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Scene from a polling booth in Bangladesh

Elections in Bangladesh gives information on election and election results in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh elects on national level a legislature with one house or chamber. The unicameral Jatiyo Sangshad, meaning national parliament, has 350 members of which 300 members are directly elected through a national election for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies while 50 memberships are reserved for the women who are selected by the ruling party or coalition. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The president who is the head of the state is elected by the National Parliament. The president of Bangladesh is a ceremonial post and he/she does not exercise any control over the running of the state.

Bangladesh has an unofficial two-party system which has evolved over time since the election of 1991. It means that there are two dominant political parties or coalitions, one headed by Bangladesh Awami League and the other by Bangladesh Nationalist Party, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party in terms of achieving a majority.

Contents

Historical OverviewEdit

The constitution was adopted in 1972 and declared Bangladesh as a parliamentary republic. However, in 1975 executive powers were transferred to the Presidency, reducing the Jatiyo Sangshad and the Prime Minister to legislative powers only. This system was maintained until 1991 when the Twelfth Amendment was passed, returning the state to a parliamentary system. Since 1971, 11 parliamentary elections have been held and three Presidential elections have been held by popular vote.

Parliamentary electionsEdit

Electoral SystemEdit

The Parliament of Bangladesh (Jatiya Sangsad) consists of 350 members elected to five-year terms. Of that number, 300 are elected in single-member territorial constituencies according to the First-Past-the-Post electoral system. The remaining 50 seats are reserved for women, and are filled on the basis of proportional representation by a vote of the 300 members. The number of reserved seats has been revised over the years, increasing from 30 to 45 under the 8th parliament and 45 to 50 under the 9th parliament.[1]

General ElectionsEdit

Since independence in 1971, 11 general elections have been held in Bangladesh to elect members of the Jatiya Sangsad:

Presidential electionsEdit

From independence until constitutional reform in 1991, the President was elected by popular vote, although this only happened on three occasions - 1978, 1981 and 1986.

1978 Presidential ElectionEdit

Presidential elections were held inBangladesh on 3 June 1978. They were the first direct elections for the post President, as the post had previously been elected by theJatiya Sangsad. The result was a victory forZiaur Rahman, who won 76.6% of the vote. Turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Ziaur Rahman Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Front 15,733,807 76.6
M. A. G. Osmani Ganatantrik Oikkya Jote 4,455,200 21.7
Eight other candidates 342,554 1.7
Invalid/blank votes 354,010
Total 20,885,571 100

1981 Presidental ElectionEdit

Presidential elections were held inBangladesh on 15 November 1981. The result was a victory for the incumbent acting President Abdus Sattar of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), who received 65.5% of the vote, beating his principal challengerKamal Hossain of the Awami League. Voter turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Abdus Sattar Bangladesh Nationalist Party 14,203,958 65.5
Kamal Hossain Bangladesh Awami League 5,636,113 26.0
Maulana Mohammudullah Independent 388,741 1.8
M. A. G. Osmani Independent 293,637 1.4
M. A. Jalil Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal 248,769 1.1
Muzaffar Ahmed NAP (M)-CPB 224,188 1.0
33 other candidates 682,154 3.2
Invalid/blank votes 332,524
Total 22,010,084 100


1986 Presidential ElectionEdit

Presidential elections were held inBangladesh on 15 October 1986. The result was a victory for incumbent Hussain Muhammad Ershad, who had assumed the office in 1983 following a military coup. Ershad reportedly won 84.1% of the vote with a voter turnout of 54.9%. However the elections were controversial as they were boycotted by all major opposition candidates and there were reports of irregularities.

Candidate Party Votes %
Hussain Muhammad Ershad Jatiya Party 21,795,337 84.1
Mauluna Mohammadullah Independent 1,510,456 5.8
Syed Faruque Rahman Bangladesh Freedom Party 1,202,303 4.6
Nine other candidates 1,408,195 5.4
Invalid/blank votes 380,745
Total 26,297,337 100


Following constitutional reform and a return to a parliamentary democracy in 1991, the office of the President has been largely a ceremonial one. The President is elected by a vote in the Jatiya Sangsad. A Presidential term is for five-years, although they remain in office until their successor is elected. Elections under this system have taken place in 1991, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2009, 2013 and 2018.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reserved parliamentary seats for women gets 25-year extension|Dhaka Tribune|8 July 2018
  2. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-23
  3. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-25
  4. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-27
  5. ^ http://www.albd.org/aldoc/50years_16.htm
  6. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-30
  7. ^ Liton, Shakhawat (August 28, 2010). "Ershad's desperate bids go in vain". The Daily Star.
  8. ^ Ruling Party Is Declared the Winner in Bangladesh The New York Times, 6 March 1988
  9. ^ "BANGLADESH: parliamentary elections Jatiya Sangsad, 1991". archive.ipu.org. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  10. ^ "BANGLADESH: parliamentary elections Jatiya Sangsad, 1996". archive.ipu.org. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  11. ^ "After steering Awami League to power, Sheikh Hasina now faces political, economic challenges". India Today. 15 July 1996.
  12. ^ www.ecs.gov.bd
  13. ^ "Clashes and boycott mar Bangladesh election". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  14. ^ a b c "Repolls ordered in 8 constituencies". bdnews24.com. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Newly elected Bangladesh MPs sworn in". Al Jazeera English.
  16. ^ Barry, Ellen (5 January 2014). "Low Turnout in Bangladesh Elections Amid Boycott and Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  17. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh ruling party wins after boycotted vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  18. ^ Bangladesh election: Opposition demands new vote BBC News, 30 December 2018
  19. ^ Safi, Michael; Ahmed, Redwan (31 December 2018). "Bangladesh PM Hasina wins thumping victory in elections opposition reject as 'farcical'" – via www.theguardian.com.

External linksEdit