Insurgency in Northeast India
Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as 14 miles (23 km) wide. Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some groups demand complete independence. Others wanted religious law.
Northeastern India consists of seven states (also known as the Seven Sister States): Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. Tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as amongst their native tribal people and migrants from other parts of India. Regional tensions eased off in late 2013, with the Indian and state governments making a concerted effort to raise the living standards of people in these regions. However, in late 2014 tensions again rose as the Indian government launched an offensive, which led to a retaliatory attack on civilians by tribal guerrillas. As of 1 January 2015, major militant activities are being conducted in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura.
The Indian general election, 2014 had an 80% voter turnout in all northeastern states, the highest among all states of India. Indian authorities claim that this shows the faith of the northeastern people in Indian democracy. Despite this, a number of organizations listed as terrorist groups continue to promote an insurgency.
The National Liberation Council of Taniland (NLCT) was active along the Assam – Arunachal Pradesh border, and its members belong to the Tani groups of people which are demanding Taniland.The group enjoys no support from the local population of Arunachal Pradesh who are fiercely pro-India and the group is all but defunct now. The Tani groups are Mongoloid people (variously known as Mising in Assam and Adi, Nyishi, Galo, Bangni, Apa, Tagin, Hill Miri in Arunachal Pradesh) in India as well as the Luoba in China who live along the frontier of India.
Assam has been a refuge for militants for a number of years, due to its porous borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. The main causes of the friction include anti-foreigner agitation in the 1980s, and the simmering Assam-Bodo tensions. The insurgency status in Assam is classified as "very active". The government of Bangladesh has arrested and extradited senior leaders of the ULFA.
The United Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through armed struggle. In recent times the organisation has lost its middle rung leaders after most of them were arrested.
The Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group operating in the Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts of Assam that was formed on 16 May 2004. The outfit claims to fight for the cause of Karbi tribes, and its declared objective is Hemprek Kangthim, meaning self-rule/self-determination of the Karbi people. It is closely linked with the ULFA (United Liberation Front of Asom)
The United People's Democratic Solidarity was formed in March 1999 with the merger of two terrorist outfits in Assam's Karbi Anglong district, the Karbi National Volunteers (KNV) and the Karbi People’s Front (KPF).
In 2004, the UPDS (Anti-Talks) renamed itself as the Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Liberation Front (KLNLF), and its armed wing as the Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Resistance Force (KNPR).
In 2014 the UPDS disbanded, following the mass surrender of all it cadres and leaders.
The Dima Halam Daoga (DHD) is a descendant of the Dimasa National Security Force (DNSF), which ceased operations in 1995. Commander-in-Chief Jewel Gorlosa, refused to surrender and launched the Dima Halam Daogah. After the peace agreement between the DHD and the central government in the year 2003, the group further broke out and DHD(J) also known as Black Widow was born which was led by Jewel Gorlosa. The Black Widow's declared objective is to create Dimaraji for the Dimasa people in Dima Hasao district only. However the objective of DHD (Nunisa faction) is to include parts of Cachar, Karbi Anglong, and Nagaon districts in Assam, and sections of Dimapur district in Nagaland.
The objective of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) is to carve out a separate Kamtapur State. The proposed state is to comprise six districts in West Bengal and four contiguous districts of Assam which are Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North and South Dinajpur and Malda of West Bengal and four contiguous districts of Assam – Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Dhubri and Goalpara. The KLO in the beginning was an over-ground[clarification needed] organisation which was formed to address problems of the Koch Rajbongshi people such as large-scale unemployment, land alienation, perceived neglect of Kamtapuri language, identity, and grievances of economic deprivation.
The objective of the Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) is to established an Islamic state in India under sharia law. The group composed of migrants and indigenous peoples who practiced Islam.
Manipur's long tradition of independence can be traced to the foundation of the Kangleipak State in 1110. The Kingdom of Manipur was conquered by Great Britain following the brief Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891, becoming a British protectorate.
Manipur became part of the Indian Union on 15 October 1949. Manipur's incorporation into the Indian state soon led to the formation of a number of insurgent organisations, seeking the creation of an independent state within the borders of Manipur, and dismissing the merger with India as involuntary.
Despite the fact that Manipur became a separate state of the Indian Union on 21 January 1972, the insurgency continued. On 8 September 1980, Manipur was declared an area of disturbance, when the Indian government imposed the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 on the region; the act currently remains in force.
