Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bengali: শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান; 17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bangladeshi politician and statesman. He is often called the father of Bengali nation. He served as the first President of Bangladesh and later as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 17 April 1971 until his assassination on 15 August 1975. He is considered to be the driving force behind the independence of Bangladesh. He is popularly dubbed with the title of "Bangabandhu" (Bôngobondhu "Friend of Bengal") by the people of Bangladesh. He became a leading figure in and eventually the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan-based political party in Pakistan. Mujib is credited as an important figure in efforts to gain political autonomy for East Pakistan and later as the central figure behind the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Thus, he is regarded "Jatir Janak" or "Jatir Pita" (Jatir Jônok or Jatir Pita, both meaning "Father of the Nation") of Bangladesh. His daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current leader of the Awami League and also the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান
|President of Bangladesh|
17 April 1971 – 12 January 1972
|Prime Minister||Tajuddin Ahmad|
|Vice President||Nazrul Islam|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Nazrul Islam (Acting)|
25 January 1975 – 15 August 1975
|Prime Minister||Muhammad Mansur Ali|
|Preceded by||Mohammad Mohammadullah|
|Succeeded by||Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad|
|2nd Prime Minister of Bangladesh|
12 January 1972 – 24 January 1975
|President||Abu Sayeed Chowdhury|
|Preceded by||Tajuddin Ahmad|
|Succeeded by||Muhammad Mansur Ali|
|Born||17 March 1920|
Tungipara, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in Bangladesh)
|Died||15 August 1975 (aged 55)|
|Cause of death||Assassination|
|Political party||Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (1975)|
|All-India Muslim League (Before 1949)|
Awami League (1949–1975)
|Spouse(s)||Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib|
|Father||Sheikh Lutfur Rahman|
|Alma mater||Islamia College|
University of Dhaka
An advocate of democracy and socialism, Mujib rose to the ranks of the Awami League and East Pakistani politics as a charismatic and forceful orator. He became popular for his opposition to the ethnic and institutional discrimination of Bengalis in Pakistan, who comprised the majority of the state's population. At the heightening of sectional tensions, he outlined a 6-point autonomy plan and was jailed by the regime of Field Marshal Ayub Khan for treason. Mujib led the Awami League to win the first democratic election of Pakistan in 1970. Despite gaining a majority, the League was not invited by the ruling military junta to form a government. As civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, Mujib indirectly announced independence of Bangladesh during a landmark speech on 7 March 1971. On 26 March 1971, the Pakistan Army responded to the mass protests with Operation Searchlight, in which Prime Minister-elect Mujib was arrested and flown to solitary confinement in West Pakistan, while Bengali civilians, students, intellectuals, politicians and military defectors were murdered as part of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. During Mujib's absence, many Bengalis joined the Mukti Bahini and defeated the Pakistan Armed Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War. After Bangladesh's independence, Mujib was released from Pakistani custody due to international pressure and returned to Dhaka in January 1972 after a short visit to Britain and India.
Sheikh Mujib became the Prime Minister of Bangladesh under a parliamentary system adopted by the new country. He charged the provisional parliament to write a new constitution proclaiming the four fundamental principles of "nationalism, secularism, democracy, and socialism," which reflect his political views collectively known as Mujibism. The Awami League won a huge mandate in the country's first general election in 1973. However, Mujib faced challenges of rampant unemployment, poverty and corruption, as well as the Bangladesh famine of 1974. The government was criticized for denying constitutional recognition to indigenous minorities and human rights violations by its security forces, notably the National Defence Force para militia. Amid rising political agitation, Mujib initiated one party socialist rule in January 1975. Six months later, he and most of his family were assassinated by renegade army officers during a coup. A martial law government was subsequently established. In a 2004 BBC poll, Mujib was voted the Greatest Bengali of all time.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Political activism in British India
- 3 Leader of Pakistan
- 4 Establishment of Bangladesh
- 5 Governing Bangladesh
- 6 Assassination
- 7 Personal life, family, and relatives
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Authored books
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life and education
Mujib was born in Tungipara, a village in Gopalganj District in the province of Bengal in British India, to Sheikh Lutfur Rahman, a serestadar (court clerk) of Gopalganj civil court. He was born into a Muslim, native Bengali family as the third child in a family of four daughters and two sons.
In 1929, Mujib entered into class three at Gopalganj Public School, and two years later, class four at Madaripur Islamia High School. From very early age Mujib showed a potential of leadership. His parents noted in an interview that at an young age, he organized a student protest in his school for the removal of an inept principal. Mujib withdrew from school in 1934 to undergo eye surgery, and returned to school only after four years, owing to the severity of the surgery and slow recovery.
Later, he passed his Matriculation from Gopalganj Missionary School in 1942, Intermediate of Arts from Islamia College (now Maulana Azad College) in 1944 and BA from the same college in 1947. After the partition of India, he got himself admitted into the University of Dhaka to study law but could not complete it due to his expulsion from the University in early 1949 on the charge of 'inciting the fourth-class employees' in their agitation against the University authority's indifference towards their legitimate demands. After 61 years, in 2010, the expulsion has been withdrawn terming the expulsion as unjust and undemocratic.
Political activism in British India
He joined the Bengal Muslim League in 1943. During this period, Mujib worked actively for the League's cause of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan, and in 1946 he went on to become general secretary of the Islamia College Students Union. M. Bhaskaran Nair describes that Mujib "emerged as the most powerful man in the party" because of his proximity to Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.
After obtaining his BA degree in 1947, Mujib was one of the Muslim politicians working under Suhrawardy during the communal violence that broke out in Calcutta, in 1946, just before the partition of India.
Leader of Pakistan
Early political career
After the Partition of India, Mujib chose to stay in the newly created Pakistan. On his return to what became known as East Pakistan, he enrolled in the University of Dhaka to study law and founded the East Pakistan Muslim Students' League. He became one of the most prominent student political leaders in the province. During these years, Mujib developed an affinity for socialism as the solution to mass poverty, unemployment, and poor living conditions.
