Structure of the Pakistan Army
The Structure of the Pakistan Army can be broken down two ways, administrative, and operational. Operationally the Pakistan Army is divided in 9 Corps and two corps-level formations (commands) having areas of responsibility (AOR) from mountainous regions of northern Pakistan to the desert and coastal regions of the south. Administratively it is divided in different regiments (details below). The General Headquarters (GHQ) of Pakistan Army is located in the garrison city of Rawalpindi in Punjab province. It is planned to be moved to the capital city of Islamabad.
Army headquarters and staffEdit
The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO's) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include:
|Chief of Army Staff (COAS), GHQ.||General Qamar Javed Bajwa|
|Chief of General Staff (CGS)||Lt Gen Nadeem Raza|
|Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS)||Lt Gen Azhar Saleh Abbasi|
|Adjutant General (AG)||Lt Gen Faiz Hameed|
|Quarter-Master General (QMG)||Lt Gen Moazzam Ejaz|
|Inspector General Training and Evaluation (IG T&E)||Lt Gen Sher Afgun|
|Military Secretary (MS)||Lt Gen Muhammad Abdul Aziz|
|Inspector General Arms (IG Arms)||Lt Gen Muhammad Waseem Ashraf|
|Inspector General Communications and IT (IG C&IT)||Lt Gen Nauman Mahmood|
|Engineer-in-Chief (E-in-C)||Lt Gen Muhammad Afzal|
The Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function under the Chief of General Staff (CGS). A major reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO's to eight.
The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C) who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff.
- Corps: A Corps in the Pakistani Army usually consists of two or more Divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General (equivalent to Federal Secretary). Currently, the Pakistani Army has 9 Corps and two corps-level formations. The Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC), responsible for bearing the national strategic and nuclear assets was initially a Division equivalent formation, but later raised to the status of a Corps.
- Division: Each division is commanded by a Major General (equivalent to BPS-21 grade), and usually holds three Brigades including infantry, artillery, engineers and communications units in addition to logistics (supply and service) support to sustain independent action. Except for the Divisions operating in the mountains, all the Divisions have at least one armoured unit, some have even more depending upon their functionality. The most major of all ground force combat formations is the infantry division. Such a division would primarily hold three infantry brigades. There are 19 Infantry Divisions, 1 Special Operations Elite Combat Para Infantry Division (initially a brigade-sized group but recently (January 2003) raised to a Division size group), two Mechanized Infantry divisions, two Armoured Divisions, 1 Engineers Division, 2 Artillery Divisions (which are widely believed to be in possession of Ballistics Nuclear Missiles - Therefore these Artillery Divisions are equivalent of Modern Ballistics Missile Artillery Division instead of traditional Artillery role usually associated with them) in the Pakistani Army.
- Brigade: A Brigade is under the command of a Brigadier (equivalent to BPS-20 grade) and comprises three or more Battalions of different units depending on its functionality. An independent brigade would be one that primarily consists of an artillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its actions. Such a brigade is not part of any division and is under direct command of a corps.
- Battalion: Each battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel and has roughly 600 to 900 soldiers under his command. This number varies depending on the functionality of the battalion. A battalion comprises either three batteries (in case of artillery and air defence regiments - generally named Papa, Quebec, Romeo, and Headquarters Battery) or four companies (in case of infantry regiments - generally named Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta - and other arms excluding armored units that are organized into squadrons) each under the command of a major and consisting of individual subunits called sections (which are further divisible into platoons and squads).