The parallel rise of Naga nationalism in neighbouring Nagaland led to the emergence of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) activities in Manipur. Clashes between the Isak-Muivah and Khaplang factions of the NSCN further aggravated tensions, as Kuki tribals began creating their own guerrilla groups in order to protect their interests from alleged Naga violations. Skirmishes between the two ethnic groups took place during the 1990s. Other ethnic groups such as the Paite, Vaiphei, Pangals and Hmars followed suit establishing militant groups.
The first separatist faction known as the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) was founded on 24 November 1964.
PLA, PREPAK and KCP, KRA, and the student organisationEdit
Between 1977 and 1980, the People's Liberation Army of Manipur (PLA), the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) and the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), were formed, immediately joining the war.
Nagaland was created in 1963 as the 16th state of the Indian Union, before which it was a district of Assam. Insurgent groups classified as active mainly demand full independence. The Naga National Council led by Phizo was the first group to dissent in 1947 and in 1956 they went underground.
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland was formed in 1980 to establish a Greater Nagaland, encompassing parts of Manipur, Nagaland, and the north Cachar hills (Assam). The NSCN split in 1988 to form two groups, NSCN(IM) and NSCN(K). As of 2015, both groups have observed a ceasefire truce with the Indian government.
The insurgent groups in Tripura emerged at the end of the 1970s, as ethnic tensions between the Bengali immigrants and the tribal native population who were outnumbered by the former, hailing from other parts of India and nearby Bangladesh, which resulted in their being reduced to minority status even threatening them economically, socially, culturally; this resulted in a clarion call for safeguarding tribal rights and cultures. Such being the extent of desperation, this naturally resulted in hatred and suspicion and their status is classified as active.
The National Liberation Front of Tripura was formed in March 1989.
The All Tripura Tiger Force was formed by local aboriginal tribes in 1990, who were gradually outnumbered both directly and indirectly, even at the cost of being threatened for their survival economically and culturally, not to speak of their being reduced to minority population-wise; their sole aim is the expulsion of all Bengali speaking immigrants from the rest of India and nearby Bangladesh.
The state of Meghalaya was separated from the state of Assam in 1971, in order to satisfy the Khasi, Synteng and Garo for a separate state. The decision was initially praised as an example of successful national integration into the wider Indian state.
This, however, failed to prevent the rise of national consciousness among the local tribal populations, later leading to a direct confrontation between Indian nationalism and the newly created Garo and Khasi nationalisms. A parallel rise of nationalism in the other members of the Seven Sister States further complicated the situation, resulting in occasional clashes between rebel groups.
The state wealth distribution system further fueled the rising separatist movements, as funding is practised through per-capita transfers, which largely benefits the leading ethnic group.
The first militant outfit to emerge in the region was the Hynniewtrep Achik Liberation Council (HALC). It was formed in 1992, aiming to protect the interests of Meghalaya's indigenous population from the rise of non-tribal ("Dkhar") immigration.
A conflict of interest soon led to a split of the HALC into the Garo-dominated Achik Matgrik Liberation Army (AMLA), and the joint Systeng-Khasi alliance of Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC).
The AMLA passed into obscurity, while the Achik National Volunteers Council (ANVC) took its place. The Garo-Khasi drift persisted as the HNLC had set up the goal of turning Meghalaya into an exclusively Khasi region; the ANVC, on the other hand, sought the creation of an independent state in the Garo Hills.
The most active outfit in the state is the Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA), which was formed in 2009.
Mizoram's tensions were largely due to the simmering Assamese domination and the neglect of the Mizo people. In 1986, the Mizo accord ended the main secessionist movement led by the Mizo National Front, bringing peace to the region. Insurgency status is classified as partially active, due to secessionist/autonomy demands by the Chakmas and Brus.
The Hmar People's Convention-Democracy is an armed insurgency group formed in 1995 to create an independent Hmar State in North East India. It is the offspring of the Hmar People's Convention (HPC), which entered into an agreement with the Government of Mizoram in 1994 resulting in the formation of the Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) in North Mizoram. Their recruited cadres are from the States where the Hmar people are spread – Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. The HPC(D) is demanding a separate administrative unit under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
Spillover in BhutanEdit
Following the 1990 Operations Rhino and Bajrang, Assamese separatist groups relocated their camps to Bhutan. In 1996 the Bhutan government became aware of a large number of camps on its southern border with India. The camps were set up by four Assamese separatist movements: the ULFA, NDFB, Bodo Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF) and Kamtapur Liberation Organization (KLO). The camps also harboured separatists belonging to the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) and the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF).