Bengali language movement
Following the declaration of Muhammad Ali Jinnah on 21 March 1948, that the people of East Bengal would have to adopt Urdu as the state language, protests broke out amongst the population. Mujib immediately decided to start a movement against this former planned decision of the Muslim League. At the same year, 2 March, a conference was held at Dhaka University's Fazlul Haq Muslim Hall, with leaders of different political parties. In this conference, discussions about the movement against the Muslim League were discussed. From here on, the decision of the constitution of the All-party Parliamentary Council was decided. The strike was celebrated in Dhaka on 11 March 1948, in the call of this council. During the strike, some other political activists including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman were arrested in front of the secretariat building. But due to pressure from the student protest, Mujib and other student leaders were released on 15 March. On the occasion of their release, Rastrabhasa Sangram Parishad (National Language Action Committee) arrange a rally which took place at Dhaka University. Police had blocked this rally. In protest of police activities Sheikh Mujib immediately announced nationwide student strike on 17 March 1948. On 19 March, he organized a movement aimed at securing the rights of the fourth class employees of Dhaka University. On 11 September 1948, he was again arrested
On 21 January 1949, Sheikh Mujib was released from prison. Out of jail, he again became involved in the demand for the demand of the fourth class employees, for which he was fined from the university. But he refrained from acquiring these fines as illegal. In continuation of this, on 26 April, Muslim League-backed candidate Shamsul Haq won a by-election in Tangail. Sheikh Mujib strikes hunger strike in front of Vice Chancellor's residence for the success of his movement, for which he was again arrested. At that time he was expelled from Dhaka University. He was accused of leading the movement of the fourth-class workers' rights in the university. On 23 June Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhasani East Pakistan Awami Muslim League. After the formation, Sheikh Mujib left the Muslim League and joined this new team. He was elected joint general secretary of party East Pakistan. Get out of prison in late June. After the release, he joined the movement against the food crisis. In September of this year, he was temporarily detained for violating Section 144 but he was released immediately.
In early January 1950, the Awami Muslim League brought out an anti-famine procession in Dhaka on the occasion of the arrival of Pakistan's Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan to East Pakistan. Sheikh Mujib was arrested this time because of his leadership. His service was imprisoned for two years. On 26 January 1952, Khwaja Nazimuddin announced that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan. In spite of being kept in jail after this announcement, Mujib played a special role in organizing protests and prevention. He played the role of guiding the state language movement by issuing instructions from jail. After this it was decided to observe 21 February, as the day of recognition for state language. At the same time Sheikh Mujib decided to observe the fast on 14 February from jail. His fasting was effective 13 days. On 26 February, he was released from jail.
The founding of the Awami League
Mujib left the Muslim League to join Maulana Bhashani and Yar Mohammad Khan in the formation of the Awami Muslim League, the predecessor of the Awami League. Maulana Bhashani was elected as President while Yar Mohammad Khan was the treasurer. He was elected joint secretary of its East Bengal unit in 1949. While Suhrawardy worked to build a larger coalition of East Bengali and socialist parties, Mujib focused on expanding the grass-roots organization. In 1953, he was made the party's general secretary, and elected to the East Bengal Legislative Assembly on a United Front coalition ticket in 1954. Serving briefly as the minister for agriculture during A. K. Fazlul Huq's government, Mujib was briefly arrested for organizing a protest of the central government's decision to dismiss the United Front ministry.
He was elected to the second Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and served from 1955 to 1958. The government proposed to dissolve the provinces in favour of an amalgamation of the western provinces of the Dominion of Pakistan in a plan called One Unit; at the same time the central government would be strengthened. Under One Unit, the western provinces were merged as West Pakistan during the creation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956. That year East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan as part of One Unit at the same time. Mujib demanded that the Bengali people's ethnic identity be respected and that a popular verdict should decide the question of naming and of official language:
Sir [President of the Constituent Assembly], you will see that they want to place the word "East Pakistan" instead of "East Bengal." We had demanded so many times that you should use Bengal instead of Pakistan. The word "Bengal" has a history, has a tradition of its own. You can change it only after the people have been consulted. So far as the question of One Unit is concerned it can come in the Constitution. Why do you want it to be taken up just now? What about the state language, Bengali? We will be prepared to consider one-unit with all these things. So I appeal to my friends on that side to allow the people to give their verdict in any way, in the form of referendum or in the form of plebiscite.
In 1956, Mujib entered a second coalition government as minister of industries, commerce, labour, anti-corruption and village aid. He resigned in 1957 to work full-time for the party organisation.
In 1958 General Ayub Khan suspended the constitution and imposed martial law. Mujib was arrested for organizing resistance and imprisoned till 1961. After his release from prison, Mujib started organising an underground political body called the Swadhin Bangal Biplobi Parishad (Free Bangla Revolutionary Council), comprising student leaders, to oppose the regime of Ayub Khan. They worked for increased political power for Bengalis and the independence of East Pakistan. He was briefly arrested again in 1962 for organizing protests.
Six point movement
Following Suhrawardy's death in 1963, Mujib came to head the Awami League, which became one of the largest political parties in Pakistan.[page needed] The party had dropped the word "Muslim" from its name in a shift towards secularism and a broader appeal to non-Muslim communities. Mujib was one of the key leaders to rally opposition to President Ayub Khan's Basic Democracies plan, the imposition of martial law and the one-unit scheme, which centralized power and merged the provinces. Working with other political parties, he supported opposition candidate Fatima Jinnah against Ayub Khan in the 1964 election. Mujib was arrested two weeks before the election, charged with sedition and jailed for a year. In these years, there was rising discontent in East Pakistan over the atrocities committed by the Pakistani Armed Forces against Bengalis and the neglect of the issues and needs of East Pakistan by the ruling regime. Despite forming a majority of the population, the Bengalis were poorly represented in Pakistan's civil services, police and military. There were also conflicts between the allocation of revenues and taxation. The 1965 war between India and Pakistan also revealed the markable vulnerability of East Pakistan compared to West Pakistan.
Unrest over continuing denial of democracy spread across Pakistan and Mujib intensified his opposition to the disbandment of provinces. In 1966, Mujib proclaimed a 6-point plan titled Our Charter of Survival at a national conference of opposition political parties at Lahore, in which he demanded self-government and considerable political, economic and defence autonomy for East Pakistan in a Pakistani federation with a weak central government. According to his plan:
- The constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sense on the Lahore Resolution and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a legislature directly elected on the basis of the universal adult franchise.
- The federal government should deal with only two subjects: defense and foreign affairs, and all other residuary subjects shall be vested in the federating states.
- Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should be introduced; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate banking reserve should be established and separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan.
- The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units and the federal center will have no such power. The Federation will be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures.
- There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries.
- East Pakistan should have a separate militia or paramilitary forces.
Mujib's points catalysed public support across East Pakistan, launching what some historians have termed the 6-point movement – recognized as the definitive gambit for autonomy and rights of Bengalis in Pakistan. Mujib obtained the broad support of Bengalis, including the Hindu and other religious communities in East Pakistan. However, his demands were considered radical in West Pakistan and interpreted as thinly veiled separatism. The proposals alienated West Pakistani people and politicians, as well as non-Bengalis and Muslim fundamentalists in East Pakistan.
