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Rahimuddin Khan (born 21 July 1924) is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1984 to 1987, after serving as the 7th Governor of Balochistan from 1978 to 1984. He also served as the 16th Governor of Sindh in 1988.

Rahimuddin Khan
رحیم الدین خان
Rahimuddin.jpg
Khan as a Major
7th Governor of Balochistan
In office
18 September 1978 – 22 March 1984
PresidentZia-ul-Haq
Preceded byKhuda Buksh Marri
Succeeded byFarooq Shaukat Khan Lodi
16th Governor of Sindh
In office
24 June 1988 – 11 September 1988
Preceded byAshraf W. Tabani
Succeeded byQadeeruddin Ahmed
Personal details
Born (1924-07-21) 21 July 1924 (age 95)
Qaimganj, United Provinces, British India[1]
RelationsMahmud Husain
Zakir Husain
Alma materJamia Millia Islamia
Command and General Staff College
Command and Staff College, Pakistan Military Academy
Military service
AllegiancePakistan Pakistan
Branch/service Pakistan Army
Years of service1947–1987
RankOF-9 Pakistan Army.svg General
UnitBaloch Regiment
Commands111 Brigade, Rawalpindi
II Corps, Multan
Ras Koh nuclear test sites
8th Army Infantry Division
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Battles/warsLahore riots of 1953
Indo-Pakistani war of 1971
Balochistan conflict
Soviet–Afghan War
AwardsOrder of Excellence Nishan-e-Imtiaz.png Nishan-e-Imtiaz
Crescent of Excellence Hilal-e-Imtiaz.png Hilal-i-Imtiaz
Star of Good Conduct Sitara-e-Basalat.png Sitara-e-Basalat

Born in Qaimganj, British India, Rahimuddin opted for Pakistan at Partition, enrolling as the first cadet of the Pakistan Military Academy. He was part of military action during the 1953 Punjab disturbances, and later commanded 111 Brigade in Rawalpindi and II Corps in Multan. As Chairman Joint Chiefs, he rejected the future military plan for the Kargil conflict.[2]

The longest-serving governor of Balochistan in Pakistan's history, Rahimuddin declared an amnesty and ended military operations in the province.[3] His tenure saw widespread development including the opening of Sui gas fields to Quetta,[4] the construction of nuclear test sites in Chaghai, and the halting of the Baloch insurgency,[5][6] but was controversial for suppressing Afghan mujahideen entering the province during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

Early life and familyEdit

Rahimuddin Khan was born in Qaimganj, United Provinces, India, to an ethnic Afridi Pathan family that had migrated from Tirah, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[7] He was the nephew of educationist Zakir Husain, later the President of India, and the son-in-law of Husain's brother, Pakistan Movement activist Mahmud Husain.[8]

He attended Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi, founded by Zakir Husain. He opted for Pakistan during independence in 1947, enrolling as Gentleman Cadet-1 of the Pakistan Military Academy.[9]

Military serviceEdit

As captain, Rahimuddin helped enforce martial law in Lahore during the 1953 Lahore riots. He attended Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and Command and Staff College in Quetta in 1965, and was appointed sub-martial law administrator of Hyderabad in 1969. He served as inaugural commander of 111 Brigade in Rawalpindi in 1970. Rahimuddin served as Chief Instructor at the Armed Forces War College at the then National Defence College, Rawalpindi until 1975. Bhutto requested Rahimuddin to head the new Atomic Energy Commission and nuclear programme, but was declined.[10][11] As Lieutenant-General, he became Commander II Corps in Multan[12] in 1976. He was made Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee by General Zia-ul-Haq in 1984. He retired in 1987.

Rejection of Kargil planEdit

As Chairman Joint Chiefs, Rahimuddin was asked to approve the military plan for an offensive in Kargil, Kashmir in 1986.[2] The plan was authored by Commander I Corps. Both Rahimuddin and Air Chief Marshal Jamal A. Khan rejected it as untenable, citing the harsh conditions, strategy, and concurrent conflict with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan.[2] The plan was later approved by General Pervez Musharraf, leading to the Kargil war in 1998.