India then exerted diplomatic pressure on Bhutan, offering support in removing the rebel organisations from its soil. The government of Bhutan initially pursued a peaceful solution, opening dialogue with the militant groups on 1998. Five rounds of talks were held with ULFA, three rounds with DNFB, with KLO ignoring all invitations sent by the government. In June 2001 ULFA agreed to close down four of its camps; however, the Bhutanese government soon realized that the camps had simply been relocated.
By 2003 the talks had failed to produce any significant result. On 14 July 2003, military intervention was approved by the National Assembly. On 13 December 2003, the Bhutanese government issued a two-day ultimatum to the rebels. On 15 December 2003, after the ultimatum had expired, Operation All Clear – the first operation ever conducted by the Royal Bhutan Army – was launched.
By 3 January 2004, the Royal Bhutan Army had killed about 120 militants. They managed to capture several senior ULFA commanders. Large numbers of rebels fled to Bangladesh and India. Militants also were dislodged from all 30 camps and 35 observation posts, with the camps burned and razed to the ground.
Between 2008 and 2011, Royal Bhutan Police and Royal Bhutan Army personnel undertook numerous actions against alleged north Indian militants. Several firefights occurred while Bhutan military personnel were required to dispose of several explosive devices and destroyed a number of guerrilla camps.
2014 Indian General ElectionEdit
Despite threats from insurgent militants groups in Northeast India, people turned out in large numbers for the Indian general election, 2014. Voter turnout in northeast India was best among all regions or states of India.
- Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP),
- Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL),
- People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak-Pro (PREPAK-Pro),
- Revolutionary People's Front (RPF)
- United National Liberation Front (UNLF)
- United People's Party of Kangleipak (UPPK)
CorCom is on the extremist organisations list of the Government of India, and is responsible for many bombings usually associated with Indian holidays and elections.
Some of the above-mentioned militant groups have formed an alliance to fight against the governments of India, Bhutan and Myanmar. They use the term "Western Southeast Asia" (WESEA) to describe the region in which they operate: Northeast India, Bhutan, North Bengal and Myanmar. These groups include:
- The Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak-Pro (PREPAK-Pro), Revolutionary People's Front and United National Liberation Front of Manipur
- Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council of Meghalaya,
- Kamtapur Liberation Organization, which operates in Assam and North Bengal,
- National Democratic Front of Bodoland and United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) of Assam, and
- National Liberation Front of Tripura of Tripura.
United National Liberation Front of WESEAEdit
Nine militant groups of the northeast, including the NSCN (Khaplang) and the ULFA faction led by Paresh Baruah, have come together to form a new unified front known as UNLFW during a meeting held in Myanmar in early 2015. Besides the NSCN (K) and ULFA-Independent, other groups that participated in the meeting held at Taga in Sagaing division of Myanmar earlier this month were the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), Kanglei Yawol Kunna Lup (KYKL), the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (Songbijit faction) (NDFB).
All Muslim United Liberation Forum of AssamEdit
The MULTA is said to be part of the AMULFA, an organization that rejects separatism in favor of sharia law.
- A. Lanunungsang Ao; From Phizo to Muivah: The Naga National Question; New Delhi 2002
- Blisters on their feet: tales of internally displaced persons in India's North East; Los Angeles [u.a.] 2008; ISBN 978-81-7829-819-1
- Dutta, Anuradha; Assam in the Freedom Movement; Calcutta 1991
- Hazarika, Sanjoy; Strangers of the Mist: Tales of War and Peace from India's Northeast; New Delhi u.a. 1994
- Horam, M.; Naga insurgency: the last thirty years; New Delhi 1988
- International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (Hrsg.); The Naga nation and its struggle against genocide; Kopenhagen 1986
- Nibedom, Nirmal; The Night of the Guerillas; Delhi 1978
- Srikanth, H.; Thomas, C. J.; Naga Resistance Movement and the Peace Process in Northeast India; in: Peace and Democracy in South Asia, Vol. I (2005)
- Terrorism and separatism in North-East India; Delhi 2004; ISBN 81-7835-261-3
- Samaddar, Ranabir (2016). Neo-Liberal Strategies of Governing India. Routledge. p. 196.
- "Prominent SULFA militant killed". Zee News. 19 November 2007.
- "Bhutan Army seizes ULFA HQ". Times of India. 16 December 2003.
- "BSF: Insurgent camps on Bangladesh-India border have almost disappeared". Dhaka Tribune. 19 December 2017.
- "While India was glued to Balakot airstrike, army carried out mega strikes along Myanmar border". India Today. 15 March 2019.