Mujib was arrested by the Pakistan Army and after two years in jail, an official sedition trial in a military court opened. Widely known as the Agartala Conspiracy Case, Mujib and 34 Bengali military officers were accused by the government of colluding with Indian government agents in a scheme to divide Pakistan and threaten its unity, order and national security. The plot was alleged to have been planned in the city of Agartala, in the Indian state of Tripura. The outcry and unrest over Mujib's arrest and the charge of sedition against him destabilised East Pakistan amidst large protests and strikes. Various Bengali political and student groups added demands to address the issues of students, workers and the poor, forming a larger "11-point plan." The government caved to the mounting pressure, dropped the charges on 22 February 1969 and unconditionally released Mujib the following day. He returned to East Pakistan as a public hero. He was given a mass reception on 23 February, at Racecourse ground and conferred with the title Bangabandhu, meaning Friend of the Bengal.
Joining an all-parties conference convened by Ayub Khan in 1969, Mujib demanded the acceptance of his six points and the demands of other political parties and walked out following its rejection. On 5 December 1969 Mujib made a declaration at a public meeting held to observe the death anniversary of Suhrawardy that henceforth East Pakistan would be called "Bangladesh":
There was a time when all efforts were made to erase the word "Bangla" from this land and its map. The existence of the word "Bangla" was found nowhere except in the term Bay of Bengal. I on behalf of Pakistan announce today that this land will be called "Bangladesh" instead of East Pakistan.
Mujib's declaration heightened tensions across the country. The West Pakistani politicians and the military began to see him as a separatist leader. His assertion of Bengali cultural and ethnic identity also re-defined the debate over regional autonomy. Many scholars and observers believed the Bengali agitation emphasised the rejection of the Two-Nation Theory – the case upon which Pakistan had been created – by asserting the Ethnocultural identity of Bengalis as a nation. Mujib was able to galvanize support throughout East Pakistan, which was home to a majority of the national population, thus making him one of the most powerful political figures in the Indian subcontinent. It was following his 6-point plan that Mujib was increasingly referred to by his supporters as "Bangabandhu" (literally meaning "Friend of Bengal" in Bengali).
1970 elections and civil disobedience
A major coastal cyclone struck East Pakistan on 12 November 1970, leaving hundreds of thousands dead and millions displaced. Bengalis were outraged and unrest began because of what was considered the weak and ineffective response of the central government to the disaster. Public opinion and political parties in East Pakistan blamed the governing authorities as intentionally negligent. The West Pakistani politicians attacked the Awami League for allegedly using the crisis for political gain. The dissatisfaction led to divisions within the civil services, police and Pakistani Armed Forces.
In the Pakistani general elections held on 7 December 1970, the Awami League under Mujib's leadership won a massive majority in the provincial legislature, and all but two of East Pakistan's quota of seats in the new National Assembly, thus forming a clear majority.
The largest and most successful party in the western wing of the nation was the Pakistan Peoples Party headed by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. He was completely opposed to Mujib's demand for greater autonomy. Bhutto threatened to boycott the assembly and oppose the government if Mujib was invited by Yahya Khan (then president of Pakistan) to form the next government and demanded inclusion of the PPP. Much of the Pakistani military and the Islamic political parties opposed Mujib becoming Pakistan's prime minister. At the time neither Mujib nor the Awami League had explicitly advocated political independence for East Pakistan, but smaller nationalist groups were demanding independence for Bangladesh.
Bhutto feared civil war, and sent a secret message to Mujib and his inner circle to arrange a meeting with them. Hassan met with Mujib and persuaded him to form a coalition government with Bhutto. They decided that Bhutto would serve as President, with Mujib as Prime minister. These developments took place secretly and none of the Pakistan Armed Forces personnel were kept informed. Meanwhile, Bhutto increased the pressure on Yahya Khan to take a stand on dissolving the government.
Establishment of Bangladesh
Following political deadlock, Yahya Khan delayed the convening of the assembly – a move seen by Bengalis as a plan to deny Mujib's party, which formed a majority, from taking charge. It was on 7 March 1971 that Mujib called for independence and asked the people to launch a major campaign of civil disobedience and organized armed resistance at a mass gathering of people held at the Race Course Ground in Dhaka.
The struggle now is the struggle for our emancipation; the struggle now is the struggle for our independence. Joy Bangla!..Since we have given blood, we will give more blood. God-willing, the people of this country will be liberated ... Turn every house into a fort. Face (the enemy) with whatever you have.
(For more info, see: 7th March Speech of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman)
Following a last-ditch attempt to foster agreement, Yahya Khan declared martial law, banned the Awami League and ordered the Pakistan Army to arrest Mujib and other Bengali leaders and activists. The Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight to curb the political and civil unrest, fighting the nationalist militias that were believed to have received training in India. Speaking on radio even as the army began its crackdown, Mujib asked his fellows to create resistance against the Pakistan Army occupation by telegraph at midnight on 26 March 1971:
[The] Pakistan Army have suddenly attacked the Pilkhana EPR Headquarter and the Rajarbag Police Line as well as killed many innocents in Dhaka. The battle has started in various places of Dhaka and Chittagong. I am asking help to all the nations of this world. Our freedom fighters are valiantly fighting against the foes to save their motherland. In the name of Almighty Allah my last request and order to you all is to fight for independence till death. Ask your brothers of Police, EPR, Bengal Regiment and Ansar to fight with you. No compromise, the victory is ours. Execute the last foe from our holy motherland. Carry my message to all the leaders, activists and the other patriots from the every corner of the country. May Allah bless you all. Joy Bangla.
Sheikh Mujib was arrested and taken to West Pakistan after midnight from Tejgaon Airport on a PAF C-130 flight right under the noses of ATC Officer Squadron Leader Khaja, Senior Operations Officer Wing Commander Khademul Bashar and Director of Airport and Flight Security Squadron Leader M. Hamidullah Khan. All were on duty that night due to the state of emergency. Mujib was moved to West Pakistan and kept under heavy guard in a jail near Faisalabad (then Lyallpur). Many other League politicians avoided arrest by fleeing to India and other countries. Pakistani general Rahimuddin Khan was appointed to preside over Mujib's military court case in Faisalabad, the proceedings of which have never been made public.