Governor of BalochistanEdit

End of operation and withdrawalEdit

A military operation against separatists was commenced in Balochistan by Prime Minister Bhutto led by army chief Tikka Khan in 1973, claiming thousands of lives.[13] Rahimuddin was appointed Governor of Balochistan on 16 September 1978. He declared an end to the operation, and announced a general amnesty for fighters willing to give up arms. Army withdrawal was completed by 1979. The Baloch separatist movement came to a standstill.[14][15] Under Rahimuddin, Foreign Policy Centre held that "the province's tribal sardars were taken out of the pale of politics for the first time."[16] He was known for clean reputation during corrupt regimes.[17]

DevelopmentEdit

Rahimuddin opened the Sui gas field to provide gas directly to Quetta and other Baloch towns for the first time. Electricity expansion from Quetta to Loralai converted vast areas with sub-soil water into fertile ones.[18] He also consolidated the then-contentious integration of Gwadar into Balochistan, notified as a district in 1977. Despite opposition from finance minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Rahimuddin heavily promoted large-scale manufacturing and investment in infrastructure, leading to provincial GDP growth rising to the highest in Balochistan's history.[19] Addressing the province's literacy rate, the lowest in the country,[20] he administered the freeing up of resources towards education, created girls' incentive programs, and had several girls' schools built in Dera Bugti District. He also oversaw the construction of nuclear test sites in Chaghai where tests were conducted in 1998.

Containment of Afghan refugeesEdit

During the Soviet–Afghan War, the Zia regime began aiding the anti-communist Afghan mujahideen. Millions of Afghan refugees, believed to be the largest refugee population in the world,[21] crossed over the border into Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[22] Under Zia and General Fazle Haq in KP, heroin and weaponry freely entered with the mujahideen.[23][24] In Balochistan however, Rahimuddin Khan detained the mujahideen in barbed wire military camps and seized their arms. Several fighters were allegedly transported back into Afghanistan by force, criticized by Pakistani human rights agencies. He also restricted refugees to civilian encampments during the war.[citation needed] Pakistan's Balochistan policy became highly unpopular in the eyes of Afghans, but drugs and weapons remained low in the province, becoming widespread in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[25]

Al-Zulfikar hijackingEdit

In March 1981, the Al-Zulfikar terrorist organization led by Murtaza Bhutto hijacked a Pakistan International Airlines airplane from Karachi to Kabul.[26] The hijackers threatened to murder hostages if state authorities did not release specific political prisoners. Upon the authorities' refusal, Al-Zulfikar shot and killed passenger Captain Tariq Rahim, mistakenly believed to be the son of General Rahimuddin Khan.[27][28] The decision to kill Rahim was taken after Murtaza Bhutto consulted KHAD chief Mohammad Najibullah.[29][30] Tariq Rahim had actually been a former aide-de-camp to the elder Bhutto.[31] The episode was ended when Zia-ul-Haq released the prisoners.[citation needed]

Governor of Sindh and retirementEdit

Zia dismissed his own government in May 1988. Rahimuddin became civilian Governor of Sindh, and governor's rule was imposed citing emergency.[32] Claiming corruption, Rahimuddin began dismissing large numbers of police and civil servants, including Z.A. Nizami from the Karachi Development Authority.[33][34] Rahimuddin also launched a brutal police crackdown on land mafia, one of the widest ever in Karachi, criticized by both PPP and the Zia regime for its heavyhanded tactics. It was stopped by the government immediately after he resigned. He moved to create separate police forces for the city and the rural areas, but this was also resisted after his resignation for fears of complicating the Sindhi-Muhajir relationship.[35] Special riot control officers were trained to cope with ethnic riots, and river and forest police were also set up to battle dacoity.[36] Ghulam Ishaq Khan became acting President after Zia's death in an aircrash on 17 August, and reintroduced the Chief Minister of Sindh office. Rahimuddin resigned in response, some say as this was attempt to limit his gubernatorial powers.[37]