|Corps||HQ Location||Current Commander||Major Corps Formations||Notes|
|I Corps||Mangla, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Nadeem Zaki khan Manj||6th Armoured Division (Gujranwala), 17th Infantry Division (Kharian), 37th Infantry Division (Kharian)||Formed in 1958 in Abbottabad, now is in Mangla; Fought in the 1965 and 1971 wars, as well as sent replacements to Kashmir for LOC.|
|II Corps||Multan, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Muhammad Naeem Ashraf||1st Armoured Division (Pakistan) (Multan), 14th Infantry Division (Okara), 40th Infantry Division (Okara)||Formed in 1968 in Lahore, transferred to Multan in 1969.|
|IV Corps||Lahore, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Majid Ehsan||2nd Artillery Division (Pakistan) (Gujranwala), 10th Infantry Division (Lahore), 11th Infantry Division (Lahore)||Formed in 1965 in Multan, transferred to Lahore in 1969.|
|V Corps||Karachi, Sindh||Lt. Gen. Humayun Aziz||16th Infantry Division (Pano Aqil), 18th Infantry Division (Hyderabad), 25th Mechanized Division (Malir)||Formed in 1975. 16, 18 IDs are all mechanized. Has a lot of independent Brigades as well, since it has all of Sindh to cover.|
|X Corps||Rawalpindi, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Bilal Akbar||Force Command Northern Areas(Gilgit), 12th Infantry Division (Murree), 19th Infantry Division (Mangla), 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum), Special Security Division( Chilas)||Raised in 1975 by Lt. Gen. Aftab Ahmad Khan|
|XI Corps||Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||Lt. Gen. Shaheen Mazhar Mehmood||7th Infantry Division (Peshawar), 9th Infantry Division (Kohat)||Formed in 1975. Presently engaged in fighting in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas|
|XII Corps||Quetta,||Lt. Gen. Asim Saleem Bajwa||33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Infantry Division (Quetta)||Formed in 1985.|
|XXX Corps||Gujranwala, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Syed Asim Munir Ahmad Shah||8th Infantry Division (Pakistan) (Sialkot), 15th Infantry Division (Pakistan) (Sialkot)||Formed in 1987. Each division has 4 brigades and an armoured division is in the process of raising.|
|XXXI Corps||Bahawalpur, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Syed Muhammad Adnan||26th Mechanized Division (Bahawalpur), 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur)||Formed in 1988.|
|Army Air Defence Command||Rawalpindi, Punjab||Lt. Gen.Hamood Uz Zaman Khan||3rd Air Defence Division (Sargodha), 4th Air Defence Division (Malir)||Formed in 1990.|
|Army Strategic Forces Command||Rawalpindi, Punjab||Lt. Gen. Qazi Muhammad Ikram Ahmed||21st Artillery Division (Pano Aqil), 22nd Artillery Division (Sargodha)||Formed in 2000.|
Air Defence DivisionsEdit
|4 AD Division||HQ Malir||AD Brigade, Malir; AD Brigade, Quetta||Part of Army Air Defence Command|
|3 AD Division||HQ Sargodha||3 AD Brigade, Sargodha; 4 AD Brigade, Lahore||Part of Army Air Defence Command|
Artillery Divisions (Modern Ballistics Missile Artillery Division)Edit
|21 Artillery Division||HQ Pano Aqil||Classified||under Army Strategic Forces Command (Pakistan)|
|22 Artillery Division||HQ Sargodha||Classified||under Army Strategic Forces Command (Pakistan)|
There are seven Independent Mechanized Infantry Brigades, eight Independent Armoured brigades, 4 Artillery Brigades, and nine Engineer brigades. These include 105 Air Defence Independent Brigade Group in XXXI Corps, 111 Independent Infantry Brigade at Rawalpindi with X Corps, 212 Infantry Brigade at Lahore with IV Corps and 105 Independent Infantry Brigade under V Corps. Nine independent signal brigade groups are also present (one in each corps).
36 ID and 39 ID were raised to command the Paramilitary troops and a few loyal battalions. Were later reinforced with a couple of other battalions each. They were not re-raised after the war.
The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services.
Infantry, Armour, Artillery and Army Air DefenceEdit
The Army's infantry force includes two Special forces Brigades with 5 Battalions, The Pakistan Armoured Corps includes eight Armoured Reconnaissance regiments, while the Air Defence also includes three Strategic Defence and 12 Self Propelled (SP) Regiments
*The President's Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General's Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor's Troop of Moghals raised in 1773
*5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Wales's Horse), and the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857
*6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry raised in 1858
*Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846
*11th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to 1st Regiment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849
*13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Troop raised in 1804, and the 2nd Native Troop raised in 1816. It is also the senior most armour regiment of the Indian Sub-Continent.
*19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fane's Horse raised in 1860
*25th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the famous unit which stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965
*29th Cavalry Regiment, nicknamed as 'Royal Bengal Tigers' was the armored regiment stationed in former East Pakistan. Entire regiment was lost in 1971 war and was raised later with nickname 'Tigers'. Currently the regiment forms part of 6th Armored Division and is stationed at Kharian.
*6 Light Air Defence (Glorious) is the famous unit which downed more than 36 IAF Fighter Jets during Battle of Dhaka in 1971, it was the 1st ever Anti Aircraft Regiment of the United India raised in 1912
*5 Light Air Defence (Fakhar e Quaid) was the first ever Army unit to be inspected by Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Founder of the Nation in 1948, this unit can be traced back to 125th Royal Heavy Anti Aircraft Artillery Raised at Woolwich England in 1918
*19 SP Air Defence was the 1st Self Propelled Air Defence Unit attached to Armored Formation
*153 SP Air Defence (Fakhar e Tabuk) raised in 1990 took active part in Operation Desert Storm in 1991 over Saudi Iraqi Border and Intercepted Number of Iraqi Scud Surface to Surface Missiles
*The Punjab Regiment formed in 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced back to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759
*The Baloch Regiment formed in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baloch Regiment, and The Bahawalpur Regiment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798
*The Frontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846
*The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1971
*The Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regiment and Baloch Regiment
*The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from various paramilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargil War
*The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baloch Regiment
- Armoured Corps
- Army Air Defence
- Corps of Engineers
- Corps of Army Aviation
- Pakistan Army Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
- Corps of Engineers
- Corps of Signals