are operating are fellow-Indians... and the very fact that they are different and yet part of India is a reflection of India’s greatness. Some of these people are misguided and have taken to arms against their own people, and are disrupting the peace in this area. You are to protect the mass of the people from these disruptive elements. You are not there to fight the people in the area, but to protect them. You are fighting only those who threaten the people and who are a danger to the lives and properties of the people. You must therefore, do everything possible to win their confidence and respect and to help them feel that they belong to India.

Assam-Mizoram border conflictEdit

The dispute over the 165-km Assam-Mizoram border has its origin in British era demarcations. In 1995, the first major skirmishes were reported in Lushai Hills along the border. In 2018, 50 people were injured in clashes between Mizo activists and Assam police.

On July 26, 2021, five Assam police personnel were killed in an exchange of fire with their Mizoram counterparts at the border town of Vairengte.

Assam also has border disputes with Nagaland, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • A. Lanunungsang Ao; From Phizo to Muivah: The Naga National Question; New Delhi 2002
  • Blisters on their feet: tales of internally displaced persons in India's North East; Los Angeles [u.a.] 2008; ISBN 978-81-7829-819-1
  • Dutta, Anuradha; Assam in the Freedom Movement; Calcutta 1991
  • Hazarika, Sanjoy; Strangers of the Mist: Tales of War and Peace from India's Northeast; New Delhi u.a. 1994
  • Horam, M.; Naga insurgency: the last thirty years; New Delhi 1988
  • International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (Hrsg.); The Naga nation and its struggle against genocide; Kopenhagen 1986
  • Nibedom, Nirmal; The Night of the Guerillas; Delhi 1978
  • Srikanth, H.; Thomas, C. J.; Naga Resistance Movement and the Peace Process in Northeast India; in: Peace and Democracy in South Asia, Vol. I (2005)
  • Terrorism and separatism in North-East India; Delhi 2004; ISBN 81-7835-261-3