The Pakistan Army's campaign to restore order soon degenerated into a rampage of terror and bloodshed. With militias known as Razakars, the army targeted Bengali intellectuals, politicians and union leaders, as well as ordinary civilians. Due to deteriorating situation, large numbers of Hindus fled across the border to the neighbouring Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. The East Bengali army and police regiments soon revolted and League leaders formed a government in exile in Kolkata under Tajuddin Ahmad, a politician close to Mujib. A major insurgency led by the Mukti Bahini (Freedom Fighters) arose across East Pakistan. Despite international pressure, the Pakistani government refused to release Mujib and negotiate with him. Most of the Mujib family was kept under house arrest during this period. General Osmani was the key military commanding officer in the Mukti Bahini, which was a part of the struggle between the state forces and the nationalist militia during the war that came to be known as the Bangladesh Liberation War. Following Indian intervention in December 1971, the Pakistan Army surrendered to the joint force of Bengali Mukti Bahini and Indian Army, and the League leadership created a government in Dhaka which was called Mujibnagar Government.
Upon assuming the presidency after Yahya Khan's resignation, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto responded to international pressure and released Mujib on 8 January 1972. After release from prison, Bhutto and Mujib met in Rawalpindi. In that meeting, Bhutto proposed some links between Pakistan and Bangladesh. However Mujib said he could not commit to anything until he visited Bangladesh and talked to his colleagues. He was then flown to London where he met with British Prime Minister Edward Heath and addressed the international media at the Claridge's Hotel. Mujib then flew to New Delhi on a Royal Air Force (RAF) jet aircraft provided by the British government to take him back to Dhaka. In New Delhi, he was received by Indian President Varahagiri Venkata Giri and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as well as the entire Indian cabinet and chiefs of armed forces. Delhi was given a festive look as Mujib and Indira addressed a huge crowd where he publicly expressed his gratitude to Indira Gandhi and "the best friends of my people, the people of India". "From New Delhi, Sheikh Mujib flew back to Dhaka on the RAF jet where he was received by a massive and emotional sea of people at Tejgaon Airport."
Struggle for national reconstruction
Mujib briefly assumed the provisional presidency and later took office as the prime minister.
A new country Bangladesh begins with a lot of 'rampage and rape of Bangladesh economy' by Pakistani occupation force. In January 1972 Time magazine reported:
In the aftermath of the Pakistani army's rampage last March, a special team of inspectors from the World Bank observed that some cities looked "like the morning after a nuclear attack." Since then, the destruction has only been magnified. An estimated 6,000,000 homes have been destroyed, and nearly 1,400,000 farm families have been left without tools or animals to work their lands. Transportation and communications systems are totally disrupted. Roads are damaged, bridges out and inland waterways blocked. The rape of the country continued right up until the Pakistani army surrendered a month ago. In the last days of the war, West Pakistani-owned businesses—which included nearly every commercial enterprise in the country—remitted virtually all their funds to the West. Pakistan International Airlines left exactly 117 rupees ($16) in its account at the port city of Chittagong. The army also destroyed bank notes and coins, so that many areas now suffer from a severe shortage of ready cash. Private cars were picked up off the streets or confiscated from auto dealers and shipped to the West before the ports were closed.
The politicians elected in 1970 formed the provisional parliament of the new state. The Mukti Bahini and other militias amalgamated to form a new Bangladesh Army to which Indian forces transferred control on 17 March. Mujib described the fallout of the war as the "biggest human disaster in the world," claiming the deaths of as many as 3 million people and the rape of more than 200,000 women.
Although the state was committed to secularism, Mujib soon began moving closer to political Islam through state policies as well as personal conduct. He revived the Islamic Academy (which had been banned in 1972 for suspected collusion with Pakistani forces) and banned the production and sale of alcohol and banned the practice of gambling, which had been one of the major demands of Islamic groups. In his public appearances and speeches, Mujib made increased usage of Islamic greetings, slogans, and references to Islamic ideologies. In his final years, Mujib largely abandoned his trademark "Joy Bangla" salutation for "Khuda Hafez" preferred by religious Muslims. He also declared a common amnesty to the suspected war criminals in some conditions to get the support of far right groups as the communists were not happy with Mujib's regime. He declared, "I believe that the brokers, who assisted the Pakistanis during the liberation war has realized their faults. I hope they will involve themselves in the development of the country forgetting all their misdeeds. Those who were arrested and jailed in the Collaborator act should be freed before the 16 December 1974". He charged the provisional parliament in order to write a new constitution, and proclaimed the four fundamental principles of "nationalism, secularism, democracy, and socialism," which would come to be known as "Mujibism". Mujib nationalised hundreds of industries and companies as well as abandoned land and capital and initiated land reform aimed at helping millions of poor farmers. A constitution was proclaimed in 1973 and elections were held, which resulted in Mujib and his party gaining power with an absolute majority. He further outlined state programs to expand primary education, sanitation, food, healthcare, water and electric supply across the country.
The Mujib government faced serious challenges, which including the rehabilitation of millions of people displaced in 1971, organising the supply of food, health aids and other necessities. The effects of the 1970 cyclone had not worn off, and the state's economy had immensely deteriorated by the conflict. Economically, Mujib embarked on a huge nationalization program. By the end of the year, thousands of Bengalis arrived from Pakistan, and thousands of non-Bengalis migrated to Pakistan; and yet many thousand remained in refugee camps. Major efforts were launched to rehabilitate an estimated 10 million refugees. The economy began recovering and a famine was prevented. A five-year plan released in 1973 focused state investments into agriculture, rural infrastructure and cottage industries. But a famine occurred in 1974 when the price of rice rose sharply. In that month there was "widespread starvation started in Rangpur district. Government mismanagement had been blamed for that." During Mujib regime the country witnessed industrial decline, growing Indian control over Bangladesh's industries and counterfeit money scandals.
After Bangladesh achieved recognition from major countries, Mujib helped Bangladesh enter into the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement. He travelled to the United States, the United Kingdom and other European nations to obtain humanitarian and developmental assistance for the nation. Mujib maintained a close tie with India. He signed a treaty of friendship with India, which pledged extensive economic and humanitarian assistance and began training Bangladesh's security forces and government personnel. Mujib forged a close friendship with Indira Gandhi, strongly praising India's decision to intercede, and professed admiration and friendship for India. Mujib sought Bangladesh's membership in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and the Islamic Development Bank and made a significant trip to Lahore in 1974 to attend the OIC summit, which helped repair relations with Pakistan to an extent. On the international stage, Mujib and his Indian counterpart Indira Gandhi signed the 25-year Indo-Bangladeshi Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace. Bangladesh joined the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Commonwealth of Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement. Mujib was invited to Washington DC and Moscow for talks with American and Soviet leaders. Mujib declared that Bangladesh would be the "Switzerland of the East" and by this declaration he meant that Bangladesh would steer clear from the Cold War and would remain non-partisan in the tug of Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union. In the Delhi Agreement of 1974, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan pledged to work for regional stability and peace. The agreement paved the way for the return of interned Bengali officials and their families stranded in Pakistan, as well as the establishing of diplomatic relations between Dhaka and Islamabad. Japan became a major aid provider to the new country. Although Israel was one of early countries to recognize Bangladesh, the government in Dhaka strongly supported Egypt during the Arab-Israeli War of 1973. In return, Egypt gifted Bangladesh's military with 44 tanks. Many Eastern European countries, particularly Yugoslavia, East Germany and Poland, enjoyed excellent relations with Bangladesh. The Soviet Union supplied several squadrons of Mig-21 planes for the Bangladesh Air Force.