Post-retirement, he projected his former chief of staff Asif Nawaz for appointment as Chief of Army Staff.[38]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hindus Contribution Towards Making Of Pakistan 22 May 2010 Retrieved 28 January 2011
  2. ^ a b c Zehra, Nasim (17 May 2018). From Kargil to the Coup: Events That Shook Pakistan. Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9789693531374.
  3. ^ "Historical sequence in Balochistan". DAWN. Inpaper. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  4. ^ Sehgal, Ikram. "Of Empire and Army: Understanding Balochistan". Newsline.
  5. ^ Balochis of Pakistan: On the Margins of History. United Kingdom: Foreign Policy Centre. 2006. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-905833-08-5.
  6. ^ "Tribal Politics in Balochistan 1947–1990" Conclusion (1990) p.6
  7. ^ Faruqi, Ziaul Hasan (1999). Zakir Husain: Quest for Truth. Arrow Publishing. p. 76.
  8. ^ Khurshid, Salman (2014). At Home In India: The Muslim Saga. Hay House India.
  9. ^ Bavadam, Lyla Bavadam (2008). "Brothers in arms". Retrieved 27 May 2009. The cadets who left for Pakistan formed the First Course of the PMA. Gentleman Cadet No. 391 at the IMA, who became Cadet No. 1 at the PMA, and also honer of P.A(Pakistan Army) No 1, Rahim Uddin Khan, rose to the rank of General and became Joint Chief of Staff in Pakistan and, later, Governor of one of the provinces.[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ Maulana Kausar Niazi The Last Days of Premier Bhutto p.60
  11. ^ Maulana Kausar Niazi The Last Days of Premier Bhutto p.61
  12. ^ Arif, Khalid Mahmud (1995). Working with Zia. Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-19-577570-8. Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan kept the governor's post in addition to commanding 2 Corps virtually in absentia. Its headquarters was located in the distant city of Multan.
  13. ^ Marri, Balach Marri (2002). "A History of Oppression". Archived from the original on 24 March 2003. Retrieved 14 August 2002. Mr Bhutto didn’t wait long and ordered the army to move into the interior of Balochistan and then dismissed the Governments both in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan...thousands of people were killed in those army operations, which continued for 5 years. Thousands were rendered homeless...
  14. ^ Foreign Policy Centre, "On the Margins of History", (2008), p.36
  15. ^ "Newsline: A History of the Baloch Separatist Movement". Iaoj.wordpress.com. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  16. ^ Foreign Policy Centre "On the Margins of History" p. 30
  17. ^ "Balochistan's history- Baloch Unity Organization". Balochunity.org. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Tribal Politics in Balochistan 1947–1990" Conclusion (1990) p.8
  19. ^ World Bank – Balochistan Economic Report 2009
  20. ^ Daily Times (2007). "Balochistan home to lowest-literacy rate population in Pakistan". Retrieved 5 January 2009. Balochistan is home to the largest number of school buildings that are falling apart. It also has the least number of educational institutions, the lowest literacy rate among both males and females.
  21. ^ Amnesty International file on Afghanistan Archived 2003-07-11 at the Wayback Machine URL Accessed 22 March 2006
  22. ^ "The Afghan War Settlement". Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  23. ^ "1982–1989: Fazle Haq Profile". Historycommons.org. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  24. ^ Kepel, Jihad, (2002), p.143–44
  25. ^ "9/11 Truths: Clarification from Scott regarding Fazle Haq". 911truth.org. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  26. ^ 9/11 START| Terrorist Organization Profile: Al-Zulfikar Archived 6 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Hijackings". History of PIA. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  28. ^ Anwar, The Terrorist Prince, (1997), p.121
  29. ^ Anwar, The Terrorist Prince, (1997), p.106
  30. ^ Anwar, The Terrorist Prince, (1997), p.123
  31. ^ "Islamic Terrorism Timeline". Prophet of Doom. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  32. ^ "The Far East and Central Asia" (2003) Regional Surveys of the World p. 1166
  33. ^ Ardeshir Cowasjee (13 February 2005). "Karachi's Woes". Dawn. For years Karachi was at the mercy of a plunderer of the KDA, Z A Nizami, until one fine day the then governor of Sindh, General Rahimuddin, realizing that enough was enough, sacked the man...
  34. ^ Ardeshir Cowasjee (2005). "Who can say? What?". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. The Bishop persisted. In July 1988, he asked Governor Rahimuddin for the plot, categorically stating that he did not intend to construct a building thereon but would use it as an open playground. The authorities held their ground.
  35. ^ "Near East and South Asia- U.S. Department of Commerce (1999) p.35" (PDF). Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  36. ^ "Near East and South Asia- U.S. Department of Commerce (1999) p.36" (PDF). Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  37. ^ Najam, Adil Najam (2006). "Ghulam Ishaq Khan Dead". Retrieved 27 October 2006. Khan’s presidency also saw the resignation of General Rahimuddin Khan from the post of Governor of Sindh, due to differences between the two after Khan started restricting Rahimuddin’s vast amount of legislative power.
  38. ^ Shuja Nawaz (2007) "Crossed Swords: Pakistan, its Army and the Wars Within"
Political offices
Preceded by
Khuda Bakhsh Marri
Governor of Balochistan
1978–1984
Succeeded by
Farooq Shaukat Khan Lodi
Preceded by
Ashraf W. Tabani
Governor of Sindh
1988
Succeeded by
Qadeeruddin Ahmed
Military offices
Preceded by
Iqbal Khan
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
1984–1987
Succeeded by
Akhtar Abdur Rahman