Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ
Bangladesh Peasants' Workers' People's League
LeaderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
FounderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
Founded24 February 1975
Dissolved15 August 1975
Merger ofAwami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar), Bangladesh Jatiya League
HeadquartersDhaka, Bangladesh
IdeologyBengali nationalism
Socialism
One Party State
Political positionLeft-wing to Far-left

Following the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh, enacted on 25 January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed BaKSAL on 24 February.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BaKSAL.

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of the Second Revolution. BaKSAL was the decision-making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[3]

BaKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975.[4] With the end of BaKSAL, all the political parties who had merged with BaKSAL, including the Awami League, again became independent political parties.

BackgroundEdit

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (aka Mujibur) and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 Bangladeshi general election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption.[5] In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujibur declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group.[6] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute one-party rule.[7][8][9]

FormationEdit

On 24 February 1975, Mujibur formed a new party, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[5][10] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[11] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[5] All other political organisations were banned.[11] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BaKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[5] The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party, and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BaKSAL. According to political science professor Talukder Maniruzzaman, BaKSAL was in practice "the Awami League under a different name".[12]

BaKSAL was scheduled to officially replace the nation's other political organisations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations, on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Mujibur Rahman, BaKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 120-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively).[12] All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BaKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country to make it people-oriented.

Executive CommitteeEdit

Central CommitteeEdit

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali
  4. Major Mohammad Yaqub
  5. Abdul Malik Ukil
  6. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  7. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  8. Kazi Linchon
  9. Mahmudullah
  10. Abdus Samad Azad
  11. M. Yousuf Ali
  12. Phani Bhushan Majumder
  13. Kamal Hossain
  14. Muhammad Sohrab Hossain
  15. Abdul Mannan
  16. Abdur Rab Serniabat
  17. Manaranjan Dhar
  18. Abdul Matin
  19. Asaduzzanan
  20. Md Korban Ali
  21. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  22. Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  23. Tofael Ahmed
  24. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  25. Abdul Momin Talukdar
  26. Dewan Farid Gazi
  27. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  28. Taheruddin Thakur
  29. Moslemuddin Khan
  30. Professor Abu Sayeed
  31. MD Nurul Islam Manju
  32. KM Obaidur Rahman
  33. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal
  34. Reazuddin Ahmad
  35. M. Baitullah
  36. Rahul Quddus (Secretary)
  37. Zillur Rahman
  38. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  39. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  40. Abdur Razzaq
  41. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  42. Anwar Choudhry
  43. Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury
  44. Taslima Abed
  45. Abdur Rahim
  46. Abdul Awal
  47. Lutfur Rahman
  48. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  49. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  50. Dr. Allauddin
  51. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  52. Raushan Ali
  53. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  54. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  55. Salahuddin Yusuf
  56. Michael Sushil Adhikari
  57. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  58. Mollah Jalaluddin
  59. Shamsuddin Mollah
  60. Gour Chandra Bala
  61. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  62. Shamsul Haq
  63. Shamsuzzoha
  64. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  65. Syed Ahmad
  66. Shamsur Rahman Khan Shahjahan
  67. Nurul Haq
  68. Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
  69. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  70. M.R. Siddiqui
  71. MA Wahab
  72. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  73. Sayeda Razia Banu
  74. Ataur Rahman Khan
  75. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  76. Mong Pru Saire
  77. Professor Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  78. Ataur Rahman
  79. Pir Habibur Rahman
  80. Syed Altaf Hossain
  81. Muhammad Farhad
  82. Matia Chowdhury
  83. Hazi Danesh
  84. Taufiq Inam (Secretary)
  85. Nurul Islam (Secretary)
  86. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  87. Mahbubur Rahman (Secretary)
  88. Abdul Khaleque
  89. Muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  90. Abdur Rahim (Secretary)
  91. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  92. Sayeeduzzaman (Secretary)
  93. Anisuzzaman (Secretary)
  94. Dr. A. Sattar (Secretary)
  95. M.A Samad (Secretary)
  96. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  97. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  98. Dr Tajul Hossain (Secretary)
  99. Motiur Rahman. Chairman. TCB
  100. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  101. Air Vice Marshal Abdul Karim Khandker
  102. Commodore M.H. Khan
  103. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  104. A.K. Naziruddin Ahmed
  105. Dr. Abdul Matin Chowdhury
  106. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  107. Dr. Sramul Haq
  108. Badal Ghosh
  109. ATM Syed Hossain
  110. Nurul Islam
  111. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  112. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  113. Obaidul Huq Editor Observer
  114. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  115. Mizanur Rahman BPI
  116. Manawarul Islam
  117. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  118. Brig. A. N. M. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini
  119. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  120. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri

ActivitiesEdit

Many restrictive regulations coming from BaKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on press freedom which allowed only the Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, The Daily Ittefaq, and Bangladesh Times to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.[13]

DissolutionEdit

The party contested in 1986 general election using "Boat" symbol and later in 1991 general election using "Bicycle" symbol.The party carried out independently until 1990s, when almost all of its party leaders deserted the organisation to merge with the Bangladesh Awami League.[14]

LegacyEdit

Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis thought that "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" was "unprecedented".[15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 978-984-779-027-5.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Moudud (1984) [First published 1983]. Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 245. ISBN 3-515-04266-0.
  3. ^ "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". Time. 10 February 1975. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Bangabandhu: a forbidden name for 16yrs". The Daily Star. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin (ed.). Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and many others from the other parties, decided to join the BaKSAL. Between Mujib's BaKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join.
  6. ^ "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  7. ^ "Sheikh Assumes Absolute Rule in Bangladesh". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. 26 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Bangladesh President Takes Over". The Daily Herald. Provo, Utah. United Press International. 24 February 1975. p. 8. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  
  10. ^ "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via newspaperarchive.com.  
  11. ^ a b "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via news.google.com.
  12. ^ a b Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 16 (2): 119–129. doi:10.1525/as.1976.16.2.01p0153p. JSTOR 2643140.
  13. ^ Dowlah, Caf (2016). The Bangladesh Liberation War, the Sheikh Mujib Regime, and Contemporary Controversies. Lexington Books. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-4985-3419-2.
  14. ^ "Near East & South Asia: Bangladesh" (PDF). JPRS Report. 1: 10. 12 September 1991. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  15. ^ "Tread Warily to the Dream". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 6 February 2010.