Left wing insurgency
At the height of Mujib's power, left wing insurgents, organized by Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal's armed wing Gonobahini, fought against Mujib's government in order to establish a Marxist government.
The government responded by forming an elite para-military force Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini on 8 February 1972, initially formed to curb the insurgency and maintain law and order. The force began a campaign of brutal human rights abuses against the general populace, including the force became involved in numerous charges of human rights abuse including political killings, shooting by death squads, forced disappearances and rape. Members of Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini were granted immunity from prosecution and other legal proceedings. The force had swore an oath of loyalty to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Mujib's government soon began encountering increased dissatisfaction and unrest. His programs of nationalization and industrial socialism suffered from lack of trained personnel, inefficiency, rampant corruption, and poor leadership. Mujib focused almost entirely on national issues and thus neglected local issues and government. The party and central government exercised full control and democracy was weakened, with virtually no elections organized at the grass roots or local levels. Political opposition included communists as well as Islamic fundamentalists, who were angered by the declaration of a secular state. Mujib was criticized for nepotism in appointing family members to important positions.  Intense criticism of Mujib arose over the lack of political leadership, a flawed pricing policy, and rising inflation amidst heavy losses suffered by the nationalized industries. Mujib's ambitious social programs performed poorly, owing to scarcity of resources, funds, and personnel, and caused unrest amongst the masses.
The 1974 famine further intensified the food crisis, and devastated agriculture – the mainstay of the economy. The famine had personally shocked Mujib and profoundly affected his views on governance,[page needed] while political unrest gave rise to increasing violence. During the famine, between 70,000 and 1.5 million people died (Note: Reports vary).
In response, he began increasing his powers. In 1974, Mujib declared a state of emergency. On 25 January 1975, the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh was passed, replacing the parliamentary system with a presidential system, reducing the power of the National Parliament and Supreme Court, and codifying a One-party state into law.
On 24 February 1975, Mujib formed a new party, On 7 June 1975, Mujib's political supporters in his party and a few others amalgamated to form the only legal political party, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League, commonly known by its initials—BaKSAL. All MPs were required to join BaKSAL. The party identified itself with the rural masses, farmers, and labourers and took control of all mechanisms of government. It also launched major socialist programs. Under this new system, Sheikh Mujib assumed the presidency and was given extraordinary powers. According to Time magazine:
Under the new system, executive powers are vested in the President, who will be elected directly every five years, and in a Council of Ministers appointed by him. Although an elected Parliament can pass legislation, the President has veto power and can dissolve Parliament indefinitely.
BaKSAL was protested by different groups but they were punished by Mujib. It was known that Sheikh Mujib never accepted any criticism against him. Mujib was widely accused of the 40,000 killings by the Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini militia. Using government forces and his existing militia of supporters called the Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini, Mujib oversaw the arrest of opposition activists and strict control of political activities across the country.
On 15 August 1975, a group of junior army officers invaded the presidential residence with tanks and killed Mujib, his family and personal staff. Only his daughters Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana, who were visiting West Germany at the time, escaped. They were banned from returning to Bangladesh. The coup was planned by disgruntled Awami League colleagues and military officers, which included Mujib's colleague and former confidanté Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, who became his immediate successor. There was intense speculation in the media accusing the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency of having instigated the plot. Lawrence Lifschultz has alleged that the CIA was involved in the coup and assassination, basing his assumption on statements by the then-U.S. ambassador in Dhaka, Eugene Booster.
Mujib's death plunged the nation into many years of political turmoil. The coup leaders were soon overthrown and a series of counter-coups and political assassinations paralyzed the country. Order was largely restored after a coup in 1977 gave control to the army chief Ziaur Rahman. Declaring himself President in 1978, Ziaur Rahman signed the Indemnity Ordinance, giving immunity from prosecution to the men who plotted Mujib's assassination and overthrow.
Personal life, family, and relatives
Sheikh Mujib was 13 years old when he married his paternal cousin Sheikh Fazilatunnesa who was only three and had just lost her parents, so her (and Sheikh Mujib's) grandfather, Sheikh Abdul Hamid, had commanded his son Sheikh Lutfar Rahman to marry his son Sheikh Mujib to her. It was 9 years later, in 1942, when Sheikh Mujib was 22 years old and Begum Fazilatunnesa was 12 years old that the marriage consummated. Together they had two daughters—Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana—and three sons—Sheikh Kamal, Sheikh Jamal, and Sheikh Rasel. Kamal was an organizer of the Mukti Bahini guerrilla struggle in 1971 and received wartime commission in Bangladesh Army during the Liberation War. He was perceived to be the successor to Sheikh Mujib. Sheikh Jamal was trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in Great Britain and later joined the Bangladesh Army as a Commissioned Officer. The Sheikh Family was under house arrest during Bangladesh liberation war until 17 December, Sheikh Kamal and Jamal found the means to escape and cross over to a liberated zone, where they joined the struggle to free the country. Almost entire Sheikh family was assassinated on 15 August 1975 Coup d'état . Only Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana, who were visiting West Germany, escaped. Sheikh Mujib is the maternal grandfather of Tulip Siddiq, British-born Labour politician, and member of parliament for Hampstead and Kilburn since the 2015 general election.
During Mujib's tenure as the premier leader, Muslim religious leaders and some politicians intensely criticized Mujib's adoption of state secularism. He alienated some segments of nationalists and those in the military who feared Bangladesh would become too dependent on India. They worried about becoming a satellite state by taking extensive aid from the Indian government and allying with that country on many foreign and regional affairs. Mujib's imposition of one-party rule and suppression of political opposition with censorship and abuse of the judiciary, also alienated large segments of the population. Historians and political scientists think that it derailed Bangladesh's development as a democratic state, contributing to its subsequent political instability and violence. The economy also collapsed due to widespread corruption in the same period. Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis considered "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" "unprecedented".