- "Chinese agencies helping North East militants in Myanmar". Indian Express. 10 January 2017.(until 1976)
- "Myanmar support gives NE rebels a shot in the arm". Times of India. 5 June 2015.
- "Did Bhutan offer Rs. 200cr to ULFA for shifting base?". Hindustan Times. 14 June 2014.
- Suba Chandran, D (2015). Armed Conflict, Peace Audit and Early Warning 2014. SAGE Publishing.
Maoists, in turn, are said to be providing explosives (ammonium nitrate) and funds to the northeast groups.
- ""These fellows must be eliminated" - Relentless Violence and Impunity in Manipur". Human Rights Watch.
- Uppsala conflict data expansion. Non-state actor information. Codebook pp. 81–82; 176; 227; 249-250; 272-273; 291-294
- "Countries at the Crossroads: Bhutan". Freedom House. 2011. and "Bhutan's Militia". Kuensel. 15 September 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Andrew T .H. Tan (18 October 2010). Politics of Terrorism: A Survey. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-136-83336-6.
- Nitin A. Gokhale (1 October 2005). "A life roughed–out in the jungle". Hong Kong: Tehelka. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Lyle Morris (22 March 2011). "Is China Backing Indian Insurgents?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- DailyExcelsior[permanent dead link].
- Latimer, William (March 2004). "What can the United States learn from India to counter terrorism?" (PDF). Naval Postgraduate School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Adivasi Cobra Force (ACF) Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine — MIPT
- "Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in India's Northeast ::South Asia Terrorism portal". Satp.org. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "India – Northeast (1979 – first combat deaths)". Ploug shares.
- "Northeast India attack". al-Jazeera.
- "State-Wise Voter Turnout in General Election 2014". Election Commission of India. Government of India. Press Information Bureau. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
-  NE outfits form common platform, Khaplang at helm, Times of India
-  Rebel Govt-in-exile in the offing with Chinese support, E-pao.net
-  ‘United National Liberation Front of West South East Asia’ Formed, KanglaOnline
- NSCN-IM designs to rejuvenate NLCT in Arunachal Pradesh, reveals investigation Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP)
- bhaskar pegu. "LOTTA". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- INDIA: OUTSIDE INTRUSIONS IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH – ANALYSIS Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Eurasia Review
- "India to get back Ulfa leader Anup Chetia from Bangladesh". First Post. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
- "National Democratic Front of Bodoland". SATP.org. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Assam terror outfit disbands". Twocircles.net. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Site Under Construction". Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP) on KLO". Satp.org. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Insurgencies in Manipur: politics & ideology". The Hindu. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Manipur". CDPS. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- India signs peace accord with Naga rebels
- "Manipur ambush: Groups that attacked the 6 Dogra".
- "Suspected NSCN(K) militants fire at Assam Rifles camp". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Manipur Ambush: 'Chinese Army officials in touch with NSCN(K) leaders'". The Indian Express. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Devesh K. Pandey, Dinakar Peri. "NSCN(K) move at behest of elements in China?". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Nationalism and the origins of separatist civil war in India" (PDF). University of Rochester. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Meghalaya". CPDS. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
-  GNLA, Satp
- "People's Liberation Front of Meghalaya (PLF-M)". SATP. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Dipankar Banerjee (January 2004). "Implications for insurgency and security cooperation" (PDF). IPCS. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Anand Kumar (25 December 2003). "Operation All Clear: Bhutan's step for regional security". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Arun Bhattacharjee (19 December 2003). "Bhutan army sees action at last". Asia Times. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "RBA Makes Good Progress in Flushing Out Operations". Kuensel. 3 January 2004. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Tshering Tobgay (16 December 2011). "Thanking our armed forces". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Threat of Islamic terror looms large over Assam". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "LS Poll 2014: Prospects of Ten Parties Regional Front in Northeast India - ummid.com". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "The heart of revolutionary movement in Manipur is CorCom". Kangla Online. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- "CorCom promises new face of revolution". E-Pao.net. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- CorCom (Coordination Committee), Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium
- CorCom in GOI extremist organisations list Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Manipur Times
- Freedom is our birthright Archived 30 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Sangai Express, Manipur
- NDFB warns against divisive policies of Congress and AGP Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Sentinel, Assam
- "NE rebels call general strike on I-Day". The Sangai Express. Archived from the original on 2014-09-09. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- "11 rebel groups call for Republic Day boycott". The Times Of India. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
-  Chinese blessings: Nine NE militant groups join hands, Nagaland Post
-  Nine militant groups of NE form united front with Chinese blessings, Hindustan Times