NotesEdit

  1. ^ At least 39 Bhutanese soldiers, 4 Bhutanese police officers

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Samaddar, Ranabir (2016). Neo-Liberal Strategies of Governing India. Routledge. p. 196.
  2. ^ "Prominent SULFA militant killed". Zee News. 19 November 2007. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Bhutan Army seizes ULFA HQ". Times of India. 16 December 2003.
  4. ^ "BSF: Insurgent camps on Bangladesh-India border have almost disappeared". Dhaka Tribune. 19 December 2017. Archived from the original on 11 June 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  5. ^ "While India was glued to Balakot airstrike, army carried out mega strikes along Myanmar border". India Today. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  6. ^ "Chinese agencies helping North East militants in Myanmar". Indian Express. 10 January 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.(until 1976)
  7. ^ "Myanmar support gives NE rebels a shot in the arm". Times of India. 5 June 2015. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Did Bhutan offer Rs. 200cr to ULFA for shifting base?". Hindustan Times. 14 June 2014.
  9. ^ Suba Chandran, D (2015). Armed Conflict, Peace Audit and Early Warning 2014. SAGE Publishing. Maoists, in turn, are said to be providing explosives (ammonium nitrate) and funds to the northeast groups.
  10. ^ "ISI, al-Qaeda assisting Assam militants | India News - Times of India". Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  11. ^ ""These fellows must be eliminated" – Relentless Violence and Impunity in Manipur". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b Uppsala conflict data expansion. Non-state actor information. Codebook pp. 81–82; 176; 227; 249–250; 272–273; 291–294
  13. ^ "Countries at the Crossroads: Bhutan". Freedom House. 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2016. and "Bhutan's Militia" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Kuensel. 15 September 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  14. ^ Andrew T .H. Tan (18 October 2010). Politics of Terrorism: A Survey. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-136-83336-6. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  15. ^ Nitin A. Gokhale (1 October 2005). "A life roughed–out in the jungle". Tehelka. Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  16. ^ Lyle Morris (22 March 2011). "Is China Backing Indian Insurgents?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  17. ^ DailyExcelsior[permanent dead link].
  18. ^ Latimer, William (March 2004). "What can the United States learn from India to counter terrorism?" (PDF). Naval Postgraduate School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  19. ^ Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine — MIPT
  20. ^ a b c "Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in India's Northeast ::South Asia Terrorism portal". Satp.org. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  21. ^ a b "A nation pays tribute". Kuensel Online. 15 August 2004. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  22. ^ "124 killed in Bhutan operation". The Tribune. 17 December 2003. Archived from the original on 3 January 2004. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  23. ^ Tobgay, Tshering (16 December 2011). "Thanking our armed forces". Tshering Tobgay. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  24. ^ "NDFB militants strike in Bhutan". The Times of India. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  25. ^ Banerjee, Dipankar; Laishram, Bidhan S (5 January 2004). "Bhutan's "Operation All Clear": Implications for insurgency and security cooperation" (PDF). IPCS. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  26. ^ "India – Northeast (1979 – first combat deaths)". Ploug shares. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  27. ^ "70 per cent decline in insurgency incidents in Northeast: Government". The Economic Times.
  28. ^ "State-Wise Voter Turnout in General Election 2014". Election Commission of India. Government of India. Press Information Bureau. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  29. ^ "Insurgency on decline in North East, tri-junction between Assam, Arunachal and north Nagaland arc of violence: Eastern Army commander-India News , Firstpost". FirstPost. 14 February 2020.
  30. ^ Subir Bhaumik (2004). Ethnicity, Ideology and Religion: Separatist movements in India's Northeast (PDF). Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. p. 229.
  31. ^ a b "Insurgencies in Manipur: politics & ideology". The Hindu. 28 January 2010. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  32. ^ a b c d "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Manipur". CDPS. 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  33. ^ "India signs peace accord with Naga rebels". BBC News. 3 August 2015. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  34. ^ "Manipur ambush: Groups that attacked the 6 Dogra". 9 June 2015. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  35. ^ "Suspected NSCN(K) militants fire at Assam Rifles camp". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  36. ^ "Manipur Ambush: 'Chinese Army officials in touch with NSCN(K) leaders'". The Indian Express. 9 June 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  37. ^ Devesh K. Pandey, Dinakar Peri (9 June 2015). "NSCN(K) move at behest of elements in China?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  38. ^ a b "India to get back Ulfa leader Anup Chetia from Bangladesh". First Post. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  39. ^ "National Democratic Front of Bodoland". SATP.org. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  40. ^ "South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP) on KLO". Satp.org. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  41. ^ a b c "Nationalism and the origins of separatist civil war in India" (PDF). University of Rochester. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  42. ^ a b "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Meghalaya". CPDS. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  43. ^ "People's Liberation Front of Meghalaya (PLF-M)". SATP. 20 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  44. ^ [1] Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine GNLA, Satp
  45. ^ "Assam terror outfit disbands". Twocircles.net. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  46. ^ "Site Under Construction". Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  47. ^ a b "Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) - Terrorist Group of Assam". Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  48. ^ NSCN-IM designs to rejuvenate NLCT in Arunachal Pradesh, reveals investigation Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP)
  49. ^ bhaskar pegu. "LOTTA". Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  50. ^ INDIA: OUTSIDE INTRUSIONS IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH – ANALYSIS Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Eurasia Review
  51. ^ a b c Dipankar Banerjee (January 2004). "Implications for insurgency and security cooperation" (PDF). IPCS. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  52. ^ a b Anand Kumar (25 December 2003). "Operation All Clear: Bhutan's step for regional security". Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  53. ^ Arun Bhattacharjee (19 December 2003). "Bhutan army sees action at last". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  54. ^ "RBA Makes Good Progress in Flushing Out Operations". Kuensel. 3 January 2004. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  55. ^ Tshering Tobgay (16 December 2011). "Thanking our armed forces". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  56. ^ "A complex history and layered present: What determines India's response to military rule in Myanmar". 20 May 2021.
  57. ^ a b "Myanmar's army is increasingly turning to India for training and weapons". Telegraph India.
  58. ^ "Myanmar operation: 70 commandos finish task in 40 minutes". thehindu.com. 10 June 2015.
  59. ^ "Armies of India, Myanmar target NE militants in coordinated operation". India Times. 16 June 2019.
  60. ^ "The heart of revolutionary movement in Manipur is CorCom". Kangla Online. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  61. ^ "CorCom promises new face of revolution". E-Pao.net. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  62. ^ CorCom (Coordination Committee) Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium
  63. ^ CorCom in GOI extremist organisations list Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Manipur Times
  64. ^ Freedom is our birthright Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Sangai Express, Manipur
  65. ^ NDFB warns against divisive policies of Congress and AGP Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Sentinel, Assam
  66. ^ "NE rebels call general strike on I-Day". The Sangai Express. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  67. ^ "11 rebel groups call for Republic Day boycott". The Times Of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  68. ^ [2] Archived 10 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Chinese blessings: Nine NE militant groups join hands, Nagaland Post
  69. ^ [3] Archived 26 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Nine militant groups of NE form united front with Chinese blessings, Hindustan Times
  70. ^ Raghavan, V. R. (22 August 2012). Internal Conflicts: Military Perspectives. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 190. ISBN 978-93-82573-40-1.

Works citedEdit

  • Rashid, Ahmed (2013) [1st pub. 2012]. Pakistan on the Brink. The future of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the West (Penguin Paperback ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-241-96007-3.

External linksEdit