Following his assassination, succeeding governments offered low-key commemorations of Mujib. Restoration of his public image awaited the election of an Awami League government in 1996, which was led by his eldest daughter, Sheikh Hasina, the leader of the party. 15 August has since been commemorated as "National Mourning Day". The country keeps it flags lower to half-mast in this day as a sign of mourning. In 2016, the Awami League government passed a law that criminalized any criticism of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Despite controversy and disagreement among politician, Mujib remain a popular figure in Bangladesh. In a 2004 BBC Bengali opinion poll, Mujib was voted as the "Greatest Bengali of All Time". The waistcoat coat that Mujib used to wore during his political campaign is called Mujib Coat (Bangla: মুজিব কোট) in Bangladesh.
- After one year of independence and Mujib rule, Time magazine wrote:
In sum, Bangladesh had little reason to enjoy a happy first birthday. If it is not the "basket case" that Henry Kissinger once called it, neither has it become the Shonar Bangla (Golden Bengal) envisioned by Mujib. How much this is the fault of Mujib is a moot question. It is true that he has had little time in which to combat some of Bangladesh's immense problems. Nevertheless, some critics contend that he has wasted some time playing the role of popular revolutionary figure (such as personally receiving virtually any of his people who call on him) when he should have been concentrating more on serious matters of state. If, as expected, he is elected in March, Mujib will face a clear test of whether he is not only the father of Bangladesh but also its savior.
- Cuban leader Fidel Castro compared Mujib's personality with the Himalayas during the Non-Aligned Summit in 1973.
- Time Magazine USA 25 August 1975 wrote ten Days after his death:
Mujib returned to the most tumultuous welcome Dacca had ever seen—and a staggering array of problems in probably the poorest (and most densely populated) country on earth. There were virtually no civil servants and little industry. Ports were clogged, railroads destroyed, the educated elite savaged. Worse, what had not been destroyed in war was soon destroyed by a devastating drought in 1973 and floods last year that inundated three-quarters of the country.
Laudable Objectives. Facing spreading violence—there had been at least 6,000 political murders since independence—Mujib declared a state of emergency last December. He subsequently banned extremist parties on both the left and the right, brought the press under government control, and cracked down on corruption.
The moves met with general favor in Bangladesh, but there were those who were critical. "Do not forget I have had only three years as a free government," he reminded critics. "You cannot expect miracles." Yet even he seemed impatient for miracles in the end. No one ever doubted that his objectives were laudable. Mujib wanted nothing less than to build a "shonar Bangla," the golden Bengal of the poem by Rabindranath Tagore that serves as the country's national anthem.
Sheikh Mujib wrote two volumes of his autobiography, where he expressed his view on politics and described his personal life. Both books were published after his death by his daughter and current Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.
In popular culture
- Bangladeshi writer Humayun Ahmed portrayed Sheikh Mujib in two of his historical novel, 2004's Jochona O Jononir Golpo following the time during the war of independence and 2012's Deyal following the period after independence.
- Mujib has portrayed negatively by Bangladeshi-Canadian author Neamat Imam. His novel, The Black Coat, depicts Mujib as a deadliest dictator.
- In 2014 Indian film Children of War, Prodip Ganguly portrayed the character of Sheikh Mujib.
- In 2015, the Centre for Research and Information (CRI) department of Bangladesh Awami League published a four part children's comic book named "Mujib" based on the life events of Sheikh Mujib according to his two autobiographies.
- In 2018 documentary film Hasina: A Daughter's Tale, Sheikh Mujib's daughter Sheikh Hasina spoke about the asassination of his father.
- "Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'". 14 April 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- "The Hindu : International : Mujib, Tagore, Bose among 'greatest Bengalis of all time'". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- "The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 4 Num 313". archive.thedailystar.net. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- Harun-or- Rashid (2012). "Rahman, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Kādira 2004, p. 440.
- Parents of Sheikh Mujib Youtube
- Mujibur Rahman 2012, p. 9.
- DU rights historic wrong The Daily Star
- Mujib's DU expulsion order withdrawn
- Ahmad, Syed Nur; Baxter, Craig; Ali, Mahmud (1985). From martial law to martial law: politics in the Punjab, 1919–1958. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-86531-845-8.
- Nair, M. Bhaskaran (1990). Politics in Bangladesh: A Study of Awami League, 1949–58. Northern Book Centre. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-81-85119-79-3.
- Khan, Zillur Rahman (1996). The Third World Charismat: Sheikh Mujib and the Struggle for Freedom. Dhaka: University Press Limited. p. 32. ISBN 978-984-05-1353-6.
- "Bangabandhu wanted to establish socialism within Democratic state framework: Amu". Daily Sun. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Al Helal, Bashir (2012). "Language Movement". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Oldenburg, Philip (August 1985). ""A Place Insufficiently Imagined": Language, Belief, and the Pakistan Crisis of 1971". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 44 (4): 711–733. doi:10.2307/2056443. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 2056443.
- Hossain, Zahid. "Bangabandhu and Language Movement". The Daily Star.
- Bishwas, Sukumar (2005). Bangladesh Liberation War, Mujibnagar Government Documents, 1971. Dhaka: Mawla Brothers. p. 167. ISBN 978-984-410-434-1.
- Dr. Atiur Rahman (21 February 2016). "The lighthouse of Bengali mentality". The Asian Age. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "Political Profile of Bongobondhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman". Bangladesh Awami League. Archived from the original on 26 April 2006. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
- Abu Zafar Shamsddin, Atmasriti (Self-memories) -1st part, Dhaka, 2011.
- Kamran, Tahir (July–December 2009). "Early phase of electoral politics in Pakistan: 1950s" (PDF). South Asian Studies. 24 (2): 277–278.
- Official Report, Debates, page 296, Pakistan Constituent Assembly, 1955
- Aftabuddin Ahmed, Mir (26 March 2017). "FROM SHEIKH MUJIBUR RAHMAN TO OUR BANGABANDHU". Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Karim 2008.
- Rashiduzzaman, M. (July 2006). "The Awami League in the Political Development of Pakistan". Asian Survey. 10 (7): 574–587. doi:10.1525/as.1970.10.7.01p0012n. JSTOR 2642956.
- Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim, ed. (2013). Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962-1971. Hakkani Publishers. pp. 173–174. ISBN 978-7-02-140067-5.
- Choudhury, G. W. (April 1972). "Bangladesh: Why It Happened". International Affairs. 48 (2): 242–249. doi:10.2307/2613440. JSTOR 2613440.
- Jahan, Rounaq (1972). Pakistan: Failure in National Integration. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-03625-2. Pg 166–167
- "Demons of December – Road from East Pakistan to Bangladesh". Defencejournal.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- Manik, M. Waheeduzzaman (7 June 2008). "The historic six-point movement and its impact on the struggle for independence". The Daily Star. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim, ed. (2013). Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962-1971. Hakkani Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 978-7-02-140067-5.
- Karim 2005, p. 136-138.
- Sakhawatullah, Kazi M. (2002). Redemption of the baffled hero: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Gonoprokashani. pp. 82–97.
- "Agartala Conspiracy Case forty years on". The Daily Star.
- Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim (2013). Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Declassified Documents, 1962-1971. Hakkani Publishers.
- Baxter, Craig; Malik, Yogendra K.; Kennedy, Charles; Oberst, Robert C. (1998). Government and Politics in South Asia (5th ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-8133-3901-6.
Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan in 1971 was seen by many as the logical division of two disparate wings of a country united only by Islam, a mutual concern about India ... but divided by language and social customs ... the cultural differences between East and West Pakistan were so great that the division might be described as a second 'Two-Nation Theory,' based this time on culture rather than religion as in 1947.
- Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert, eds. (1989). "Emerging discontent 1966–1970". Bangladesh: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 28–29.
- "Yahya Directing Disaster Relief". The New York Times. United Press International. 24 November 1970. p. 9.
- Durdin, Tillman (11 March 1971). "Pakistanis Crisis Virtually Halts Rehabilitation Work in Cyclone Region". The New York Times. p. 2.
- Kaushik & Patnayak 1995, p. 295.
- Meghna Guhathakurta and Willem van Schendel (2003). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. p. 264. ISBN 9780822353188.
- "Pakistani Cabinet Dissolved by Yahya". The New York Times. 22 February 1971. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Hossain, Kamal (2013). Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice. Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780199068531.
- Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5.
- Hassan, Mubashir (2000). The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry Into the Bhutto Years. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-579300-0.
- Liton, Shakhawt (12 July 2016). "Who was a liar - Yahya or Bhutto?". The Daily Star. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry Into the Bhutto Years. Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-19-579300-0.
- Kaushik & Patnayak 1995, p. 296.
- "Bangabandhu's March 7 speech Bangladesh's inspiration to rise: PM". The Daily Star. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Hossain, Amir (7 March 2013). "Historic 7th March speech of Bangabandhu". Bangabandhu - The Man Behind the Nation (Blog). Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "1971 March 7th shek mujibur rahman". YouTube. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "The World: Bangladesh: Out of War, a Nation Is Born". Time. 20 December 1971. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Sen Gupta, Jyoti (1974). History of freedom movement in Bangladesh, 1943-1973: some involvement. Calcutta: Naya Prokash. pp. 325–326. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "Pakistan: Toppling Over the Brink". Time Magazine. 5 April 1971. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- "Leader of Revels in East Pakistan Reported Seized; Sheik Mijib Arrested After a Broadcast Proclaiming Region's Independence". The New York Times. 27 March 1971. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Search results of From Jan 01, 1971 to Dec 31, 1971". Time. 20 December 1971. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- "Second Opinion: An honest look at the Dhaka debacle Khaled Ahmed's TV Review". Daily Times. Lahore. 20 December 2005. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2006.
Brig Siddiqi, commenting on his latest book on the fall of East Pakistan, said that the morale of the Pakistani troops was extremely low in 1970–71, but General Rahimuddin had tried East Pakistan's charismatic leader Mujibur Rehman in Faisalabad. (General Yahya did not confirm it.)
- Blood, Archer, Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex, Department of State, United States
- US State Department, "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976", Volume XI, South Asia Crisis, 1971", Page 165
- Faiquzzaman, Mohammad (2012). "Mujibnagar Government". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Malcolm Browne. "Bhutto Meets With Mujib; Says He'll Continue Talrs". New York Times.
- In their words: Bhutto and Mujib, December, 1971 Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Star
- Rahman, Aziz (13 January 2017). "Historic Homecoming of Bangabandhu". Daily Sun.
- "BANGLADESH: A Hero Returns Home". 24 January 1972. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Haque, Junaidul (10 January 2014). "The return of Bangabandhu". Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "BANGLADESH: Mujib's Road from Prison to Power". Time. 17 January 1972. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Habib, Mohshin (4 August 2017). "Bangabandhu cared about the poor". The Asian Age. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Raman, B. (29 August 2006). "Mujib and Islam". Archived from the original (PHP) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2006.
- Frank 2001, p. 388.
- Uddin, Shahzad; Hopper, Trevor (1997). "A Bangladeshi Soap Opera: Privatisation, Accounting, Consent and Control" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- "BRAC University journal". 1. BRAC University. 2004: 26–28. OCLC 63084169. Cite journal requires
- Lawrence B. Lesser. "Economic Reconstruction after Independence". A Country Study: Bangladesh (James Heitzman and Robert Worden, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (September 1988). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.About the Country Studies / Area Handbooks Program: Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
- Jahan, Rounaq (February 1973). "Bangladesh in 1972: Nation Building in a New State". Asian Survey. 13 (2): 199–210. doi:10.1525/as.1973.13.2.01p0305i. JSTOR 2642736.
- Farid, Shah Mohammad. "Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Social Sector Development into the Planning Process in Bangladesh" (PDF). UNESCAP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- Sen, Amratya (1982). Poverty and famines: An essay and entitlement and deprivation. Oxford University Press. p. 138.
- Islam, Maidul (2015). Limits of Islamism. Cambridge University Press. p. 172. ISBN 9781107080263.
- "The Recognition Story". Bangladesh Strategic and Development Forum. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- M. Uddin, Sufia. Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation. p. 137.
- Frank 2001, p. 343.
- Choudhury M. Shamim THE BANGLADESH-INDIA FRIENDSHIP TREATY: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Internet Archive
- Rashid, Harun ur. "Our foreign relations over last four decades". The Daily Star. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Ahmed 1983, p. 202-207.
- Tepper, Elliot L.; Hayes, Glen A. (1990). Bengal and Bangladesh: Politics and Culture on the Golden Delta. Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. p. 103.
- Pike, John. "Bangladesh Army - Modernization". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- Mascarenhas, Anthony (1986) Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. Hodder and Stoughton
- Pike, John. "Bangladesh - Air Force Modernization". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "JS sees debate over role of Gono Bahini". The Daily Star. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Rizvi now blasts Inu at press briefing". The Daily Star. UNB. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Bangladesh; Hossain, Hamza; Kamrul Islam, A. T. M (1974). Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini Act.
- Ahamed, Emajuddin (2004). The military and democracy in Bangladesh (PDF). Sydney: Australian National University Press. pp. 108–110.
- "Ignoring Executions and Torture : Impunity for Bangladesh's Security Forces" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- রক্ষীবাহিনীর নৃশংসতা মধ্যযুগীয় বর্বরতাকেও হার মানিয়েছিল. Amar Desh (in Bengali). 16 January 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011.
- Fair, Christine C.; Riaz, Ali (2010). Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh. Routledge. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1136926242. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Chowdhury, Atif (18 February 2013). "Bangladesh: Baptism By Fire". Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Ahmed 1983, p. 69.
- Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey. 16 (2): 119–29. doi:10.2307/2643140. JSTOR 2643140.
- Country Studies, Bangladesh (12 September 2006). "Mujib's fall". Retrieved 12 September 2006.
- Pike, Francis (2011). Empires at War: A Short History of Modern Asia Since World War II. I. B. Tauris. p. 722. ISBN 978-1-84885-865-7.
- Rahman, Mohammad Habibur (7 July 2006). "Decentralization and Access: Theoretical Framework and Bangladesh Experience" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2005. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- Ahmed 1983, p. 265.
- Rahman, Sirajur (20 March 2012). ওরা জাতির পিতাকে সম্মান দিতে ব্যর্থ হয়েছে [They have failed to honor the Father of the Nation]. Amar Desh (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Jahan 2000, p. 8-16.
- Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin (ed.). Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5.
... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and many others from the other parties, decided to join the BaKSAL. Between Mujib's BaKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join.
- "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "The Second Revolution". Time. 10 February 1975. p. 39.
- Frank 2001, pp. 388–389.
- Shahriar, Hassan (7 July 2006). "Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 18 May 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- Lifschultz, Lawrence (15 August 2015). "The long shadow of the August 1975 coup". The Daily Star. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
- Ziaur Rahman informed Sheikh Mujibur Rahman earlier about coup threat Archived 5 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "SHEIKH MUJIBUR RAHMAN".
- Mujibur Rahman 2012, p. 7.
- Sheikh Kamal The Asian Age.5 August 2017
- "Sheikh Jamal".
- "Sheikh Jamal profile". Bangladesh Awami League. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- Islam, N.; Trust, Anwara-Nur Welfare (1 January 2001). Bangabandhu in the eye of his personal physician. Anwara-Nur Welfare Trust. p. 115.
- Gupta 1981, p. 5.
- "Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib's 81st birth anniversary today". The Daily Star. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "UK vote could create cross-border dynasty". Aljazeera.
- "Hampstead and Kilburn MP Tulip Siddiq set to back Owen Smith in Labour leadership contest". Camden New Journal. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Bangladesh new note family confirmed". banknotenews.com.
- "Tread Warily To The Dream". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 6 February 2010.
- Singh, Khushwant (21 January 1973). "Bangladesh, after the first year: Will it ever be a workable country?". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Ahmed, Taib; Islam, Khadimul (16 December 2014). "'Mujib Bahini didn't fight liberation war'". The New Age. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Bangladesh remembers founding leader". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Alam Khan, Maswood (14 August 2017). "To pay debt to Bangabandhu". The Financial Express. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "National Mourning Day today". Prothom Alo. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Chowdhury, Afsan (29 August 2016). "Must laws protect Sheikh Mujib's honour and 1971 history?" (1). bdnews24.com. bdnews24.com. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- Mustafa, Sabir (14 April 2004). "Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'". BBC News.
- "BBC Listeners' Poll Bangabandhu judged greatest Bangali of all time". The Daily Star.
- Habib, Haroon (17 April 2004). "Mujib, Tagore, Bose among `greatest Bengalis of all time'". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- Firdousi, Ishrat. The year that was. Bastu Prakashan. OCLC 36884426.
- "Bangladesh: Not Yet Shonar Bangla". Time. 1 January 1973. p. 32.
- Know thy Father –The Daily Star Archived 17 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- "BANGLADESH: Mujib: Death of the Founder". Time. 25 August 1975. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Ludden, David. "FORGOTTEN HEROES". Frontline. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- "Unesco recognises Bangabandhu's 7th March speech". The Daily Star. 31 October 2017. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "Autobiography of Mujibur handed over to Hasina". Gulf Times. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Karagarer Rojnamcha: A Jail Diary with a Difference". 20 May 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Jha, Aditya Mani. "In the famine-ravaged fields of Bangla, we are all Mujib", The Sunday Guardian, 15 June 2013
- Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh (2012). The Unfinished Memoirs. Dhaka: The University Press Limited. ISBN 9789845061100.
- Kādira, Muhāmmada Nūrula (2004). Independence of Bangladesh in 266 days: history and documentary evidence. Dhaka: Mukto Publishers. ISBN 978-984-32-0858-3.
- Karim, SA (2008). Sheikh Mujib: triumph and tragedy. The University Press Limited. ISBN 9789840517374.
- Milam, William B. (2009). Pakistan and Bangladesh: Flirting with Failure. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70066-5.
- Kaushik, S. L.; Patnayak, Rama (1995). Modern Governments and Political Systems: governments and politics in South Asia.
- Frank, Katherine (2001). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-395-73097-3.
- Ahmed, Moudud (1983). Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. University Press Limited. ISBN 9789845062268.
- Ahmed, Salahuddin (2003). Bangladesh: Past and Present. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. ISBN 9788176484695.
- Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim, ed. (2013). Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962-1971. Hakkani Publishers. ISBN 978-7-02-140067-5.
- Meghna Guhathakurta and Willem van Schendel (2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822353188.
- Islam, Maidul (2015). Limits of Islamism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107080263.
- Jahan, Rounaq (2000). Bangladesh: promise and performance. Zed Books. ISBN 9781856498258.
- M. Uddin, Sufia (15 December 2006). Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation. ISBN 9780807877333.
- Gupta, Jyoti Sen (1981). Bangladesh, in Blood and Tears. Naya Prokash.
- Bangabandhu Online Museum
- Bangladesh Liberation War. Mujibnagar. Government Documents 1971
- Sheik Mujibur Rahaman
- A Diary Note On Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman By Manas Pal
- Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
- A complete List of Time Magazine USA Article on Bangladesh
- The short film Interview with Bangladesh Prime Minister Mujbur Rahman (1972) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
|New office|| President of Bangladesh
| Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Muhammad Mansur Ali
| President of Bangladesh
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad